Short Communication | Volume: 7, Issue: 5, Sep-Oct, 2019

Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Aidia borneensis leaf extracts

Zulhamizan Awang-Jamil Aida Maryam Basri Norhayati Ahmad Hussein Taha   

Open Access   

Published:  Sep 10, 2019

DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2019.70515
Abstract

Pharmacological evaluation of Aidia borneensis has not been widely reported yet. This study aimed to evaluate its phytochemical constituents and its antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Phytochemical compositions of Soxhlet-extracted methanol extract and ultrasonic-extracted aqueous extract were determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were evaluated by the agar-well diffusion method, and antioxidant activities were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. Methanol extract was predominantly characterized by coumaran (21.12%) and palmitic acid (6.34%), and aqueous extract by catechol (15.48%) and coumaran (9.13%). Concentrationdependent antibacterial activities of methanol extract were observed against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, whereas aqueous extract only showed a growthinhibiting effect against E. coli. Methanol extract also exhibited antifungal activities against Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae but not against Aspergillus brasiliensis. No antifungal activity was shown by the aqueous extract. Aqueous extract revealed significantly higher radical scavenging activity, hence, low IC50 value (6.0 µg/ml), compared to methanol extract (14.6 µg/ml) and the reference standard, Trolox (9.1 µg/ml). This study provides scientific support on the medicinal properties of A. borneensis in terms of its phytochemical constituents and its antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.


Keyword:     Aidia borneensis antibacterial antifungal antimicrobial antioxidant phytochemicals.


Citation:

Awang-Jamil Z, Basri AM, Ahmad N, Taha H. Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Aidia borneensis leaf extracts. J Appl Biol Biotech. 2019;7(05):92-97.

Copyright: Author(s). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license.

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1. INTRODUCTION

Aidia borneensis Ridsdale or archer cherry, which is native to Borneo island, is an ethnomedicinal plant under the Rubiaceae family. In Brunei Darussalam, it is locally known as “Sambah bagangan.” This plant was initially identified as Aidia racemosa [1] but later, it was re-identifed as A. borneensis [2]. The leaves of this plant are boiled and its decoction is traditionally consumed to relieve body aches or muscle pain and tiredness and is also considered as a remedy for gastric pain [3]. The leaves have been actively harvested by the local villagers for commercial production of herbal tea. To keep up with the local demand, hormone-dependent vegetative propagation of this plant has been attempted to effectively mass produce the herbal tea [4]. To the best of our knowledge, the scientific evaluation of the pharmacological properties of this plant has not been reported yet, except for its antioxidant property. It was found that the leaf infusion of this plant showed a relatively high antioxidant activity, which could be attributed to its high phenolic, flavonoid, and flavanol contents [5].

This study aimed to provide scientific support for A. borneensis, as it is essential for scientific support to be made available for all ethnomedicinal plants. Moreover, nowadays many ethnomedicinal plants have been considered as significant contributors to modern drug discovery. Therefore, the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and phytochemical compositions of A. borneensis are reported in this study.


2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1. Leaf Sample Collection

Leaves of A. borneensis were collected from Kiudang forest in Tutong, Brunei Darussalam. The leaves collected were identified by Prof. Dato Hj Mohamed Abdul Majid, from the Environmental & Life Sciences Programme, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam. After being air-dried for 3 weeks, the leaves were ground into powdered form.

2.2. Soxhlet Extraction of Methanol Crude Extract

Following the previous study [6], Soxhlet extraction was used to extract the powdered leaf samples (50 g) with methanol solvent for 6 hours per day for a total period of 4 days. To remove potential solid residues, the extract was filtered and subsequently evaporated under reduced pressure at 40°C to remove the solvent. The solid extract was stored in the dark at room temperature until further use.

2.3. Ultrasonic Extraction of Aqueous Crude Extract

Ultrasonic extraction was used, as described elsewhere [6], to obtain the aqueous crude extract. The powdered leaf samples (20 g) were mixed with distilled water in the ratio of 1 g to 10 ml, respectively. Sonica Ultrasonic Cleaner (Soltec, Italy) was used to sonicate the mixture for 30 minutes at 25°C. It was then filtered to eliminate solid residues, and the filtrate was subsequently lyophilized to produce the solid extract. It was stored in the dark at room temperature until further use.

2.4. Phytochemical Analysis by GC/MS

Prior to phytochemical analysis, the crude extracts were dissolved in methanol at 200 mg/ml. Phytochemicals were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS), as previously described [6]. Shimadzu QP-2010 GC/MS instrument (Shimadzu Corporation, Japan) was used. Compound identification was done by comparing their retention times and mass spectral data with GC/MS spectral library (National Institute of Standards and Technology library) and only the compounds with at least 90% similarity with the database were considered.

2.5. Antimicrobial Assays by Agar-Well Diffusion Method

Prior to antimicrobial analysis, the crude extracts were re-dissolved in either methanol or distilled water at specific concentrations. As described elsewhere [6], the agar-well diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activities of crude extracts. Four bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC)-11774, Escherichia coli ATCC-11775, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC-27853, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC-29213, and three fungal strains, Aspergillus brasiliensis, Candida albicans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were tested.

Mueller–Hinton agar plates were uniformly inoculated with standardized nutrient broth cultures of the bacterial strains and S. cerevisiae. However, A. brasiliensis and C. albicans were first cultured in potato dextrose and Sabouraud dextrose broth, respectively, before they were spread uniformly onto their respective agar plates. The agar plates were bored to create wells with 4-mm diameter, in which the crude extract (40 μl) was loaded for testing. For antibacterial positive control, 2 μg/μl streptomycin sulfate was loaded, and for negative control, either methanol or distilled water was loaded. The bacterial plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours, and the fungal plates were incubated at 26°C but for 48 hours for S. cerevisiae and 72 hours for the other strains. The diameter of the zone of inhibition, where the microorganisms did not grow, was measured.

2.6. Antioxidant Study by DPPH Radical Scavenging Assay

The free radical scavenging activities of A. borneensis leaf crude extracts were determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, according to the methods described previously [7] with some modifications. Briefly, the extract was diluted with its respective solvent (methanol or water) at 100, 50, 25, 10, and 5 μg/ml. The reference standard, 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,S-tetramethylchromam-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox), was prepared similarly to serve as the positive control. An aliquot of 800 μl of each diluted extract was mixed with 800 μl of 0.005% (w/v) DPPH methanolic solution. For blank, 800 μl of the methanolic DPPH solution was mixed with 800 μl of either methanol or water. The mixture was incubated for 30 minutes in the dark and its absorbance (A) was measured at 517 nm. The ability to scavenge DPPH radical was calculated by using the following equation: DPPH radical scavenging activity (%) = [(AblankAsample)/Ablank] × 100%

Each experiment was done in triplicate, and the average of three radical scavenging assay (RSA) values at each concentration was calculated. The plot of averaged percentage RSA against extract concentrations was used to produce linear regression line to determine the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value, which is the concentration of the extract that caused a reduction of DPPH initial concentration by 50%.

2.7. Statistical Analysis

Results if applicable were presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD). Significant differences between means were determined using Student’s t-test. For p value < 0.05, the difference was regarded as significant, while for p value < 0.01, the difference was regarded as very significant.


3. RESULTS

3.1. Extraction Yields

Soxhlet extraction of A. borneensis methanol crude extract yielded 8.3% of extractable components relative to the weight of dried leaf material used. However, for ultrasonic extraction, a higher yield (20%) of aqueous extract was obtained. Both crude extracts produced a tea-like aroma.

3.2. Identification of Phytochemicals

The GC/MS evaluation of A. borneensis methanol and aqueous crude extracts resulted in the identification of eight and five compounds, accounting for 40% and 31% of the total relative peak area, respectively (Fig. 1; Table 1).

Based on the peak area, the notable compounds in the methanol extract were coumaran (21.12%) and palmitic acid (6.34%), whereas, in the aqueous extract, these were catechol (15.48%) and coumaran (9.13%). Other compounds were also present but at relatively low amounts, with the peak areas ranging from 1.28% to 3.30%. Comparison of phytochemical constituents showed that two compounds (catechol and coumaran) were found in both the methanol and aqueous crude extracts.

Figure 1. GC/MS spectra of A. borneensis leaf crude extracts. (A) Methanol extract. (B) Aqueous extract. Numbers shown represent the retention times of the peaks analyzed in this study.

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Table 1. Phytochemical constituents of A. borneensis leaf crude extracts.

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Figure 2. Antimicrobial activities of A. borneensis leaf crude extracts. White bars—methanol extract; Gray bars—aqueous extract. Mean values ± SD of four replicates are shown. Aspergillus brasiliensis showed no detectable activity for both extracts. Negative control (methanol or distilled water) showed no detectable activity as expected. Positive control (2 μg/μl streptomycin sulfate) had zone of inhibition ranging from 14 to 16 mm.

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3.3. Antimicrobial Activities of Leaf Crude Extracts

Antibacterial activities of A. borneensis methanol crude extract were observed against Gram-positive (B. subtilis and S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli and P. aeruginosa) bacteria (Fig. 2). Under the conditions tested, the antibacterial activities were only observed when higher concentrations of the methanol crude extract were used but undetectable at lower concentrations, with 600 μg/μl of crude extract showing detectable antibacterial activities against all the bacterial strains tested. At 200 μg/μl of the methanol crude extract, the growth of both B. subtilis and E. coli was visibly inhibited but not with P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, suggesting that the crude extract was more potent against B. subtilis and E. coli compared to the other two bacterial strains. The antibacterial activities of A. borneensis aqueous crude extract, on the other hand, were less encouraging. No detectable antibacterial activity was observed under the conditions tested, except for E. coli, further suggesting that A. borneensis was potent against E. coli.

Antifungal activities of A. borneensis under the conditions tested were only observed with the methanol crude extract but not with the aqueous extract (Fig. 2). This seems to suggest that the methanol crude extract had better potential as an antimicrobial candidate compared to the aqueous extract. The antifungal activities of the crude extract were observed with both yeasts (C. albicans and S. cerevisiae) but not with the mould (A. brasiliensis), with S. cerevisiae being more susceptible to the methanol crude extract compared to C. albicans, as shown with the observed zones of inhibition at 100 and 200 μg/μl of the crude extract.

3.4. Antioxidant Activities of Leaf Crude Extracts

The DPPH radical scavenging activity was evaluated using a range of different concentrations of the A. borneensis extracts and also Trolox for comparison (Fig. 3). The aqueous crude extract generally showed higher radical scavenging activities compared to the methanol crude extract. At both concentrations of 5 and 10 μg/ml, the aqueous crude extract exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher activities compared to the methanol crude extract, indicating that it was ~2-fold more active at these concentrations. Moreover, the aqueous crude extract reached its highest activity (~93%) at 25 μg/ml, whereas the methanol crude extract only showed its highest activity (~94%) at 50 μg/ml, which again indicated that the aqueous crude extract was more potent in scavenging the hydroxyl radicals. The aqueous crude extract was significantly (p < 0.05) more active than Trolox at both concentrations (5 and 10 μg/ml) but had very similar activities (p > 0.05) at the other concentrations (25, 50, and 100 μg/ml).

Figure 3. Antioxidant activities of A. borneensis leaf crude extracts and Trolox at various concentrations. White bars—methanol extract; Gray bars—aqueous extract; White bars with lines—Trolox. Each value represents the mean ± SD of three replicates.

[Click here to view]

The IC50 value was determined by plotting percentage RSA against three different concentrations (5, 10, and 25 μg/ml), resulting in the aqueous extract with a linear regression y = 2.36x + 36.06 (R2 = 0.9094), the methanol extract with y = 2.93x + 7.05 (R2 = 0.9997), and Trolox with y = 3.02x + 22.52 (R2 = 0.9709). This resulted in the IC50 values of 6.0 and 14.6 μg/ml for aqueous and methanol extracts, respectively. Higher antioxidant activity is indicated by having a lower IC50 value. Based on these IC50 values, the aqueous crude extract showed significantly (p < 0.01) higher antioxidant activity of up to ~2-fold more active compared to the methanol crude extract. Interestingly, the aqueous crude extract significantly (p < 0.01) surpassed the antioxidant activity of Trolox that had an IC50 value of 9.1 μg/ml, which highly suggests that the aqueous crude extract has great potential as an antioxidant via radical scavenging activity.


4. DISCUSSION

Aidia borneensis crude extracts were both predominantly characterized by coumaran, with 21.12% and 9.13% in the methanol and aqueous extracts, respectively. Coumaran is known as a minor component in many plant leaves but has been observed as a major component in Barago officinalis seeds [8]. Coumaran is reported as a potent biofumigant due to its ability in inhibiting acetylcholinesterase [9]. It is also shown to have anti-inflammatory effects [10] and is a promising agent for central nervous system trauma and ischemia due to its potent antioxidant activity [11].

Catechol was also substantially present in the aqueous crude extract (15.48%) but not in the methanol extract (1.28%). Catechol isolated from Diospyros kaki roots and its structural analogs were shown to have significantly potent antibacterial activities against food-borne bacteria [12]. This suggests that catechol could be the active antibacterial agent against E. coli, as observed in this study. However, the unobserved concentration-dependent antibacterial activity against the other three bacterial strains (B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus) indicates that the growth-inhibiting effect of A. borneensis was likely selective. Previous study showed that catechol at a dose of 5.0 mg/disc significantly and moderately inhibited the growth of Clostridium difficile and E. coli, respectively, but did not inhibit bifidobacteria and lactobacilli [13].

Catechol was also found to have antifungal activities against Fusarium oxysporum and Penicillium italicum [14]. However, A. borneensis aqueous extract was not found to have any antifungal effect under the conditions tested, showing that A. brasiliensis, C. albicans, and S. cerevisiae were resistant to the aqueous extract. This is due to selective growth-inhibiting effect.

In comparison with the aqueous extract, the methanol extract showed superior antibacterial and antifungal effects. This is perhaps unsurprising because other plants such as Alpinia officinarum also displayed the best biological activities when methanol was used as extraction solvent compared with water [15]. A potential candidate to explain these superior antimicrobial effects in A. borneensis is palmitic acid although other compounds should not be ruled out. This fatty acid was notably present (6.34%) in the methanol crude extract but was undetected in the aqueous extract. Palmitic acid methyl ester was also detected although in a lower amount (3.30%). Palmitic acid and other fatty acids have been found to exhibit antimicrobial activities against various oral microorganisms, including C. albicans [16]. Antifungal activities of palmitic acid against selected phytopathogenic fungi and other fungal strains have also been documented [17,18]. Palmitic acid is also reported to display antioxidant, anti-atherosclerotic, and protein glycation inhibitory activities in a mouse model [19].

Phenolic and flavonoid compounds present in plants are known to be the major contributors to antioxidant activity [20]. The aqueous crude extract showed higher antioxidant activity compared to the methanol crude extract, which might be due to the higher concentrations of antioxidant compounds present. For example, catechol, which is a phenolic compound, was detected at a remarkably higher amount in the aqueous extract compared to the methanol extract. This compound is known to play an important role in scavenging free radicals and chelating transition metals [21]. Other antioxidant compounds were also detected in the methanol crude extract but only at lower concentrations—palmitic acid (6.34%) and phytol (1.75%), which were previously reported to have antioxidant activities [19,22]. The higher antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract compared to Trolox was highly encouraging, indicating that the extract has great potential as an antioxidant candidate.

Apart from having antioxidant activity, phytol is also a phytochemical associated with chlorophyll metabolism and is shown to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis [2325]. In addition, it has shown antischistosomal, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic activities [22,26,27].

This study showed the phytochemical compositions of A. borneensis and its antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Consequently, this ethnomedicinal plant, which has been traditionally used as an herbal tea in Brunei Darussalam, warrants further scientific investigation in order to fully evaluate its pharmacological status.


5. CONCLUSION

The phytochemical constituents of A. borneensis were found to have promising medicinal properties, and its extracts were found to have antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors wish to acknowledge the support of the following grants: Brunei Research Council (JPKE/BRC/UBD/BRC6) and Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD/RSCH/1.13/FICBF(b)/2018/001).


CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.


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19. Cho KH, Hong JH, Lee KT. Monoacylglycerol (MAG)-oleic acid has stronger antioxidant, anti-atherosclerotic, and protein glycation inhibitory activities than MAG-palmitic acid. J Med Food 2010;13(1):99–107. CrossRef

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Rajashekar Y, Raghavendra A, Bakthavatsalam N. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by biofumigant (coumaran) from leaves of Lantana camara in stored grain and household insect pests. BioMed Res Int, 2014; 187019.

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Potential use as a bio-preservative from lupin protein hydrolysate generated by alcalase in food system

Ali Osman, Ghada M. El-Araby, Hefnawy Taha

Antimicrobial Activity Screening of Marine Bacteria Isolated from the Machilipatnam Sea Coast of Andhra Pradesh, India

K. Bala Chandra, V. Umamaheswara Rao, Subhaswaraj Pattnaik, Siddhardha Busi

Antimicrobial effect of nanofluid including Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and Mentha pulegium essential oil

Mona Jahanpanahi, Ali Mohamadi Sani

Inducible Antimicrobial Compounds (Halal) Production in Honey Bee Larvae (Apis mellifera) from Rumaida, Taif by injecting of various dead Microorganisms extracts

Abd-ElAziem Farouk, N. Thoufeek Ahamed, Othman AlZahrani, Akram Alghamdi, AbdulAziz Bahobail

Bioactive potential of Diadema sp. from the South East Coast of Mauritius

Lisa Karen Yee Chin Youne Ah Shee Tee, Daneshwar Puchooa, Vishwakalyan Bhoyroo

Application of Mentha suaveolens essential oil as an antimicrobial agent in fresh turkey sausages

Abdelaziz Ed-Dra, Fouzia Rhazi Filai, Mohamed Bou-Idra, Badr Zekkori, Aziz Bouymajane, Najia Moukrad, Faouzia Benhallam, Amar Bentayeb

Effect of growth hormones in induction of callus, antioxidants, and antibacterial activity in Nerium odorum

Avinash Prakasha, S Umesha

Biosynthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles from Aspergillus awamori

Vishwanatha T, Keshavamurthy M, Mallappa M, Murugendrappa MV , Nadaf YF, Siddalingeshwara KG, Dhulappa A

A study of endophytic fungi Neofusicoccum ribis from Gandaria (Bouea macrophylla Griffith) as enzyme inhibitor, antibacterial, and antioxidant

Trisanti Anindyawati, Praptiwi

Determination of phytochemical, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and protein binding qualities of hydroethanolic extract of Celastrus paniculatus

Vijay Kumar¥, Simranjeet Singh¥, Arjun Singh¥, Amit Kumar Dixit¥, Bhavana Shrivastava, Sapna Avinash Kondalkar, Joginder Singh, Ravindra Singh, Gurpreet Kaur Sidhu, Rajesh Partap Singh, Varanasi Subhose, Om Prakash

Antibacterial activity of an endophytic fungus Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae IBRL OS-64 residing in leaves of a medicinal herb, Ocimum sanctum Linn.

Taufiq M.M.J., Darah I.

Antibacterial activity of leaf extract of Chromolaena odorata and the effect of its combination with some conventional antibiotics on Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from wounds

P. Odinakachukwu Omeke, J. Okechukwu Obi, N. A. Ibuchukwu Orabueze , Anthony Chibuogwu Ike

Response of green synthesized drug blended silver nanoparticles against periodontal disease triggering pathogenic microbiota

Neeraj Kumar Fuloria, Shivkanya Fuloria, Kok Yik Chia, Sundram Karupiah, Kathiresan Sathasivam

Characterization of extracellular polymeric substance producing isolates from wastewaters and their antibacterial prospective

Anita Rani Santal,Nater Pal Singh,Tapan Kumar Singha

Anti-quorum sensing, antibacterial, antioxidant activities, and phytoconstituents analysis of medicinal plants used in Benin: Acacia macrostachya (Rchb. ex DC.)

Mounirou Tchatchedre, Abdou Madjid O. Amoussa, Ménonvè Atindehou, Aminata P. Nacoulma, Ambaliou Sanni, Martin kiendrebeogo, Latifou Lagnika

Application of guava leaves extract on jelly candy to inhibit Streptococcus mutans

Yuniwaty Halim, Raphael Dimas Tri Nugroho, Hardoko,, Ratna Handayani

Identification and bioactivities of endophytic fungi from Lagenandra toxicaria Dalz. and Kaempferia rotunda L.

Praveen Krishnakumar, Mable Varghese, Maria Grace Joe, Asha Rajagopal, Leyon Varghese

Antibacterial activity and hormetic response of silver nanoparticles synthesized using leaflet extract of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rice (Oryza sativa) crop plants

Vikas Pahal, Pankaj Kumar, Parveen Kumar, Vinod Kumar

In vitro evaluation of the antibacterial potential of flavonoid glycosides from Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC.

K. Suresh Kannan, D. Kandavel, P. Rajalakshmi, P. Maheswari

Silver nanoparticles decorated natural products doped polyaniline hybrid materials for biomedical applications

K. Satish, K. Sumangala Bhat, Y. S. Ravikumar, M. N. K. Harish

Extraction of a novel bacteriocin from Lacticaseibacillus casei VITCM05 and its antibacterial activity against major food-borne pathogen

Jannatul Firdous Siddique, Mohanasrinivasan Vaithilingam

Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin a proinflammatory polypeptide necessary for host cell survival in bacterial infection

Nichita Yadav Aare, Pawan Kumar Anoor, Swathi Raju M, N. Srinivas Naik, Sandeepta Burgula

Study of endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CC09 and its antifungal cyclic lipopeptides

Cai Xun-Chao,Li Hui,Xue Ya-Rong,Liu Chang-Hong

Role of medicinal plants in the treatment of eumycetoma: A review

Shashank M. Patil, S. Jagadeep Chandra, M. K. Jayanthi, Prithvi S. Shirahatti, Ramith Ramu

Antifungal effects of Kurthia gibsonii Mb 126 chitinase as a seed treatment on seed-borne fungi of rice seed on germination percentage and seedling vigor

Mini K. Paul, K. D. Mini, Jyothis Mathew

Use of the amphotericin B, miconazole, and sodium hypochlorite to control the growth of the robust Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus biofilms on polyethylene support

Camila Guedes Francisco, Gilberto Bida Leite Braga, Luis Henrique Souza Guimarães

Investigation on the antifungal activity of Aspergillus giganteus in different culture conditions

S. Karthiga, R. Ramya, K. Ramya, S. Jothinayaki, D. Kavitha

Evaluation of the antifungal effect of medicinal plants against Panama wilt of Banana caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense

Basavanapura Linganna Kiran,, Kallahally Nagaraj Nayana, Koteshwar Anandrao Raveesha,

Bioactivity assessment of endophytic fungi associated with Centella asiatica and Murraya koengii

Archana Nath, Jyoti Pathak and SR Joshi

Antibacterial activity of Ferula asafoetida: a comparison of red and white type

Richa Bhatnager, Reena Rani, Amita Suneja Dang

Medicinal and Functional Values of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) Herb

Eqbal M. A. Dauqan, Aminah Abdullah

Probiotic potential of thermotolerant lactic acid bacteria isolated from “Gari “a cassava-based African fermented food

Bertrand Tatsinkou Fossi, Robert Ndjouenkeu

Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil of Vetiveria nigritana (Benth.) Stapf roots from Burkina Faso

Zenabou Semde, Jean Koudou, Cheikna Zongo, Gilles Figueredo, Marius K. Somda, Leguet Ganou, Alfred S. Traore

Production, characterization and optimization of fermented tomato and carrot juices by using Lysinibacillus sphaericus isolate

Naga Sivudu Seelam, Harika Akula, Umamahesh Katike, Vijaya Sarathi Reddy Obulam

Antimicrobial applications of sophorolipid from Candida bombicola: A promising alternative to conventional drugs

Victoria Akemi Itakura Silveira, Christiane Aparecida Urzedo Queiroz Freitas, Maria Antonia Pedrine Colabone Celligoi

Antibacterial and antifungal activities of leaf and stem of Marsilea minuta L. against selected microbial pathogens

Govindaraj Sabithira, Rajangam Udayakumar

Antibacterial potential of Caesalpinia bonducella extracts and their isolated phytoconstituents: in vitro and in silico analysis

S R Santosh Kumar, Sudhesh L Shastri, Venkatesh R, K Pradeepa, V Krishna

Biological activities and phytochemicals of Hyptis capitata grown in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

Irawan Wijaya Kusuma, Rahmini, Enos Tangke Arung, Arif Yudo Pramono, Erwin, Supomo

Partial purification and characterization of antimicrobial peptide from the hemolymph of cockroach Periplaneta americana

Reymend Encily Martin, Yogita Raosaheb Channe

Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in female population, Gabon

Mohamed Ag Baraïka, Richard Onanga, Berthold Bivigou-Mboumba, Arsène Mabika-Mabika, Ulrick Jolhy Bisvigou, Fousseyni S. Touré Ndouo, N. Coumba Touré Kane

Enhanced production of a bioactive molecule from a symbiotic marine bacterium, Paenibacillus macerans SAM 9 isolated from the sea anemone, Heteractis aurora

Thayanithi Bharathi, Kathirvelu Sambandan, Kandasamy Sivasubramani

Antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities of leaves extracts of Filicium decipiens

Atiyaparveen I Basarikatti, Sanjay Mishra, Vijaykumar Uppar, Basavaraj Padmashali

The comparative antimicrobial and anticancer of chemical extract from in vitro and in vivo Peperomia pellucida plantlet

Lydia Teoh, Nareshwaran Gnanasegaran, Ahmad Faris Mohd Adnan, Rosna Mat Taha

Screening of synergistic and antimicrobial effect of Cr (VI) and Ni (II) tolerant bacteria Bacillus cereus

Subhayan Dutta, Khaleda Firdous, Swati Chakraborty

Antimicrobial activity of the lichens Parmotrema andium and Dirinaria applanata

Bijayananda Sahoo, Satyabrata Dash, Sabyasachy Parida, Jayanta Kumar Sahu, Biswajit Rath

Production of bioactive compounds by Streptomyces sp. and their antimicrobial potential against selected MDR uropathogens

Archana Singh, Padma Singh

Diversity and antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi from aromatic plants of Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary, Western Ghats, Karnataka

Rajeshwari Jagadish, Srinivas Chowdappa

A review on fish peptides isolated from fish waste with their potent bioactivities

Ayusman Behera, Rajashree Das, Pranati Patnaik, Jyotirmaya Mohanty, Gargee Mohanty

Antimicrobial peptide coding gene of thermophilic bacteria isolated from crater hot spring in mountains around West Java

Emma Rachmawati, Sinta Asarina, Gabriel Bagus Kennardi, Ratu Safitri, Toto Subroto, Ani Melani Maskoen

Leveraging monoclonal antibodies as therapeutics to address antimicrobial resistance in bacteria

Vaishali Verma

Asparagus racemosus extract increases the life span in Drosophila melanogaster

K. V. Kiran Kumar, K. S. Prasanna, J. S. Ashadevi

Comparative three way analysis of biochemical responses in cereal and millet crops under salinity stress

Ritika Bhatt, Prem Prakash Asopa, Santosh Sihag, Rakesh Sharma, Sumita Kachhwaha, S.L. Kothari

Impact of Phyllanthus amarus extract on antioxidant enzymes in Drosophila melanogaster

N. Manasa, J. S. Ashadevi

Alterations in antioxidant defense system in hepatic and renal tissues of rats following aspartame intake

Saeed A. Alwaleedi

Ten different brewing methods of green tea: comparative antioxidant study

Naila Safdar, Amina Sarfaraz, Zehra Kazmi, Azra Yasmin

Buffalo (Bubalus bubilis) colostrum and milk fat globule membrane fractions are potent antioxidants

N. Brijesha, H. S. Aparna

Effect of extraction solvents on phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of Artocarpus chaplasha and Carissa carandas fruits from Bangladesh

Gouri Dhar, Sonam Akther, Afrin Sultana, Uchen May, Mohammed Moinul Islam, Mowri Dhali, Dwaipayan Sikdar

In Vitro Antidiabetic and Anti-oxidant Activities of Methanol Extract of Tinospora Sinensis

Anindita Banerjee, Bithin Maji, Sandip Mukherjee, Kausik Chaudhuri, Tapan Seal

Crosstalk of brassinosteroids with other phytohormones under various abiotic stresses

Farhan Ahmad, Ananya Singh, Aisha Kamal

In vitro propagation by axillary shoot proliferation, assessment of antioxidant activity, and genetic fidelity of micropropagated Paederia foetida L.

Biswaranjan Behera, Priyajeet Sinha, Sushanto Gouda, Sakti K. Rath, Durga P. Barik, Padan K. Jena, Pratap C. Panda, Soumendra K. Naik

Aroclor 1254 induced oxidative stress and histopathological changes in mice liver

Jalpa Raja, Shweta Pathak, Rahul Kundu

Effect of Trema guineensis leaves (celtidaceae) on glucose-induced hypertension in Wistar rats

Balakiyém Kadissoli, P A Mouzou, T Pakoussi, K Eklu-Gadegbeku, A K Aklikokou, M Gbeassor

Comparative chemical and biological investigations of three Saudi Astragalus species

Mohamed A. Ashour

Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant potential of Ocimum gratissimum Linn (Lamiaceae) commonly consumed in the Republic of Benin

Hinnoutondji Wilfrid Kpètèhoto, Abdou Madjid Olatoundé Amoussa, Roch Christian Johnson, Eustache Enock Meinsan Houéto , Franck Maurille Zinsou Mignanwandé, Hounnankpon Yédomonhan, Frédéric Loko, Honoré Bankolé, Latifou Lagnika

Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quel. (Pleurotaceae): In vitro antioxidant evaluation and the isolation of a steroidal isoprenoid

Blessing Onyinye Okonkwo, Ozadheoghene Eriarie Afieroho, Emeka Daniel Ahanonu, Lambert Okwubie, Kio Anthony Abo

Study of the changes in the growth, protein, and bioactive profile of Chlorella emersonii KJ725233 in response to sodium and ammonium nitrate

Sneha Sunil Sawant, Varsha Kelkar-Mane

Determination of phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of Launaea resedifolia from Algerian Sahara

Amina Bouguerra, Mohamed Hadjadj, Mesaouda Dekmouche, Zhour Rahmani, Houssine Dendougui

Investigation of morphological, phytochemical, and enzymatic characteristics of Anethum graveolens L. using selenium in combination with humic acid and fulvic acid

Parviz Samavatipour, Vahid Abdossi, Reza Salehi, Saeed Samavat,Alireza Ladan Moghadam

A study on the salinity stress effects on the biochemical traits of seedlings and its relationship with resistance toward sensitive and tolerant flax genotypes

Yousef Alaei, Seyed Kamal Kazemitabar, Mohammad Zaefi Zadeh, Hamid Najafi Zarini, Gaffar Kiani

Nyctanthes arbor-tristis: Comprehensive review on its pharmacological, antioxidant, and anticancer activities

Smita Parekh, Anjali Soni

Studies on the mechanism of desiccation tolerance in the resurrection fern Adiantum raddianum

Tumkur Govindaraju Banupriya, Chandraiah Ramyashree, Devaraja Akash, Neeragunda Shivaraj Yathish, Ramasandra Govindarao Sharthchandra

Antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effects of aqueous seed extract of Daucus carota L. in triton ×100-induced hyperlipidemic mice

Habibu Tijjani, Abubakar Mohammed, Sani Muktar, Saminu Musa, Yusuf Abubakar, Adegbenro Peter Adegunloye, Ahmed Adebayo Ishola, Enoch Banbilbwa Joel, Carrol Domkat Luka, Adamu Jibril Alhassan

Role of glutathione reductase and catalase enzyme in antioxidant defense mechanism in controlling fluoride-induced oxidative stress

Komal Sharma, Mamta Choudhary, Khushbu Verma

Mycelial biomass, antioxidant, and myco-actives of mycelia of abalone mushroom Pleurotus cystidiosus in liquid culture

Kent Garcia, Chester Jhae Garcia, Reynante Bustillos, Rich Milton Dulay

Salt stress, its impacts on plants and the strategies plants are employing against it: A review

Zeenat Mushtaq, Shahla Faizan, Basit Gulzar

Impact of oxidizing, reducing, and stabilizing agents on the inhibitory properties of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba trypsin inhibitor

Preeti Patidar, Mahima Golani, Sumati Hajela, Krishnan Hajela

Identification of highest L-Methioninase enzyme producers among soil microbial isolates, with potential antioxidant and anticancer properties

D. Kavya, Varalakshmi Kilingar Nadumane

Astaxanthin: An algae-based natural compound with a potential role in human health-promoting effect: An updated comprehensive review

Jinu Medhi, Mohan Chandra Kalita

Linalool protects hippocampal CA1 neurons and improves functional outcomes following experimental ischemia/reperfusion in rats

Vishal Airao, Prakruti Buch, Tejas Sharma, Devendra Vaishnav, Sachin Parmar

Modification of the time of incubation in colorimetric method for accurate determination of the total antioxidants capacity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl stable free radical

Abhipsa Bal, Samar Gourav Pati, Falguni Panda, Biswaranjan Paital

HR-LC-MS based profiling of phytochemicals from methanol extracts of leaves and bark of Myristica dactyloides Gaertn. from Western Ghats of Karnataka, India

Kuppuru Mallikarjunaiah Marulasiddaswamy, Bettadapura Rameshgowda Nuthan,, Channarayapatna-Ramesh Sunilkumar, Shrisha Naik Bajpe,, Kigga Kaadappa Sampath Kumara, Shailasree Sekhar, Kukkundoor Ramachandra Kini

Preclinical evaluation of anticataract activity of Mentha spicata leaves on isolated goat lens by an in vitro model

Shreya Mohandas, Saahiba Thaleshwari, Myrene Roselyn Dsouza

Green synthesis, characterizations, and in vitro biological evaluation of Cu (II) complexes of quercetin with N ^ N ligands

Tanu Srivastava, Sunil Kumar Mishra, Om Prakash Tiwari

Optimization of extraction conditions of phytochemical compounds in “Xiem” banana peel powder using response surface methodology

Ngo Van Tai, Mai Nhat Linh, Nguyen Minh Thuy

Antioxidative, antiproliferative, and apoptosis effect of Coleus tuberosus flesh and peel ethanol extracts on cervical cancer cell lines

Mutiara Nugraheni, Windarwati Windarwati, Badraningsih Lastariwati

Comparative study of hydroalcoholic extracts of Bryophyllum pinnatum and Macrotyloma uniflorum for their antioxidant, antiurolithiatic, and wound healing potential

Chetna Faujdar, Priyadarshini

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of Precocene II, estimation of enzymatic, nonenzymatic antioxidant, and cytotoxic potentials of methyl jasmonate-elicited shoot culture of Ageratum conyzoides Linn.

Selvaraj Vasantharani, Ramaraj Thirugnanasampandan, Gunasekaran Bhuvaneswari

Suppression of the RAGE gene expression in RAW 264.7 murine leukemia cell line by ethyl acetate extract of Mikania micrantha (L.) Kunth.

Alex Zohmachhuana, Malsawmdawngliana Tlaisun, Vabeiryureilai Mathipi, Lalrinzuali Khawlhring, Joyce Sudandara Priya

Quantification of phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant activities from various parts of Euphorbia neriifolia Linn.

Priya Chaudhary, Pracheta Janmeda

Influence of soaking and germination treatments on the nutritional, anti-nutritional, and bioactive composition of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.)

Qurat Ul Eain Hyder Rizvi, Krishan Kumar, Naseer Ahmed, Ajar Nath Yadav, Divya Chauhan, Priyanka Thakur, Sumaira Jan, Imran Sheikh

Impact of diverse processing treatments on nutritional and anti-nutritional characteristics of soybean (Glycine max L.)

Priyanka Thakur, Krishan Kumar, Naseer Ahmed, Ajar Nath Yadav, Sunil Kumar, Qurat Ul Eain Hyder Rizvi, Divya Chauhan, Sumaira Jan

Cathelicidin-HR from Hoplobatrachus rugulosus: an antioxidant peptide that performs a protective effect against UV/H2O2 -induced DNA damage

Piyachat Wiriyaampaiwong, Chutima Karnmongkol, Arpaporn Punpad, Nattapong Srisamoot, Wutti Rattanavichai, Alongkod Tanomtong, Sakda Daduang,, Sompong Klaynongsruang,, Anupong Tankrathok,

Woodfordia fruticosa (Linn.) Kurz’s fungal endophyte Mucor souzae’s secondary metabolites, kaempferol and quercetin, bestow biological activities

Kavyashree Doreswamy, Priyanka Shenoy, Sneha Bhaskar, Ramachandra K. Kini, Shailasree Sekhar

Characterization of the crude extract of Portulaca oleracea and the determination of the polyphenol oxidase kinetics in the presence of Cu and Zn

Omar Mohammad Atrooz, Shada Zaher Al-Maitah

Effect of diverse fermentation treatments on nutritional composition, bioactive components, and anti-nutritional factors of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.)

Sumaira Jan, Krishan Kumar, Ajar Nath Yadav, Naseer Ahmed, Priyanka Thakur, Divya Chauhan, Qurat-Ul-Eain Hyder Rizvi, Harcharan Singh Dhaliwal

Optimization of active antioxidative defatted Canarium indicum L. (Canary) protein hydrolysate production

Cintya Nurul Apsari,, Ilma Nugrahani, Sukrasno, Tutus Gusdinar

Elemental, nutritional, and phytochemical profiling and antioxidant activity of Cordia obliqua Willd. (Clammy Cherry): An important underutilized forest tree of East India

Mamta Naik#,, Shashikanta Behera#,,, Sadhni Induar, Swaraj K. Babu, Pradeep K. Naik

Effects of enzymatic hydrolysis on the antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysate derived from the larvae of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.)

Muhammad Yusuf Abduh,, Diah Ayu Prawitasari,, Ula Aulia Fitrian,, Mochamad Firmansyah,

Evaluation of functional characteristics of roselle seed and its use as a partial replacement of wheat flour in soft bread making

Nguyen Minh Thuy, Nguyen Bao Tram, Dinh Gia Cuong, Huynh Khanh Duy, Ly Thanh An, Vo Quoc Tien, Tran Ngoc Giau, Ngo Van Tai

Total phenolic, flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activity of three selected Portulaca grandiflora mutants in MV8 generation as a result of recurrent irradiation technique

Waras Nurcholis,, Syarifah Iis Aisyah, Regina Agritena Mayrischa Saraswati, Yoshua Shandy Yudha