Research Article | Volume 10, Issue 5, September, 2022

Suppression of the RAGE gene expression in RAW 264.7 murine leukemia cell line by ethyl acetate extract of Mikania micrantha (L.) Kunth.

Alex Zohmachhuana Malsawmdawngliana Tlaisun Vabeiryureilai Mathipi Lalrinzuali Khawlhring Joyce Sudandara Priya   

Open Access   

Published:  Jul 20, 2022

DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2022.100513
Abstract

The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory effect of Mikania micrantha (L.) Kunth. leaf extract on RAW 264.7 murine leukemia cell line. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of the different extracts of the leaves of M. micrantha revealed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, quinones, terpenoids, phenols, and coumarins, whereas the quantification revealed that the methanol extract contained the highest phenol content (259.88 mg catechol equivalent/g dried sample) as well as flavonoid content (156.55 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dried sample). The different extracts were tested for antioxidant activity using a DPPH scavenging assay. The antioxidant capacity of ethyl acetate extract at 100 µg concentration showed the highest DPPH scavenging ability with an IC50 value of 40.34 µg/ml in comparison with the standard (39.92 µg/ml). Allium cepa assay and MTT assay were performed to assess the cytotoxicity effects. The fresh leaf extract increased the incidence of anomalous mitosis. Cytotoxicity study showed that ethyl acetate extracts exhibit the highest cytotoxicity with an IC50 value of 47.68 µg/ml. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis exhibited the suppression of the RAGE gene. This is the first report on the effect of the anti-inflammatory activity of M. micrantha leaf extract on RAW 264.7 murine leukemia cell line. This study concluded that M. micrantha possesses antioxidant property and limiting RAGE gene expression suggests anti-inflammatory properties.


Keyword:     Anti-inflammatory Antioxidant Cytotoxicity Mitosis Phytochemical


Citation:

Zohmachhuana A, Mathipi V, Tlaisun M, Khawlhring L, Priya JS. Suppression of the RAGE gene expression in RAW 264.7 murine leukemia cell line by ethyl acetate extract of Mikania micrantha (L.) Kunth. J App Biol Biotech. 2022;10(5):107-114. DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2022.100513

Copyright: Author(s). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license.

HTML Full Text

1. INTRODUCTION

One of the major traits of cancers in human is unresolved inflammation, which often occurs before the onset of the disease and orchestrates a favorable microenvironment for tumor growth. Over the years, several population-based epidemiological and experimental animal model systems and clinical reports emphasized a major rise in the prevalence of the disease leading up to 70% of cancer deaths globally [1]. Recent studies revealed that the mortality rate of cancer worldwide is increasing every year [2]. Medicinal plants have taken a crucial role in life and have been used by mankind since time immemorial for primary healthcare. They are still vital for treating several disorders, and numerous systems of medicine are especially dedicated to the application of medicinal plants for health care [3]. It is assumed that herbal-based products are nontoxic, safe, and even more reliable than the synthetic compounds used for health care [4]. At present, over 60% of anticancer agents are collected from their natural sources such as plants, microorganisms, and marine organisms [5]. The World Health Organization projected that majority of the population rely on herbal preparations [6].

The production of reactive oxygen species is associated with the activation of RAGE in a variety of cells. RAGE gene has a large extracellular part, a transmembrane domain with 43 amino acid long cytoplasmic tail [7], having a cell surface receptor and is a part of the immunoglobulin superfamily, involved in the pathogenesis of cancer advancement and metastasis [8]. Cumulative evidence supports the use of RAGE level as clinical biomarkers in different types of cancers, such as breast, lung, colorectal, and prostate cancer [9]. The expression of the RAGE gene increases at the site of inflammation, mainly on inflammatory, endothelial, and epithelial cells, and elevates the expression of both cell surfaces [10]. Subsequently, the inflammatory cytokines expression increases, resulting in an inflammatory response with associated cellular migration and proliferation [11].

Mikania micrantha (L.) Kunth. is an exotic, neotropical perennial herbaceous vine belonging to the family Asteraceae. M. micrantha is also known as Mile-a-minute vine. It grows well in humid and fertile soil, though it can survive in less fertile soils. It is widely distributed in the Pacific, Southeast Asia, and so on. In India, it is found in West Bengal, Orissa, Andaman, Nicobar Islands, and some parts of North East India [12]. M. micrantha is a plant that has been used for skin diseases, wound dressings, chickenpox, and so on and as folk medicine in Africa, Jamaica, and Guyana Patanoma [13]. In India, the plant is commonly used by various indigenous communities as medication for several ailments such as itches, body sprain, gout, snake bites, dysentery, diabetes gout, rheumatism, and cancer [14].

Ethnic people of Mizoram apply the juice of M. micrantha to cuts and wounds for clotting the blood as first aid [15]. The leaves decoction is given to the patients suffering from dysentery, as hemostatic [16]. As ethnoveterinary medicine in India, M. micrantha is used for treating diarrhea of veterinary animals and repelling body lice of poultry birds [17].

The present work aims to carry out a preliminary study on the phytochemicals, antioxidant, antiproliferative, and regulation of the RAGE gene of the crude leaf extracts of M. micrantha.


2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1. Collection, Identification, Authentication, and Preparation of Sample

M. micrantha (L.) Kunth. sample was collected from Aizawl, Mizoram, during the month of November 2016 and identified by Dr. Sherry, Department of Plant Biology and Plant Biotechnology, Women’s Christian College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, and the herbarium was deposited in the Institutional Herbarium, Mizoram University, Aizawl, with voucher 00345. The leaf samples were washed with clean water, air-dried, and made into uniformly fine powder. The powdered sample was subjected to sequential extraction using three solvents based on increasing polarity such as hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol for 72 h. The extracts were filtered and dried using a rotary evaporator. The extracts obtained were stored at −20°C until further used.

2.2. Qualitative Phytochemical Tests

The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the different extracts of M. micrantha was performed in standard procedures [18].

2.3. Quantitative Phytochemical Analysis

Phenols and flavonoids are the most important groups of secondary products and bioactive compounds in plants [19]. Phenols and flavonoids possess various biological activities, cardioprotective [20], antidiabetic [21], antioxidant [22], cytotoxic, and antitumor [23], in addition to the ability to modify gene expressions [24].

The selective quantitative analysis was carried out for phenol [25]. Different concentrations (100, 200, and 300 mg) of the samples were tested, and a calibration curve for catechol was obtained. The results were compared to a catechol calibration curve, and the total phenol content of the sample was expressed as mg of catechol equivalents per gram of extract.

For flavonoid content [26], the results were expressed as quercetin equivalents (mg quercetin/g dried extract):

Amount TFC = Sample OD/Standard OD × Respective Amount of extract

2.4. Induction of Chromosomal Aberration

2.4.1. Method of treatment

Commercially available onions were used as the test material in the present study. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity potential of the methanol extract of M. micrantha against Allium cepa was carried out according to Levan [27]. The roots of onions were treated with the plant infusion for three exposures of 1, 6, and 24 h duration, and the concentration was 100 ppm. The treated roots were fixed in freshly prepared acetic acid: ethanol (1:3).

2.4.2. Slide preparation

Each treated root sample was washed in distilled water and then hydrolyzed for 15 min at RT in 1 N HCl. About 4% ferric ammonium sulfate was prepared, and the roots were mordanted for 15–10 min. The roots were stained for 10–12 min using 0.5% hematoxylin after washing with distilled water. The roots were finally squashed on a slide using a drop of 45% acetic acid. DPX was used for sealing the slide.

2.4.3. Scoring

Around 2000 nuclei were recorded from the treated as well as the control samples for calculating the mitotic indices [28].

The incidence of the chromosomal aberrations present in the treated and normal root tips was calculated and classified according to Buckton and Evans [29]. Six root tips were collected from each bulb and used for the experimental point. The mitotic irregularities such as metaphasic clump, anaphasic bridge, prophasic clump, and lagging chromosome were considered.

2.5. DPPH Free Radical Scavenging Assay

The antioxidant activity of the leaf extracts of M. micrantha was carried out according to the method described by Shimamura et al. [30] with slight modifications. The antioxidant capacity was presented as a percentage scavenging effect and calculated using the following equation:

Inhibitory concentration (IC50) was calculated using a free online version of GraphPad Prism.

2.6. Cytotoxicity

The cytotoxicity was assessed according to Mosmann [31]. RAW 264.7 leukemia cell lines (NCCS, Pune) were cultured in DMEM medium added with 10% FBS at 37°C with 5% CO2. The cells were allowed to attach overnight at 37°C after plating in 96-well plates at a density of 1.2 × 104 cells/well. Different concentrations (25, 50, 75, 100, and 150 mg) of the samples were taken. Then, the medium was replaced, and the cells were incubated.

The media were discarded after 24 h of incubating. A 100 ml fresh medium and 10 ml of MTT (5 mg/ml) were added. The media were then discarded after 3–4 h, and 150 ml of DMSO was added for dissolving the formazan crystals. The absorbance was read at 570 nm in a microplate reader.

The positive control used was cyclophosphamide. Cell survival was calculated by the following formula:

Viability (%) = Test OD

Control OD

Cytotoxicity (%) = 100−Viability (%)

2.7. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Analysis

Approximately 1 × 106 cells/ml were seeded into 6-well plates, allowed to adhere, and the ethyl acetate extract was added followed by 24 h incubation.

Tri-RNA reagent (Favorgen Biotech Corp, Taiwan) was used for extracting total RNA from the cells followed by the treatment of the RNA with deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I; Promega, USA). DNase I-treated RNA was reverse transcribed using EasyScript Plus™ Reverse Transcriptase. cDNA was amplified by PCR using these RAGE gene-specific pair primers.

Primer details are as follows:

RAGE F: 5’-GTGGGGACATGTGTGTCAGAGGGAA-3’

RAGE R: 5’-TGAGGAGAGGGCTGGGCAGGGACT-3’

b-Actin F: 5’-ACGGGTCACCACACTGTGC-3’

b-Actin R: 5’-CTAGAAGCATTTGCGGTGGACGATG-3’

Full-length cDNA amplification using Eppendorf Personnel Mastercycler, Germany, for RAGE gene was 35 cycles of 94°C for 30 s, 65°C for 1 min, and 72°C for 7 min, and for b-actin gene was 35 cycles of 94°C for 30 s, 58°C for 1 min, and 72°C for 7 min.

The amplified gene was separated on a 2% agarose gel, stained with ethidium bromide, and visualized with a gel documentation system (SynGene, UK).

2.8. Statistical Analysis

The data were presented as mean ± SEM. Statistical analysis was performed using Excel 2010, and differences were determined by one-way ANOVA. Differences were considered statistically significant at P < 0.01.


3. RESULTS

The qualitative phytochemical analysis showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, quinones, terpenoids, phenols, and coumarins [Table 1].

Table 1: Phytochemical analysis of leaf extracts of Mikania micrantha in vitro.

TestExtract

HexaneEthyl acetateMethanol
Carbohydrate++++++++
Tannins+
Flavonoids++++
Alkaloids+++
Quinones+++++
Glycosides++
Cardiac glycosides++
Terpenoid+++++++
Phenols+++++++
Coumarins+++
Steroids++++
Phylobatannins
Anthraquinone

+++: Strongly present, ++: Moderately present, +: Present in trace amount, −: Absent.

The quantitative estimation for phenols in hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts was 259.88 mg, 87.67 mg, and 104.70 mg catechol equivalent/g of dried sample [Table 2a], whereas the flavonoid content was 156.55 mg, ethyl acetate 106.73 mg, and hexane 87.35 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dried sample, respectively [Table 2b].

Table 2: Quantification of secondary metabolites content of the leaf extract of Mikania micrantha.

a. Total phenol content

Concentration (µg)Sample (OD) hexaneSample (OD) ethyl acetateSample (OD) methanolCatechol (OD)Amount of phenol hexane (mg equiv/g)Amount of phenol ethyl acetate (mg equiv/g)Amount of phenol methanol (mg equiv/g)
1000.1070.2060.3280.45723.55145.09071.747
2000.2980.4090.6970.89166.98891.831156.552
3000.4850.5920.8631.66587.355106.736155.475
b. Total flavonoid content

Concentration (µg)Sample (OD) hexaneSample (OD) ethyl acetateSample (OD) methanolQuercetin (OD)Amount of flavonoid hexane (mg equiv/g)Amount of flavonoid ethyl acetate (mg equiv/g)Amount of flavonoid methanol (mg equiv/g)
1000.0970.2140.380.51418.86041.60973.886
2000.1530.2610.6690.79638.41365.528167.963
3000.3320.2780.8240.951104.70987.678259.882

The antioxidant capacity of the different extracts showed an increase in concentration manner. The highest activity was observed at 100 mg/ml. The IC50 value for DPPH assay for leaf extracts of hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol was 71.23 mg/ml, 40.34 mg/ml, and 52.45 mg/ml, respectively, with respect to the positive control (ascorbic acid) with IC50 value of 39.92 mg/ml [Table 3]. The above results show a profound antioxidant activity in the ethyl acetate extract of M. micrantha.

Table 3: Antioxidant analysis of the leaf extracts of Mikania micrantha (DPPH radical scavenging assay).

SampleConc. (µg)% inhibitionIC50 value
Ascorbic acid2536.9539.92
5063.12
10084.53
Hexane2538.6971.23
5044.24
10057.39
Ethyl acetate2544.5740.34
5053.47
10070.78
Methanol2545.2652.45
5048.23
10060.17

The cytotoxicity of M. micrantha extract against RAW 264.7 murine leukemia cell lines showed increased toxicity with an increase in concentration, and its IC50 was hexane (226.5 mg/ml), ethyl acetate (47.68 mg/ml), and methanol (212.3 mg/ml) [Table 4 and Figure 1].

Table 4: Cytotoxicity analysis of leaf extracts of Mikania micrantha on RAW 264.7 murine leukemia cell lines.

SampleConc. (in µg)% viability% toxicityIC50 value
Cyclophosphamide57.4792.5390
Hexane2573.1426.86226.5
5068.2231.78
10062.0437.96
12559.2740.73
15051.1348.87
Ethyl acetate2557.0242.9847.68
5050.1849.82
10044.0455.96
12536.8363.17
15032.8067.20
Methanol2571.8728.13212.3
5068.4931.51
10064.0335.97
12558.3741.63
15048.5751.43
Figure 1: The cytotoxicity of different leaf extracts of M. micrantha against RAW 264.7 leukemia cell line.



[Click here to view]

The mitotic indices of root meristem treated with leaves extract showed values of 4.12%, 4.7%, and 1.41% in 1 h, 6 h, and 24 h, respectively. The growing root tips exposed to the leaf extracts for 24 h lost their turgidity. The treated cells showed a considerable reduction in the frequency of division when compared to control (9.01%). The mitotic indices in the root tip cells treated for 1 h and 6 h brought about a similar effect [Table 5 and Figures 2a and c].

Table 5: Induction of chromosomal anomalies and mitotic indices in the root meristems of Allium cepa by fresh leaf extract of Mikania micrantha.

Treatment time (hra)Cells count (N)Dividing cells (n)Mitotic index (n/N×100±SE)Anomalies (r.)Mitotic anomalies observed% anomalies r/n×100

PCMCABALTC
Control2235.00±6.48217.16±5.849.44±0.691.00±0.05-----01.20±0.04
12143.33±4.4588.16±2.514.13±0.54@25.83±1.987156--29.51±2.99#
62042.50±7.1389.66±1.75*4.80±1.01@30.83±1.5914753333.78±2.51#
242035.66±4.9526.66±2.15*1.30±0.42#13.00±1.315412455.29±2.57#

PC: Prophasic clump, MC: Metaphasic clump, AB: Anaphasic bridge, AL: Anaphasic lag, TC: Telophasic clump. The results are presented as mean±SE, n=5. The t-test was performed to test the significant level between the control and treatment groups at a significant level of

<0.05,

<0.01, and

<0.001.

Figure 2: Induction of chromosomal anomalies and mitotic indices in the root meristems of Allium cepa by leaf extract of Mikania micrantha. (a) The total number of cell counts. (b) The total number of dividing cells. (c). Control: 1: Prophase, 2: Metaphase, 3: Anaphase, and 4: Telophase. (d) Treated: 1: Prophasic clump, 2: Metaphasic clump, 3: Anaphasic lag, and 4: Anaphasic bridge. The results are presented as mean±SE, n=5. The t-test was performed to test the significant level between the control and treatment groups at a significant level of *<0.05, @<0.01, and #<0.001.



[Click here to view]

Infusion of leaves extracts of M. micrantha induced chromosomal damage and mitotic anomalies at various periods of exposure in onion root. Observations on the frequencies of aberration are presented in Table 5 and Figure 2b, where the leaves extract of M. micrantha increased the incidence of anomalous mitosis during all three durations of exposure. Toxicity of leaves extract on the induction of mitotic anomalies on the root meristems of onion was duration dependent. Cells treated for 24 h (55%) showed a significantly high increase in mitotic anomalies. An increase in chromosomal anomalies during 1 h (31.1%) exposure showed that the leaves extracts of M. micrantha had an immediate toxic effect on the root meristem. The types of chromosomal aberrations observed in the root meristems with leaves extracts were prophasic clump, metaphasic clump, anaphasic bridge, anaphasic lag, and telophasic clump [Table 5 and Figure 2d]. Prophasic clumps, metaphasic clump, and anaphasic bridge were found to be common during all three durations. They were significantly higher in cells exposed to leaves extracts for 1 h and 6 h. The percentage of anaphasic lag and telophasic clump was found to be of rare occurrence during the three durations [Table 5 and Figure 2d].

The IC50 concentration of the ethyl acetate extracts of M. micrantha was treated, and the RAGE gene expression was determined. The treated showed suppression of RAGE gene compared with untreated control about 2-fold [Figure 3].

Figure 3: The effect of ethyl acetate leaf extracts of Mikania micrantha on RAGE gene expression. Expression ratio analyzed by ImageJ software. Lane 1, 100 bp marker; lane 2, untreated/control; and lane 3, treated, 47.68 μg/ml. The result presented as mean±SE, n=5.



[Click here to view]

4. DISCUSSION

Phytochemicals are present naturally in plants and are biologically active chemical compounds. They provide multiple benefits for human health which macronutrients and micronutrients do not possess. They are involved in the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and protection from oxidative stress that can cause aging, cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic disorders, and so on and can also inhibit and induce enzymes and gene expression [32,33]. The present phytochemical results are akin to the findings of Dev et al., Lalrinzuali et al., and Borkataky et al. [34-36] who reported the presence of different phytochemicals in the plant powder as well as different extracts of the M. micrantha leaves. A. cepa test performed in this study is used as an indicator of adequate cell proliferation by calculating the mitotic index and replication index [37]. Several other plants such as Calotropis procera, Achyrocline satureioides, Paxia myriantha, and Paxia leiocarpa have been demonstrated to inhibit cell division of A. cepa [38,39]. The present study of the crude leaves extract-treated cells revealed that the plant extract poses toxic effects on the dividing cells by reducing the mitotic index during 1 h exposure, and this observation is in agreement with the reports made on Mikania cordifolia infusions on the cell cycle of A. cepa. Results indicated that two populations of M. cordifolia exhibited a reduction of the mitotic index in all the treatments when compared with the negative control. In both populations, a decrease in the percentage of the mitotic index with increasing concentration of the infusions was observed [40]. The results of the present study demonstrate that root tip cells treated with fresh leaves extract of M. micrantha brought about cell death after 24 h of treatment. The genotoxicity study of M. micrantha extracts using root meristems of onion showed that the extract is toxic to the genetic material by inducing non-clastogenic chromosomal aberrations such as prophasic clump, metaphasic clump, anaphasic bridges, anaphasic lag, and telophasic clump. Prophasic clump, metaphasic clump, and anaphasic bridge were of common occurrence. Chromosome stickiness plate may be due to the action of the extract on the protein leading to the partial dissolution of nucleoprotein, which forms an integral part of the chromosome [41]. Spanish Jasmine extracts also induced mitotic anomalies such as sticky chromosome and C-mitosis on Allium root meristem [42].

In this study, the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of M. micrantha leaves when tested for antioxidant activities using the in vitro system showed significant DPPH scavenging ability and antioxidant potential with an IC50 value of 40.34 mg/ml and 52.45 mg/ml, respectively, when compared to the positive control 39.92 mg/ml. The different extracts as well as whole plants of M. micrantha have been shown to possess antioxidant activity in the previous reports [43]. The phenolic compounds were prominently found in this extract and could be attributed to the observed antiradical properties. The compounds isolariciresinol, caffeic acid, ethyl protocatechuate, and protocatechuic aldehyde isolated from M. micrantha plant have been shown to have higher DPPH scavenging activity than L-ascorbic acid, which is a standard reference compound in an earlier study [44]. The present study on anticancer activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol leaf extracts of M. micrantha on Raw 264.7 murine leukemia cell lines suggests that the ethyl acetate extract of the leaves of M. micrantha possesses prominently high cytotoxic activity as the IC50 value achieved was 59.14 mg/ml. The previous studies have shown the anticancer activity of aqueous extract of M. micrantha leaves against K562 and HeLa human cancer cell lines [45]. Different extracts of other species of Mikania have also been reported to show cytotoxic activities against HepG-2 and HeLa cell lines [46]. The ethanolic extracts of M. cordata leaves have also shown cytotoxic activity using Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay [47]. The essential oils extracted from M. micrantha plant, which contain mostly terpenoids, terpenes, and sesquiterpenes, have been shown to possess anticancer activity against the ovarian, pancreatic, and cervical cancer cell lines [48,49]. The ethanol extract of Fimbristylis ovata (Burm.f.) has also been shown to have significant inhibition of RAGE gene expression in human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line [50].

The results from the study showed that the polarity of the solvent used is responsible for the variations in the flavonoid and phenol content of the different extracts. In addition, there was a correlation between the antioxidant capacity and the flavonoid and phenol content. The study revealed the downregulation of RAGE gene expression by M. micrantha leaf extracts. RAGE gene activation results in the transduction of the cell surface signals to various inflammatory pathways, including PI3K-Akt, MAPKs, and NF-kB [51]. Further studies can be done to investigate the inhibition of RAGE gene and the intracellular pathways involved in the regulation.


5. CONCLUSION

This study revealed that the crude extract of M. micrantha leaves is rich in phenol and flavonoid. The ethyl acetate leaf extract exhibited significant in vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic activities compared to hexane and methanol leaf extracts. The ethyl acetate extract suppresses the expression of the RAGE gene in the RAW 264.7 murine leukemia cell line. Our result suggested that the antioxidant property of M. micrantha could be involved in its inflammation-related inhibitory action through the RAGE gene signaling pathway. This is the first report on the suppression of the RAGE gene expression of M. micrantha.


6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors direct their gratitude to CSIR-UGC, New Delhi, for the financial assistance to Alex Zohmachhuana, Dept. of Botany, to carry out his Ph.D. work in Mizoram University, Aizawl. The authors would also like to express their special thanks to Hema, Madras Christian College for her contributions in the study.


7. CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

Authors declared that they do not have any conflicts of interest.


8. AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS

All authors made substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; took part in drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; agreed to submit to the current journal; gave final approval of the version to be published; and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work. All the authors are eligible to be an author as per the international committee of medical journal editors (ICMJE) requirements/guidelines.


9. ETHICAL APPROVALS

This study does not involve experiments on animals or human subjects.


10. DATA AVAILABILITY

All data generated and analyzed are included within this research article.


11. PUBLISHER’S NOTE

This journal remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published institutional affiliation.

REFERENCES

1. Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2020. A Cancer J Clin 2020;70:7-30. [CrossRef]

2. Zhang Z, Zhou L, Xie N, Nice EC, Zhang T, Cui Y, et al. Overcoming cancer therapeutic bottleneck by drug repurposing. Signal Transduct Target Ther 2020;5:113. [CrossRef]

3. Cordell GA. Sustainable medicines and global health care. Planta Med 2011;77:1129-38. [CrossRef]

4. Moreira DL, Teixeira SS, Monteiro MH, De-Oliveira AC, Paumgartten FJ. Traditional use and safety of herbal medicines. Rev Bras Farmacogn 2014;24:248-57. [CrossRef]

5. Newman DJ, Cragg GM, Sander KM. Natural products as sources of new drugs over the period 1981-2002. J Nat Prod 2003;66:1022-37. [CrossRef]

6. Qazi MA, Molvi K. Herbal medicine:A comprehensive review. J Pharm Res 2016;8:1-5.

7. Kalea AZ, Reiniger N, Yang H, Arriero M, Schmidt AM, Hudson BI. Alternative splicing of the murine receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) gene. Fed Am Soc Exp Biol 2009;23:1766-74. [CrossRef]

8. Tesarova P, Kalousova M, Jachymova M, Mestek O, Petruzelka L, Zima T. Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)--soluble form (sRAGE) and gene polymorphisms in patients with breast cancer. Cancer Investig 2007;25:720-5. [CrossRef]

9. Zhang S, Hou X, Zi S, Wang Y, Chen L, Kong B. Polymorphisms of receptor for advanced glycation end products and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in Chinese patients. Cell Physiol Biochem 2013;31:525-31. [CrossRef]

10. Riehl A, Nemeth J, Angel P, Hess J. The receptor RAGE:Bridging inflammation and cancer. Cell Commun Signal 2009;7:12. [CrossRef]

11. Hofmann M, Drury S, Fu C, Qu W, Taguchi A, Lu Y, et al. RAGE mediates a novel proinflammatory axis:A central cell surface receptor for S100/calgranulin polypeptides. Cell 1999;97:889-901. [CrossRef]

12. Swamy PS, Ramakrishnan PS. Weed potential of Mikania micrantha H.B.K. and its control in fallows after shifting agriculture (Jhum) in North-East India. Agric Ecosyst Environ 1987;18:195-204. [CrossRef]

13. Facey PC, Pascoe KO, Porter RB, Jones AD. Investigation of plants used in Jamaican folk medicine for anti-bacterial activity. J Pharm Pharmacol 1999;51:1455-60. [CrossRef]

14. Borah S, Das AK, Saikia D, Borah J. A note on the use of ethno medicine in treatment of diabetes by Mishing Communities in Assam, India. Ethnobot leaflets. Int J Ethnobot Res 2009;13:1348-52.

15. Lalramghinglova H, Rai PK. Ethnomedicinal plant resources of Mizoram, India:Implication of traditional knowledge in health care system. Ethnobot Leaflets 2010;14:274-305.

16. Bhardwaj S, Gakhar SK. Ethnomedicinal plants used by the tribals of Mizoram to cure cuts and wounds. Indian J Tradit Knowl 2004;4:75-80.

17. Saha SS, Kalyan MS, Rahaman CH. Anato-pharmacogonistic studies of Mikania micrantha Kunth:A promising medicinal climber of the family Asteraceae. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm 2015;6:773-80. [CrossRef]

18. Krishnaiah D, Devi T, Bono A, Sarbatly R. Studies on phytochemical constituents of six Malaysian medicinal plants. J Med Plants Res 2009;3:67-72.

19. Kim D, Jeond S, Lee C. Antioxidant capacity of phenolic phytochemicals from various cultivars of plums. Food Chem 2003;81:321-6. [CrossRef]

20. Nardini M, Natella F, Scaccini C. Role of dietary polyphenols in platelet aggregation. A review of the supplementation studies. Platelets 2007;18:224-43. [CrossRef]

21. Ibrahim Rizvi S, Abu Zaid M. Impairment of sodium pump and Na/H exchanger in erythrocytes from non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients:Effect of tea catechins. Int J Clin Chem Diagn Lab Med 2005;354:59-67. [CrossRef]

22. Rasouli H, Farzaei MH, Khodarahmi R. Polyphenols and their benefits:A review. Int J Food Properties 2017;20:1700-41. [CrossRef]

23. Yang CS, Landau JM, Huang MT, Newmark HL. Inhibition of carcinogenesis by dietary polyphenolic compounds. Ann Rev Nutr 2001;21:381-406. [CrossRef]

24. Marinova D, Ribarova F, Atanassova M. Total phenolics and total flavonoids in Bulgarian fruits and vegetables. J Chem Technol Metallurg 2005;40:255-60.

25. Slinkard K, Singleton VL. Total phenol analysis:Automation and comparison with manual methods. Am J Enol Vitic 1977;28:49-55.

26. Zhishen J, Mengcheng T, Jianming W. The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem 1999;64:555-9. [CrossRef]

27. Levan A. The effect of colchicines on root mitoses in Allium. Hereditas 1938;24:471-86. [CrossRef]

28. Grant WF. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium:A report of the U.S. environmental protection agency gene-tox program. Mutat Res 1982;99:273-91. [CrossRef]

29. Buckton KE, Evans HJ. Methods for the Analysis of Human Chromosome Aberrations. Switzerland:World Health Organization;1972. 21-2.

30. Shimamura T, Sumikura Y, Yamazaki T, Tada A, Kashiwagi T, Ishikawa H, et al. Applicability of the DPPH assay for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of food additives inter-laboratory evaluation study. Anal Sci 2014;30:717-21. [CrossRef]

31. Mosmann T. Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival:Application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J Immunol Methods 1982;65:55-63. [CrossRef]

32. Carbonell-Capella JM, Buniowska M, Esteve MJ, Frigola A. Effect of Stevia rebaudiana addition on bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of beverages based on exotic fruits mixed with oat following simulated human digestion. Food Chem 2015;184:122-30. [CrossRef]

33. Velmurugan BK, Rathinasamy B, Lohanathan BP, Thiyagarajan V, Weng CF. Neuroprotective role of phytochemicals. Molecules 2018;23:2485. [CrossRef]

34. Dev UK, Hossain MT, Islam MZ. Phytochemical investigation, antioxidant activity and antihelminthic activity of Mikania micrantha leaves. World J Pharm Res 2015;5:121-33.

35. Lalrinzuali K, Vabeiryureilai M, Jagieta GC. Ethnomedicinal use and phytochemical analysis of selected medicinal plants of Mizoram, India. Trends Green Chem 2015;1:18. [CrossRef]

36. Borkataky M, Kakoty BB, Saikia LR. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of some common weeds of Asteraceae family. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2013;23:116-20.

37. Gadano A, Gurni A, Lopez P, Ferraro GM, Carballo M. In vitro genotoxic evaluation of the medicinal plants Chenopodium ambrosoides L. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;81:11-6. [CrossRef]

38. Fachinetto JM, Bagatini MD, Silva AC, Tedesco SB. Efeito anti-proliferativo das infusões de Achyrocline satureioides DC (Asteraceae) sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa. Rev Bras Farmacogn 2007;17:49-54. [CrossRef]

39. Lubini G, Fachinetto JM, Laughinghouse HD 4th, Paranhos JT, Silva AC, Tedesco SB. Extracts affecting mitotic division in root-tip meristematic cells. Biologia 2008;63:647-51. [CrossRef]

40. Dias MG, Canto-Dorow TS, Coelho AP, Tedesco SB. Efeito genotóxico e antiproliferativo de Mikania cordifolia (L.F.) Willd. (Asteraceae) sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa L. Rev Bras Plant Med 2014;16:202-8. [CrossRef]

41. El-Sadek LM. The effect of TCA and its herbicidal forms on Faba vulgaris root meristems. Egypt J Genet Cytol 1972;1:280-7.

42. Teerarak M, Laosinwattana C, Charoenying P. Evaluation of allelopathic, decomposition and cytogenetic activities of Jasminum officinale L. f. var grandiflorum (L.) Kob. On bioassay plants. Bioresour Technol 2010;101:5677-84. [CrossRef]

43. Chethan J, Sampath KK, Sekhar S, Prakash HS. Antioxidant, antibacterial and DNA protecting activity of selected medicinally important Asteraceae plants. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4:257-61.

44. Dong LM, Jia XC, Luo QW, Zhang Q, Luo B, Liu WB, et al. Phenolics from Mikania micrantha and their antioxidant activity. Molecules 2017;22:1140. [CrossRef]

45. Dou X, Yu Z, Ning S, Yuhe W, Li L. The anti-tumor activity of Mikania micrantha aqueous extract in vitro and in vivo. Cytotechnology 2013;66:107-17. [CrossRef]

46. Rufatto LC, Finimundy TC, Roesch-Ely M, Moura S. Mikania laevigata:Chemical characterization and selective cytotoxic activity of extracts on tumor cell lines. Phytomedicine 2013;20:883-9. [CrossRef]

47. Sekender Ali M, Islam MS, Rahman MM, Islam MR, Sayeed MA, Islam MR. Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of ethanol extract of Mikania cordata (Burm.f.) B.L. Robinson leaves. J Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2015;2:103-7.

48. Nicollier G, Thompson AC. Essential oil and terpenoids of Mikania micrantha. Phytochemistry 1981;20:2587-8. [CrossRef]

49. Saikia S, Tamuli KJ, Narzary B, Banik D, Bordoloi M. Chemical characterization, antimicrobial activity, and cytotoxic activity of Mikania micrantha Kunth fower essential oil from North East India. Chem Papers 2020;74:2515-28. [CrossRef]

50. Sukjamnong S, Santiyanont R. Antioxidant activity of Fimbristylis ovata and its effect on RAGE gene expression in human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line. J Chem Pharm Res 2012;4:2483-9.

51. Kashyap CP, Tikka B, Sharma S, Kumari S, Verma P, Sharma S, Arya V. Human cancer cell lines a brief communication. J Chem Pharm Res 2011;3:514-20.

Reference

1. Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2020. A Cancer J Clin 2020;70:7-30. https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21590

2. Zhang Z, Zhou L, Xie N, Nice EC, Zhang T, Cui Y, et al. Overcoming cancer therapeutic bottleneck by drug repurposing. Signal Transduct Target Ther 2020;5:113. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-00213-8

3. Cordell GA. Sustainable medicines and global health care. Planta Med 2011;77:1129-38. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0030-1270731

4. Moreira DL, Teixeira SS, Monteiro MH, De-Oliveira AC, Paumgartten FJ. Traditional use and safety of herbal medicines. Rev Bras Farmacogn 2014;24:248-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2014.03.006

5. Newman DJ, Cragg GM, Sander KM. Natural products as sources of new drugs over the period 1981-2002. J Nat Prod 2003;66:1022-37. https://doi.org/10.1021/np030096l

6. Qazi MA, Molvi K. Herbal medicine: A comprehensive review. J Pharm Res 2016;8:1-5.

7. Kalea AZ, Reiniger N, Yang H, Arriero M, Schmidt AM, Hudson BI. Alternative splicing of the murine receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) gene. Fed Am Soc Exp Biol 2009;23:1766-74. https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.08-117739

8. Tesarova P, Kalousova M, Jachymova M, Mestek O, Petruzelka L, Zima T. Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)-- soluble form (sRAGE) and gene polymorphisms in patients with breast cancer. Cancer Investig 2007;25:720-5. https://doi.org/10.1080/07357900701560521

9. Zhang S, Hou X, Zi S, Wang Y, Chen L, Kong B. Polymorphisms of receptor for advanced glycation end products and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in Chinese patients. Cell Physiol Biochem 2013;31:525-31. https://doi.org/10.1159/000350073

10. Riehl A, Nemeth J, Angel P, Hess J. The receptor RAGE: Bridging inflammation and cancer. Cell Commun Signal 2009;7:12. https://doi.org/10.1186/1478-811X-7-12

11. Hofmann M, Drury S, Fu C, Qu W, Taguchi A, Lu Y, et al. RAGE mediates a novel proinflammatory axis: A central cell surface receptor for S100/calgranulin polypeptides. Cell 1999;97:889-901. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80801-6

12. Swamy PS, Ramakrishnan PS. Weed potential of Mikania micrantha H.B.K. and its control in fallows after shifting agriculture (Jhum) in North-East India. Agric Ecosyst Environ 1987;18:195-204. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-8809(87)90083-1

13. Facey PC, Pascoe KO, Porter RB, Jones AD. Investigation of plants used in Jamaican folk medicine for anti-bacterial activity. J Pharm Pharmacol 1999;51:1455-60. https://doi.org/10.1211/0022357991777119

14. Borah S, Das AK, Saikia D, Borah J. A note on the use of ethno medicine in treatment of diabetes by Mishing Communities in Assam, India. Ethnobot leaflets. Int J Ethnobot Res 2009;13:1348-52.

15. Lalramghinglova H, Rai PK. Ethnomedicinal plant resources of Mizoram, India: Implication of traditional knowledge in health care system. Ethnobot Leaflets 2010;14:274-305.

16. Bhardwaj S, Gakhar SK. Ethnomedicinal plants used by the tribals of Mizoram to cure cuts and wounds. Indian J Tradit Knowl 2004;4:75-80.

17. Saha SS, Kalyan MS, Rahaman CH. Anato-pharmacogonistic studies of Mikania micrantha Kunth: A promising medicinal climber of the family Asteraceae. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm 2015;6:773-80. https://doi.org/10.7897/2277-4343.066144

18. Krishnaiah D, Devi T, Bono A, Sarbatly R. Studies on phytochemical constituents of six Malaysian medicinal plants. J Med Plants Res 2009;3:67-72.

19. Kim D, Jeond S, Lee C. Antioxidant capacity of phenolic phytochemicals from various cultivars of plums. Food Chem 2003;81:321-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00423-5

20. Nardini M, Natella F, Scaccini C. Role of dietary polyphenols in platelet aggregation. A review of the supplementation studies. Platelets 2007;18:224-43. https://doi.org/10.1080/09537100601078083

21. Ibrahim Rizvi S, Abu Zaid M. Impairment of sodium pump and Na/H exchanger in erythrocytes from non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients: Effect of tea catechins. Int J Clin Chem Diagn Lab Med 2005;354:59-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cccn.2004.11.008

22. Rasouli H, Farzaei MH, Khodarahmi R. Polyphenols and their benefits: A review. Int J Food Properties 2017;20:1700-41. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2017.1354017

23. Yang CS, Landau JM, Huang MT, Newmark HL. Inhibition of carcinogenesis by dietary polyphenolic compounds. Ann Rev Nutr 2001;21:381-406. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nutr.21.1.381

24. Marinova D, Ribarova F, Atanassova M. Total phenolics and total flavonoids in Bulgarian fruits and vegetables. J Chem Technol Metallurg 2005;40:255-60.

25. Slinkard K, Singleton VL. Total phenol analysis: Automation and comparison with manual methods. Am J Enol Vitic 1977;28:49-55.

26. Zhishen J, Mengcheng T, Jianming W. The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem 1999;64:555-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(98)00102-2

27. Levan A. The effect of colchicines on root mitoses in Allium. Hereditas 1938;24:471-86. 28. Grant WF. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium: A report of the U.S. environmental protection agency gene-tox program. Mutat Res 1982;99:273-91. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1601-5223.1938.tb03221.x

29. Buckton KE, Evans HJ. Methods for the Analysis of Human Chromosome Aberrations. Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1972. p. 21-2.

30. Shimamura T, Sumikura Y, Yamazaki T, Tada A, Kashiwagi T, Ishikawa H, et al. Applicability of the DPPH assay for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of food additives inter-laboratory evaluation study. Anal Sci 2014;30:717-21. https://doi.org/10.2116/analsci.30.717

31. Mosmann T. Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: Application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J Immunol Methods 1982;65:55-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1759(83)90303-4

32. Carbonell-Capella JM, Buniowska M, Esteve MJ, Frigola A. Effect of Stevia rebaudiana addition on bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of beverages based on exotic fruits mixed with oat following simulated human digestion. Food Chem 2015;184:122-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.03.095

33. Velmurugan BK, Rathinasamy B, Lohanathan BP, Thiyagarajan V, Weng CF. Neuroprotective role of phytochemicals. Molecules 2018;23:2485. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102485

34. Dev UK, Hossain MT, Islam MZ. Phytochemical investigation, antioxidant activity and antihelminthic activity of Mikania micrantha leaves. World J Pharm Res 2015;5:121-33.

35. Lalrinzuali K, Vabeiryureilai M, Jagieta GC. Ethnomedicinal use and phytochemical analysis of selected medicinal plants of Mizoram, India. Trends Green Chem 2015;1:18. https://doi.org/10.21767/2471-9889.100009

36. Borkataky M, Kakoty BB, Saikia LR. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of some common weeds of Asteraceae family. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2013;23:116-20.

37. Gadano A, Gurni A, Lopez P, Ferraro GM, Carballo M. In vitro genotoxic evaluation of the medicinal plants Chenopodium ambrosoides L. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;81:11-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(01)00418-4

38. Fachinetto JM, Bagatini MD, Silva AC, Tedesco SB. Efeito anti-proliferativo das infusões de Achyrocline satureioides DC (Asteraceae) sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa. Rev Bras Farmacogn 2007;17:49-54. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2007000100011

39. Lubini G, Fachinetto JM, Laughinghouse HD 4th, Paranhos JT, Silva AC, Tedesco SB. Extracts affecting mitotic division in root-tip meristematic cells. Biologia 2008;63:647-51. https://doi.org/10.2478/s11756-008-0108-x

40. Dias MG, Canto-Dorow TS, Coelho AP, Tedesco SB. Efeito genotóxico e antiproliferativo de Mikania cordifolia (L.F.) Willd. (Asteraceae) sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa L. Rev Bras Plant Med 2014;16:202-8. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-05722014000200006

41. El-Sadek LM. The effect of TCA and its herbicidal forms on Faba vulgaris root meristems. Egypt J Genet Cytol 1972;1:280-7.

42. Teerarak M, Laosinwattana C, Charoenying P. Evaluation of allelopathic, decomposition and cytogenetic activities of Jasminum officinale L. f. var grandiflorum (L.) Kob. On bioassay plants. Bioresour Technol 2010;101:5677-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.02.038

43. Chethan J, Sampath KK, Sekhar S, Prakash HS. Antioxidant, antibacterial and DNA protecting activity of selected medicinally important Asteraceae plants. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4:257-61.

44. Dong LM, Jia XC, Luo QW, Zhang Q, Luo B, Liu WB, et al. Phenolics from Mikania micrantha and their antioxidant activity. Molecules 2017;22:1140. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22071140

45. Dou X, Yu Z, Ning S, Yuhe W, Li L. The anti-tumor activity of Mikania micrantha aqueous extract in vitro and in vivo. Cytotechnology 2013;66:107-17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10616-013-9543-9

46. Rufatto LC, Finimundy TC, Roesch-Ely M, Moura S. Mikania laevigata: Chemical characterization and selective cytotoxic activity of extracts on tumor cell lines. Phytomedicine 2013;20:883-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2013.03.016

47. Sekender Ali M, Islam MS, Rahman MM, Islam MR, Sayeed MA, Islam MR. Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of ethanol extract of Mikania cordata (Burm.f.) B.L. Robinson leaves. J Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2015;2:103-7.

48. Nicollier G, Thompson AC. Essential oil and terpenoids of Mikania micrantha. Phytochemistry 1981;20:2587-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(81)83102-0

49. Saikia S, Tamuli KJ, Narzary B, Banik D, Bordoloi M. Chemical characterization, antimicrobial activity, and cytotoxic activity of Mikania micrantha Kunth fower essential oil from North East India. Chem Papers 2020;74:2515-28. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11696-020-01077-6

50. Sukjamnong S, Santiyanont R. Antioxidant activity of Fimbristylis ovata and its effect on RAGE gene expression in human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line. J Chem Pharm Res 2012;4:2483-9.

51. Kashyap CP, Tikka B, Sharma S, Kumari S, Verma P, Sharma S, Arya V. Human cancer cell lines a brief communication. J Chem Pharm Res 2011;3:514-20.

Article Metrics

25 Absract views 61 PDF Downloads 86 Total views

Related Search

By author names

Citiaion Alert By Google Scholar


Similar Articles

Bioactivity assessment of endophytic fungi associated with Centella asiatica and Murraya koengii

Archana Nath, Jyoti Pathak and SR Joshi

Asparagus racemosus extract increases the life span in Drosophila melanogaster

K. V. Kiran Kumar, K. S. Prasanna, J. S. Ashadevi

Comparative three way analysis of biochemical responses in cereal and millet crops under salinity stress

Ritika Bhatt, Prem Prakash Asopa, Santosh Sihag, Rakesh Sharma, Sumita Kachhwaha, S.L. Kothari

Impact of Phyllanthus amarus extract on antioxidant enzymes in Drosophila melanogaster

N. Manasa, J. S. Ashadevi

Alterations in antioxidant defense system in hepatic and renal tissues of rats following aspartame intake

Saeed A. Alwaleedi

Ten different brewing methods of green tea: comparative antioxidant study

Naila Safdar, Amina Sarfaraz, Zehra Kazmi, Azra Yasmin

Medicinal and Functional Values of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) Herb

Eqbal M. A. Dauqan, Aminah Abdullah

Buffalo (Bubalus bubilis) colostrum and milk fat globule membrane fractions are potent antioxidants

N. Brijesha, H. S. Aparna

Effect of extraction solvents on phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of Artocarpus chaplasha and Carissa carandas fruits from Bangladesh

Gouri Dhar, Sonam Akther, Afrin Sultana, Uchen May, Mohammed Moinul Islam, Mowri Dhali, Dwaipayan Sikdar

In Vitro Antidiabetic and Anti-oxidant Activities of Methanol Extract of Tinospora Sinensis

Anindita Banerjee, Bithin Maji, Sandip Mukherjee, Kausik Chaudhuri, Tapan Seal

Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil of Vetiveria nigritana (Benth.) Stapf roots from Burkina Faso

Zenabou Semde, Jean Koudou, Cheikna Zongo, Gilles Figueredo, Marius K. Somda, Leguet Ganou, Alfred S. Traore

Crosstalk of brassinosteroids with other phytohormones under various abiotic stresses

Farhan Ahmad, Ananya Singh, Aisha Kamal

In vitro propagation by axillary shoot proliferation, assessment of antioxidant activity, and genetic fidelity of micropropagated Paederia foetida L.

Biswaranjan Behera, Priyajeet Sinha, Sushanto Gouda, Sakti K. Rath, Durga P. Barik, Padan K. Jena, Pratap C. Panda, Soumendra K. Naik

Effect of growth hormones in induction of callus, antioxidants, and antibacterial activity in Nerium odorum

Avinash Prakasha, S Umesha

Aroclor 1254 induced oxidative stress and histopathological changes in mice liver

Jalpa Raja, Shweta Pathak, Rahul Kundu

A study of endophytic fungi Neofusicoccum ribis from Gandaria (Bouea macrophylla Griffith) as enzyme inhibitor, antibacterial, and antioxidant

Trisanti Anindyawati, Praptiwi

Determination of phytochemical, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and protein binding qualities of hydroethanolic extract of Celastrus paniculatus

Vijay Kumar¥, Simranjeet Singh¥, Arjun Singh¥, Amit Kumar Dixit¥, Bhavana Shrivastava, Sapna Avinash Kondalkar, Joginder Singh, Ravindra Singh, Gurpreet Kaur Sidhu, Rajesh Partap Singh, Varanasi Subhose, Om Prakash

Effect of Trema guineensis leaves (celtidaceae) on glucose-induced hypertension in Wistar rats

Balakiyém Kadissoli, P A Mouzou, T Pakoussi, K Eklu-Gadegbeku, A K Aklikokou, M Gbeassor

Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Aidia borneensis leaf extracts

Zulhamizan Awang-Jamil, Aida Maryam Basri, Norhayati Ahmad, Hussein Taha

Comparative chemical and biological investigations of three Saudi Astragalus species

Mohamed A. Ashour

Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant potential of Ocimum gratissimum Linn (Lamiaceae) commonly consumed in the Republic of Benin

Hinnoutondji Wilfrid Kpètèhoto, Abdou Madjid Olatoundé Amoussa, Roch Christian Johnson, Eustache Enock Meinsan Houéto , Franck Maurille Zinsou Mignanwandé, Hounnankpon Yédomonhan, Frédéric Loko, Honoré Bankolé, Latifou Lagnika

Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quel. (Pleurotaceae): In vitro antioxidant evaluation and the isolation of a steroidal isoprenoid

Blessing Onyinye Okonkwo, Ozadheoghene Eriarie Afieroho, Emeka Daniel Ahanonu, Lambert Okwubie, Kio Anthony Abo

Study of the changes in the growth, protein, and bioactive profile of Chlorella emersonii KJ725233 in response to sodium and ammonium nitrate

Sneha Sunil Sawant, Varsha Kelkar-Mane

Determination of phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of Launaea resedifolia from Algerian Sahara

Amina Bouguerra, Mohamed Hadjadj, Mesaouda Dekmouche, Zhour Rahmani, Houssine Dendougui

Investigation of morphological, phytochemical, and enzymatic characteristics of Anethum graveolens L. using selenium in combination with humic acid and fulvic acid

Parviz Samavatipour, Vahid Abdossi, Reza Salehi, Saeed Samavat,Alireza Ladan Moghadam

A study on the salinity stress effects on the biochemical traits of seedlings and its relationship with resistance toward sensitive and tolerant flax genotypes

Yousef Alaei, Seyed Kamal Kazemitabar, Mohammad Zaefi Zadeh, Hamid Najafi Zarini, Gaffar Kiani

Nyctanthes arbor-tristis: Comprehensive review on its pharmacological, antioxidant, and anticancer activities

Smita Parekh, Anjali Soni

Anti-quorum sensing, antibacterial, antioxidant activities, and phytoconstituents analysis of medicinal plants used in Benin: Acacia macrostachya (Rchb. ex DC.)

Mounirou Tchatchedre, Abdou Madjid O. Amoussa, Ménonvè Atindehou, Aminata P. Nacoulma, Ambaliou Sanni, Martin kiendrebeogo, Latifou Lagnika

Studies on the mechanism of desiccation tolerance in the resurrection fern Adiantum raddianum

Tumkur Govindaraju Banupriya, Chandraiah Ramyashree, Devaraja Akash, Neeragunda Shivaraj Yathish, Ramasandra Govindarao Sharthchandra

Antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effects of aqueous seed extract of Daucus carota L. in triton ×100-induced hyperlipidemic mice

Habibu Tijjani, Abubakar Mohammed, Sani Muktar, Saminu Musa, Yusuf Abubakar, Adegbenro Peter Adegunloye, Ahmed Adebayo Ishola, Enoch Banbilbwa Joel, Carrol Domkat Luka, Adamu Jibril Alhassan

Role of glutathione reductase and catalase enzyme in antioxidant defense mechanism in controlling fluoride-induced oxidative stress

Komal Sharma, Mamta Choudhary, Khushbu Verma

Biological activities and phytochemicals of Hyptis capitata grown in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

Irawan Wijaya Kusuma, Rahmini, Enos Tangke Arung, Arif Yudo Pramono, Erwin, Supomo

Mycelial biomass, antioxidant, and myco-actives of mycelia of abalone mushroom Pleurotus cystidiosus in liquid culture

Kent Garcia, Chester Jhae Garcia, Reynante Bustillos, Rich Milton Dulay

Salt stress, its impacts on plants and the strategies plants are employing against it: A review

Zeenat Mushtaq, Shahla Faizan, Basit Gulzar

Impact of oxidizing, reducing, and stabilizing agents on the inhibitory properties of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba trypsin inhibitor

Preeti Patidar, Mahima Golani, Sumati Hajela, Krishnan Hajela

Identification of highest L-Methioninase enzyme producers among soil microbial isolates, with potential antioxidant and anticancer properties

D. Kavya, Varalakshmi Kilingar Nadumane

Astaxanthin: An algae-based natural compound with a potential role in human health-promoting effect: An updated comprehensive review

Jinu Medhi, Mohan Chandra Kalita

Linalool protects hippocampal CA1 neurons and improves functional outcomes following experimental ischemia/reperfusion in rats

Vishal Airao, Prakruti Buch, Tejas Sharma, Devendra Vaishnav, Sachin Parmar

Modification of the time of incubation in colorimetric method for accurate determination of the total antioxidants capacity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl stable free radical

Abhipsa Bal, Samar Gourav Pati, Falguni Panda, Biswaranjan Paital

HR-LC-MS based profiling of phytochemicals from methanol extracts of leaves and bark of Myristica dactyloides Gaertn. from Western Ghats of Karnataka, India

Kuppuru Mallikarjunaiah Marulasiddaswamy, Bettadapura Rameshgowda Nuthan,, Channarayapatna-Ramesh Sunilkumar, Shrisha Naik Bajpe,, Kigga Kaadappa Sampath Kumara, Shailasree Sekhar, Kukkundoor Ramachandra Kini

Preclinical evaluation of anticataract activity of Mentha spicata leaves on isolated goat lens by an in vitro model

Shreya Mohandas, Saahiba Thaleshwari, Myrene Roselyn Dsouza

Green synthesis, characterizations, and in vitro biological evaluation of Cu (II) complexes of quercetin with N ^ N ligands

Tanu Srivastava, Sunil Kumar Mishra, Om Prakash Tiwari

Optimization of extraction conditions of phytochemical compounds in “Xiem” banana peel powder using response surface methodology

Ngo Van Tai, Mai Nhat Linh, Nguyen Minh Thuy

Antioxidative, antiproliferative, and apoptosis effect of Coleus tuberosus flesh and peel ethanol extracts on cervical cancer cell lines

Mutiara Nugraheni, Windarwati Windarwati, Badraningsih Lastariwati

Comparative study of hydroalcoholic extracts of Bryophyllum pinnatum and Macrotyloma uniflorum for their antioxidant, antiurolithiatic, and wound healing potential

Chetna Faujdar, Priyadarshini

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of Precocene II, estimation of enzymatic, nonenzymatic antioxidant, and cytotoxic potentials of methyl jasmonate-elicited shoot culture of Ageratum conyzoides Linn.

Selvaraj Vasantharani, Ramaraj Thirugnanasampandan, Gunasekaran Bhuvaneswari

A review on fish peptides isolated from fish waste with their potent bioactivities

Ayusman Behera, Rajashree Das, Pranati Patnaik, Jyotirmaya Mohanty, Gargee Mohanty

Quantification of phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant activities from various parts of Euphorbia neriifolia Linn.

Priya Chaudhary, Pracheta Janmeda

Influence of soaking and germination treatments on the nutritional, anti-nutritional, and bioactive composition of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.)

Qurat Ul Eain Hyder Rizvi, Krishan Kumar, Naseer Ahmed, Ajar Nath Yadav, Divya Chauhan, Priyanka Thakur, Sumaira Jan, Imran Sheikh

Impact of diverse processing treatments on nutritional and anti-nutritional characteristics of soybean (Glycine max L.)

Priyanka Thakur, Krishan Kumar, Naseer Ahmed, Ajar Nath Yadav, Sunil Kumar, Qurat Ul Eain Hyder Rizvi, Divya Chauhan, Sumaira Jan

Cathelicidin-HR from Hoplobatrachus rugulosus: an antioxidant peptide that performs a protective effect against UV/H2O2 -induced DNA damage

Piyachat Wiriyaampaiwong, Chutima Karnmongkol, Arpaporn Punpad, Nattapong Srisamoot, Wutti Rattanavichai, Alongkod Tanomtong, Sakda Daduang,, Sompong Klaynongsruang,, Anupong Tankrathok,

Woodfordia fruticosa (Linn.) Kurz’s fungal endophyte Mucor souzae’s secondary metabolites, kaempferol and quercetin, bestow biological activities

Kavyashree Doreswamy, Priyanka Shenoy, Sneha Bhaskar, Ramachandra K. Kini, Shailasree Sekhar

Characterization of the crude extract of Portulaca oleracea and the determination of the polyphenol oxidase kinetics in the presence of Cu and Zn

Omar Mohammad Atrooz, Shada Zaher Al-Maitah

Effect of diverse fermentation treatments on nutritional composition, bioactive components, and anti-nutritional factors of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.)

Sumaira Jan, Krishan Kumar, Ajar Nath Yadav, Naseer Ahmed, Priyanka Thakur, Divya Chauhan, Qurat-Ul-Eain Hyder Rizvi, Harcharan Singh Dhaliwal

Optimization of active antioxidative defatted Canarium indicum L. (Canary) protein hydrolysate production

Cintya Nurul Apsari,, Ilma Nugrahani, Sukrasno, Tutus Gusdinar

Elemental, nutritional, and phytochemical profiling and antioxidant activity of Cordia obliqua Willd. (Clammy Cherry): An important underutilized forest tree of East India

Mamta Naik#,, Shashikanta Behera#,,, Sadhni Induar, Swaraj K. Babu, Pradeep K. Naik

Effects of enzymatic hydrolysis on the antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysate derived from the larvae of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.)

Muhammad Yusuf Abduh,, Diah Ayu Prawitasari,, Ula Aulia Fitrian,, Mochamad Firmansyah,

Evaluation of functional characteristics of roselle seed and its use as a partial replacement of wheat flour in soft bread making

Nguyen Minh Thuy, Nguyen Bao Tram, Dinh Gia Cuong, Huynh Khanh Duy, Ly Thanh An, Vo Quoc Tien, Tran Ngoc Giau, Ngo Van Tai

Total phenolic, flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activity of three selected Portulaca grandiflora mutants in MV8 generation as a result of recurrent irradiation technique

Waras Nurcholis,, Syarifah Iis Aisyah, Regina Agritena Mayrischa Saraswati, Yoshua Shandy Yudha

Nanocomposites based on bacterial cellulose in combination with osteogenic growth peptide for bone repair: cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic evaluations

Raquel Mantuaneli Scarel-Caminagaa, Sybele Saskab, Leonardo Pereira Franchic, Raquel A. Santose, Ana Maria Minarelli Gaspara, Ticiana S.O. Capotea, Sidney José Lima Ribeirob, Younés Messaddeqb, Reinaldo Marchetto b, Catarina S. Takahashic d

In-vitro Assessment of Carbendazim and Copper oxychloride cytotoxicity on HaCaT and HepG2 human cell lines

Diksha Sateesh Bakre, Basappa Basawanneppa Kaliwal

Therapeutic potential of harmaline, a novel alkaloid, against cervical cancer cells in vitro: Apoptotic induction and DNA interaction study

Paromita Bhattacharjee, Sarita Sarkar, Tapas Ghosh, Kakali Bhadra

Cytotoxicity and antiproliferative effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Padina australis against MCM-B2 and K562 cell lines.

Heder Djamaludin, Maria Bintang, Bambang Pontjo Priosoeryanto

Antiproliferative activities of Althaea ludwigii L. extract on Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 breast cancer cell line

Zinah Essam Hameed Alshaya, Enas Jawad Kadhim, Hayder B. Sahib

Assessing cytotoxicity and antiproliferation effects of Sida rhombifolia against MCA-B1 and A549 cancer cells

Lisnawati Tumanggor, Maria Bintang, Bambang Pontjo Priosoeryanto

Assessment of sublethal toxicity using proliferation markers in fish cell line-ICG exposed to agrochemicals

Ankita Salunke, Parth Pandya, Ankur Upadhyay, Pragna Parikh

Anti-proliferative activities of solasodine extracts from different Solanum spp. cell cultures on colon and bone carcinoma cell lines

Vijaykumar Deshmukh,, Sangeeta Ballav, Soumya Basu, Sanjay Mishra,, Jyoti Deshpande, Minal Wani

Degradation and detoxification of monocrotophos using bacterial consortium

Priyanka Harenkumar Jokhakar, Pravin R Dudhagara

Cytological Effects of Herbicide Butachlor 50 EC on Somatic cells of Triticum aestivum L.

N. K. Hemanth Kumar, Shobha Jagannath