Research Article | Volume 11, Issue 1, January, 2023

In vitro evaluation of the antibacterial potential of flavonoid glycosides from Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC.

K. Suresh Kannan D. Kandavel P. Rajalakshmi P. Maheswari   

Open Access   

Published:  Nov 22, 2022

DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2023.110120

Infectious diseases caused by microorganisms are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality around the world. Emergence of new infectious strains and evolution of antibiotic resistance among them are the major threats the man kind is facing. This expands the need of discovery of newer and stronger antimicrobial compounds from the safer sources such as plants. Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC. is a perennial herb which is predominantly being used in traditional medicine across different ethnicity. The plant extract has been reported to contain several medicinally important secondary metabolites; however, research on purified compounds from the plant is highly limited. This present study is focused to extract and partially purify flavonoid glycosides from G. oppositifolius and to evaluate its antibacterial efficiency. The aerial parts of G. oppositifolius were macerated and extracted and tested for presence of flavonoid glycosides which are potent anti-bacterial compounds. The quantitative estimation has shown 210.83 ± 4.63 mg of flavonoids and 167.77 ± 1.73 mg of carbohydrates per gram of dry extract. Further, partially purified flavonoid glycosides were isolated from the crude extract using silica gel column chromatography and quantitatively tested to contain 67.92 ± 0.58 mg of flavonoids and 38.54 ± 1.75 mg of carbohydrates per gram of dry fraction. The partially purified fractions were subjected to high-performance liquid chromatographic separation for further purification. In vitro antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration of the flavonoid glycosides were examined against six pathogenic bacteria through well diffusion and micro dilution methodologies. The flavonoid glycosides showed strong antibacterial activity against all bacteria tested. The concentration of 2800 μg/ml has registered 100% of inhibition against all bacteria tested. Conclusively, the results from the present study indicated that the methanolic extract of G. oppositifolius can yield good amount of flavonoid glycoside which shows strong and significant antibacterial activity and can be further explored for different medical applications.

Keyword:     Glinus oppositifolius Phytochemicals Flavonoid glycosides Antibacterial


Kannan KS, Kandavel D, Rajalakshmi P, Maheswari P. In vitro evaluation of the antibacterial potential of flavonoid glycosides from Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC. J App Biol Biotech. 2023;11(1):146-152.

Copyright: Author(s). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license.

HTML Full Text

1. Gulati K, Busari J. Vaccinating a billion people against COVID-19: India's quest for systems leadership in exceptional times. Leadersh Health Serv (Bradf Engl) 2022;35:137-48.

2. Iwu MW, Duncan AR, Okunji CO. New Antimicrobials of Plant Origin. In: Perspect New Crops New Uses. Alexandria: ASHS Press; 1999. p. 457-62.

3. Fauci AS, Touchette NA, Folkers GK. Emerging infectious diseases: A 10-year perspective from the national institute of allergy and infectious diseases. Emerg Infect Dis 2005;11:519-25.

4. Pham-Huy LA, He H, Pham-Huy C. Free radicals, antioxidants in disease and health. Int J Biomed Sci 2008;4:89-96.

5. Tacconelli E, Carrara E, Savoldi A, Harbarth S, Mendelson M, Monnet DL, et al. Discovery, research, and development of new antibiotics: The WHO priority list of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and tuberculosis. Lancet Infect Dis 2018;18:318-27.

6. Abera Z, Degefu H, Gari G, Kidane M. Sero-prevalence of lumpy skin disease in selected districts of West Wollega zone, Ethiopia. BMC Vet Res 2015;11:135.

7. Malik S. Biotechnology and Production of Anti-Cancer Compounds. Germany: Cham Springer International Publishing; 2017.

Figure 6: Zone of inhibition of flavonoid glycosides against different pathogens.

Figure 7: Minimum inhibitory concentration analysis of flavonoid glycosides.

8. Geetha K, Kakarla S, Seru G. Screening of crude plant extracts for anti-adipogenesis activity in 3T3-L1 Cells. J Pharm Res 2014;8:81-6.

9. Blumberg J. Introduction to the proceedings of the third international scientific symposium on tea and human Health. J Nutr 2003;133:3244S-6.

10. Elmasta? M, Gülçin ?, I?ildak Ö, Küfrevio?lu Ö?, ?bao?lu K, Aboul-Enein HY. Radical scavenging activity and antioxidant capacity of bay leaf extracts. J Iran Chem Soc 2006;3:258-66.

11. Xu ML, Wang L, Hu JH, Lee SK, Wang MH. Antioxidant activities and related polyphenolic constituents of the methanol extract fractions from Broussonetia papyrifera stem bark and wood. Food Sci Biotechnol 2010;19:677-82.

12. Kumar G, Karthik L, Bhaskara Rao K. A review on medicinal properties of Elaeocarpus ganitrus Roxb. ex G. Don. (Elaeocarpaceae). Res J Pharm Technol 2014;7:1184-6.

13. Sies H, Stahl W, Sundquist AR. Antioxidant functions of vitamins. Vitamins E and C, beta-carotene, and other carotenoids. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1992;669:7-20.

14. Burkill HM. The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. 2nd ed. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens; 1994.

15. Pratap GP, Jyothi B, Husain MK, Nagaraj V, Sudarsanam G. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies of Mollugo nudicaulis Lam.: A controversial plant origin ayurvedic drug. Ann Phytomed Int J 2021;10:44-52.

16. Asok Kumar K, Umamaheswari M, Sivashanmugam AT, Subhadra Devi V, Subhashini N, Ravi TK. Free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of Glinus oppositifolius (carpet weed) using different in vitro assay systems. Pharm Biol 2009;47:474-82.

17. Gopinathan S, Nija S. Gastric ulcer curative potential of Mollugo oppositifolia L. extract-a preclinical study. World J Pharma Res 2014;3:929-48.

18. Hoque N, Imam MZ, Akter S, Ehsanul M, Hasan R, Ahmed J, et al. Antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activities of methanolic extract of Glinus oppositifolius leaves. J Appl Pharm Sci 2011;1:50-3.

19. Sahu S, Das D, Tripathy N, Dinda S, Sandeep Kumar H. Evaluation of hypoglycemic activity of Mollugo pentaphylla and Glinus oppositifolius L. Rasayan J Chem 2012;5:57-62.

20. Ramaseshan ST, Pitchaiah P, Bharti V, Ramakrishna KK, Gaddam V, Tewari D, et al. Pharmacognostical, phytochemical and nutritional evaluation of Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC. Pharmacogn J 2015;8:31-6.

21. Khare CP. Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary. New York: Springer; 2007.

22. Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian Medicinal Plants. 2nd ed., Vol. 4. Allahabad: Lalit Mohan Basu; 1935.

23. Inngjerdingen KT, Debes SC, Inngjerdingen M, Hokputsa S, Harding SE, Rolstad B, et al. Bioactive pectic polysaccharides from Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC., a Malian medicinal plant, isolation and partial characterization. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;101:204-14.

24. Sheu SY, Yao CH, Lei YC, Kuo TF. Recent progress in Glinus oppositifolius research. Pharm Biol 2014;52:1079-84.

25. Khandelwal K. Practical Pharmacognosy. Pune: Pragati Books Pvt. Ltd; 2008.

26. Mathur R, Vijayvergia R. Determination of total flavonoid and phenol content in Mimusops elengi Linn. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2017;8:5282-5.

27. Saha SK, Brewer CF. Determination of the concentrations of oligosaccharides, complex type carbohydrates, and glycoproteins using the phenol-sulfuric acid method. Carbohydr Res 1994;254:157-67.

28. Arora S, Itankar P. Extraction, isolation and identification of flavonoid from Chenopodium album aerial parts. J Tradit Complement Med 2018;8:476-82.

29. Lin LZ, Harnly JM. A screening method for the identification of glycosylated flavonoids and other phenolic compounds using a standard analytical approach for all plant materials. J Agric Food Chem 2007;55:1084-96.

30. Desai SP, Momin YH, Taralekar ST, Dange YD, Jagtap SR, Khade HP. Evaluation of potential in vitro anticancer and antimicrobial activities of synthesized 5-mercapto-4-substituted 1, 2, 4 triazole derivatives. Ann Phytomedicine Int J 2021;10:273-79.

31. Shekar BR, Nagarajappa R, Jain R, Suma S, Singh R, Thakur R. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the plant extracts' combinations against dental caries and plaque microorganisms: An in vitro study. J Indian Assoc Public Health Dent 2016;14:456.

32. Subramani R, Narayanasamy M, Feussner KD. Plant-derived antimicrobials to fight against multi-drug-resistant human pathogens. 3 Biotech 2017;7:172.

33. Martens S, Preuss A, Matern U. Multifunctional flavonoid dioxygenases: Flavonol and anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana L. Phytochemistry 2010;71:1040-9.

34. Xie Y, Yang W, Tang F, Chen X, Ren L. Antibacterial activities of flavonoids: Structure-activity relationship and mechanism. Curr Med Chem 2014;22:132-49.

35. Xiao J, Capanoglu E, Jassbi AR, Miron A. Advance on the flavonoid C-glycosides and health benefits. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2016;56:S29-45.

36. Abubakar AR, Haque M. Preparation of medicinal plants: Basic extraction and fractionation procedures for experimental purposes. J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2020;12:1-10.

37. Lezoul NE, Belkadi M, Habibi F, Guillén F. Extraction processes with several solvents on total bioactive compounds in different organs of three medicinal plants. Molecules 2020;25:4672.

38. Martin-Puzon JJ, Rivera WL. Free-radical scavenging activity and bioactive secondary metabolites from various extracts of Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC. (Molluginaceae) roots, stems and leaves. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2015;5:711-5.

39. Feng W, Hao Z, Li M. Isolation and structure identification of flavonoids. In: Justino GC, editor. Flavonoids from Biosynthesis Human Health. London, UK: In Tech; 2017.

40. Sen AK, Sen DB, Maheshwari RA. Extraction, isolation, and quantitative determination of flavonoids by HPLC. In: Sen S, Chakraborty R, editors. Herbal Medicine in India. Singapore: Springer; 2020. p. 303-36.

41. Barbieri R, Coppo E, Marchese A, Daglia M, Sobarzo-Sánchez E, Nabavi SF, et al. Phytochemicals for human disease: An update on plant-derived compounds antibacterial activity. Microbiol Res 2017;196:44-68.

42. Górniak I, Bartoszewski R, Króliczewski J. Comprehensive review of antimicrobial activities of plant flavonoids. Phytochem Rev 2019;18:241-72.

43. Khameneh B, Iranshahy M, Soheili V, Fazly Bazzaz BS. Review on plant antimicrobials: A mechanistic viewpoint. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 2019;8:118.

44. Mohammed R, Souda S, Taie H, Moharam ME, Shaker K. Antioxidant, antimicrobial activities of flavonoids glycoside from Leucaena leucocephala leaves. J Appl Pharm Sci 2015:5:138-47.

45. Tagousop CN, Tamokou JD, Ekom SE, Ngnokam D, Voutquenne-Nazabadioko L. Antimicrobial activities of flavonoid glycosides from Graptophyllum grandulosum and their mechanism of antibacterial action. BMC Complement Altern Med 2018;18:252.

46. Adamczak A, O?arowski M, Karpi?ski TM. Antibacterial activity of some flavonoids and organic acids widely distributed in plants. J Clin Med 2019;9:109.

47. Zhang LQ, Xue HB, Zhu WL, Li YM, Chen KX. Two new flavonoid glycosides isolated from the fruits of Catalpa ovata. Pharmacogn Mag 2020;16:817.

Article Metrics

5 Absract views 28 PDF Downloads 33 Total views

Related Search

By author names

Citiaion Alert By Google Scholar