Research Article | Volume: 8, Issue: 2, March-April, 2020

Biological activities and phytochemicals of Hyptis capitata grown in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

Irawan Wijaya Kusuma Rahmini Enos Tangke Arung Arif Yudo Pramono Erwin Supomo   

Open Access   

Published:  Mar 26, 2020

DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2020.80210
Abstract

Hyptis capitata is a plant in the family of Lamiaceae used to prevent wound infection and as an antidote for food poisoning by the Bentian people, a local tribe in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Of the plants in the Lamiaceae family, the biological activities and phytochemical studies of H. capitata are less reported. This work aims to investigate the phytochemicals and biological activities of H. capitata grown at two locations in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Leaves of H. capitata collected from location 1, Samarinda (coded by HSM), and location 2, West Kutai areas (coded by HWK), were macerated using ethanol. The biological activities of the plant were evaluated in terms of antimicrobial and antioxidant activity, and cytotoxicity against Artemia salina, while phytochemicals were analyzed by qualitative and quantitative tests. The results showed that leaf extract of H. capitata contains alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, carbohydrates, and coumarins. HSM possessed higher phenolic and flavonoid content than that of HWK. HWK displayed more antimicrobial activity against the test microorganisms particularly P. acnes (29%), S. sobrinus (49%), S. aureus (51%), and E. coli (45%). HSM showed more radical scavenging activity in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (IC50 13.69 μg/ml) and superoxide (IC50 65.11 μg/ml) tests. Brine shrimp lethality test showed no toxicity of H. capitata leaf extracts. The results displayed that H. capitata collected from the two locations showed good antibacterial and antioxidant activities. The results suggested that the biological activities and phytochemicals of H. capitata were affected by the environment where the plant was collected. A study into deep analysis of the effect of light intensity, temperature, soil nutrition, and predatory risks to the biological activity and phytochemicals of the plant is required.


Keyword:     Antimicrobial activity antioxidant Hyptis capitata invasive plant medicinal plant secondary metabolite.


Citation:

Kusuma IW, Rahmini Rahmini R, Arung ET, Pramono AY, Erwin E, Supomo S. Biological activities and phytochemicals of Hyptis capitata grown in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. J Appl Biol Biotech, 8(02):58-64. DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2020.80210

Copyright: Author(s). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license.

HTML Full Text

1. INTRODUCTION

A medicinal plant is described as any plant with substances having therapeutic benefits in its organ and may contain precursors for the production of synthetic drugs [1]. It is reported that about 80% of world medicinal plants exist in the forests of Indonesia. More than 28,000 plant species have been discovered in Indonesia. Of these, 7,000 species are classified as medicinal plants [2].

Lamiaceae consists of more than 400 species widely distributed in tropical and subtropical locations, including Hyptis genus. Several species in the genus of Hyptis were found to have potential biological activities such as anti-influenza and constipation, trypanocide, cytotoxic, and anti-candida activities, stomach and intestinal disorders, and as bactericidal, and to relieve fever [35]. Of the Hyptis species, H. capitata was less investigated. The plant has spread widely as a weed and is reported to be invasive in many areas. In our previous report, H. capitata root was proved to have potential antioxidant and antimicrobial activities [6]. This plant is traditionally used by local people in Kalimantan to treat various illnesses. The Bentian people in East Kalimantan use the leaves to prevent infection of external wounds and the roots as an antidote for food poisoning. On the other side of the world, the Guyanese use the leaf extract as a sedative and calmative and to reduce heartbeat, whereas an infusion of leaves is used to treat black diarrhea [7].

In the frame to optimize utilization of plants as raw material for herbal products, extract standardization is a key point. An important aspect related to the plant extract is the environmental effect on the growth of the plant and its extract. However, research on the effect of environmental factors on secondary metabolites, including from H. Capitata, is limited.

The composition of secondary metabolites among plants may differ on the basis of the difference of growing location and environmental factors such as sunlight, temperature, rainfall, and humidity as well as the amount of soil nutrients [8,9]. In line with this condition, Bertolucci et al. [10] reported that environment with different intensity of shade caused the difference of phytochemical composition of Mikania laevigata and M. glomerata. Furthermore, certain conditions such as drought stress may stimulate the difference in polyphenols and volatile metabolites of grapevine [11]. The substantial difference in total phenolic, total flavonoid and total saponin contents and antioxidant activity of Strobilanthes crispus, a medicinal plant in South East Asia collected from three different locations in Malaysia, has been reported [12]. Furthermore, Nigella sativa seed extracts displayed variability in cytotoxicity in relation to the different geographical locations where the samples were taken [13]. The chemical composition of herbal medicines needs to be confirmed in order to assess the extract quality in relation to safety concerns. However, the plant contains complex mixtures of secondary metabolites that also play a significant role in plant efficacy [14]. Therefore, as a promising medicinal plant, it is important to analyze the chemical contents and biological activities of the leaves of Hyptis capitata and its potential source of bioactive compounds.

The objective of the present work is to analyze the phytochemicals and evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the leaf extracts of H. capitata collected from two locations in East Kalimantan, namely, Samarinda (location 1, the plant was coded by HSM), and West Kutai (location 2, the plant was coded by HWK).


2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1. Plant Material

Plant materials of H. capitata were selected on the basis of our previous investigation. The materials were collected from Samarinda and West Kutai areas in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, representing typically different environments, in May 2018. The samples were identified and authenticated by a taxonomy at the Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Wildlife Biodiversity, Faculty of Forestry, Mulawarman University. The voucher specimen was kept at the Laboratory of Forest Products Chemistry (KK-1805-HC003 and KK-1805-HC004).

2.2. General

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis was done on a silica gel coated aluminum sheet (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany); 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was purchased from Tokyo Kasei Kogyo (Tokyo, Japan). Dimethyl sulfoxide, Folin–Ciocalteu reagent, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, acetic anhydride, potassium iodide, and peptone were purchased from Merck (Darmstadt, Germany). β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT), ascorbic acid, 1-naphtol, bismuth (III) nitrate, gallic acid, and catechin were purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO). The nutrient broth was obtained from Difco (Detroit, MI). Other chemicals were obtained in the highest purity commercially available.

Table 1: Phytochemical analysis of H. capitata.

[Click here to view]

2.3. Preparation of Extracts

The dried parts of the leaves were pulverized through an electric blender. Every 100 g of plant extract was treated with methanol at room temperature followed by mechanical shaking (7400 Tübingen; Edmun Buchler, Germany) for 48 hours which was repeated twice. Filtration of the sample was done by using a filter paper. The extract solution was subjected to a rotary evaporator at 40°C and under reduced pressure to yield gummy extract. Upon drying of the extract using a vacuum oven, the yield percentage of the dry extract was calculated as shown in Table 1.

2.4. Microbial Strains

Gram +ve (Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus sobrinus) and Gram –ve (Escherichia coli) bacterial strains and yeast-like fungi (Candida albicans) were used in antimicrobial assays. Microbial cultures were obtained from the collection of our laboratory. The bacterial strains were cultured in nutrient agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. The fungal strain was cultured in sabouraud dextrose agar and incubated at 26°C for 48 hours prior to antimicrobial assays.

2.5. Phytochemicals Analysis

Phytochemical analysis was carried out qualitatively and quantitatively to analyze the occurrences of phenolic, alkaloid, flavonoid, steroid, terpenoid, tannin, saponin, and carbohydrate contents in a standard manner.

2.6. Alkaloid Test

Five milligrams of plant extract was added by 2 ml of hydrochloric acid and followed by 1 ml of Dragendorff solution. The color change of the solution from orange to red indicates the presence of alkaloids [15].

2.7. Flavonoid Test

The alkaline method was used to evaluate the presence of flavonoids. One milligram of plant sample was soaked in 5 ml of hot water for 5 minutes. A few drops of 20% sodium hydroxide solution were added to the filtrate and the existence of flavonoid was recorded upon the appearance of yellow color in the mixture [15].

2.8. Steroid

One milliliter of plant extract along with 5 ml chloroform was mixed with 6 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid. The formation of a red-colored upper layer and yellow-to-green sulfuric acid layer indicates the steroid content [16].

2.9. Terpenoid

One milliliter of plant extract was mixed with 0.5 ml of chloroform followed by 1.5 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid. The reddish-brown color between the two layers indicates the occurrence of terpenoid [16].

2.10. Tannin

Ten milliliters of plant extract was added into 1% lead acetate solution. The appearance of a yellow deposit on the bottom of the tube indicates the presence of tannin [17]

2.11. Saponin

The presence of saponin was evaluated by the frothing test: 1 mg plant sample was soaked in hot water for 10 minutes, 2 ml of the extract solution was diluted with 10 ml of water in a test tube, and the mixture was shaken for 2 minutes. If the sample contained saponin, then it would produce froth [18].

2.12. Carbohydrate

In 1 ml of plant extract, few drops of Molisch’s reagent were added and followed by 1 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid at the side of the tubes. The mixture solution was kept to stand for 3 minutes. The presence of carbohydrates was indicated by the formation of a violet ring between two layers [16].

2.13. Total Phenolic Content (TPC)

The TPC of H. capitata extract was analyzed by means of the Folin–Ciocalteu method measured on a spectrophotometer [18,19]. The calibration curve was set on the basis of the mixture of the gallic acid solution with Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and sodium carbonate (4 ml, mg/ml). The mixture solution was left for 60 minutes. The absorbances of the sample were measured at 765 nm on a UV-VIS spectrophotometer (Shimadzu UV-VIS 1240, Shimadzu Corp., Kyoto, Japan). The TPC of the extract in terms of gallic acid equivalents (GAEs) mg/g of the dry extract was calculated.

2.14. Total Flavonoid Content (TFC)

TFC was measured by a colorimetry method with reference to a previous report [20]. A mixture of 100 μl extract and catechin standard solution was added with 100 μl of 5% (w/v) sodium nitrite solution in a test tube. The mixture solution was added with 100 μl of 10% aluminum chloride solution. The total volume was made up to 1 ml using distilled water. TFCs were calculated as mg of catechin equivalents per gram of extracts (mg CE/g). The experiments were done in triplicate.

2.15. Antimicrobial Activity Assay

The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was carried out by agar well diffusion method using nutrient agar or sabouraud dextrose agar [21] with slight modification. Sterilized media solution (20 ml) was poured into Petri dishes and left until molten. Twenty milliliters of microbial suspension was spread on the surface of the plates. Twenty microliters of an acetone solution containing 31.25–500 μg extracts were dropped in 7 mm well made with sterile cork borer on the media. Standard antibiotic, chloramphenicol at the concentration of 10 μg/20 μl was applied positive control. The culture plates were incubated under the absence of light at 37°C for 24 hours. The clear zone around the well was measured in mm and defined as the growth inhibitory activity of the extract. Relative growth inhibition was determined as the mean inhibition zone for the test sample divided by the mean inhibition zone for the chloramphenicol.

2.16. DPPH Radical Scavenging Test

Antioxidant activity was measured in the mechanism of radical scavenging activity against DPPH with reference to the method described by Shimizu et al. [22]. The sample was first dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide and used at 30 times dilution for the actual experiment. Sample absorbance was measured on a Shimadzu UV-VIS 1240 spectrophotometer. Thirty-three microliters of extract and control at different concentrations were added to 0.5 ml of freshly prepared DPPH solution in ethanol. The mixture solution was made up of ethanol to a final volume of 1 ml. The reaction mixture was left for 20 minutes in a dark environment and absorbance was measured at 517 nm using the UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The test was run in triplicate with ascorbic acid as a positive control. The percentage of inhibition of DPPH was calculated using the following equation.

%Inhibition of DPPH activity=Control absorbancetest absorbanceControl absorbance×100

The antioxidant activity of the extract was expressed as IC50, a concentration (μg/ml) of extract that inhibits the formulation of DPPH radicals by 50%.

2.17. Superoxide Radical Scavenging Activity Assay

Superoxide radical scavenging activity assay was performed by the mechanism of the reduction of NBT as reported by Babu et al. [23]. One ml of NBT solution (1 M NADH in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.4) and 0.1 ml of H. capitata leaf extracts and control, ascorbic acid (50 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.4) were mixed. The reaction was started by the addition of 100 μl of phenazine methosulfate (PMS) solution (60 μM PMS in 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.4) in the mixture. The abilities to scavenge the superoxide radicals were calculated by using the following formula:

%scavenging=[(A0A1)A0]×100

where A0 is the absorbance of the control and A1 is the absorbance of the sample extract/standard.

2.18. Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay

Brine shrimp lethality test was applied to evaluate the acute toxicity of the plant extracts with slight modification as previously reported [24]. The eggs of Artemia salina were hatched in a flask containing seawater for 48 hours. Extract samples in a serial concentration of 1,000, 500, 250, 125, 62.5, and 31.25 μg/ml were incubated with brine shrimps in seawater in triplicates. The number of survivors was counted and used to determine the toxicity of the samples. The experiment was performed in triplicate. Lethal concentration 50 (LC50) values were determined by probit analysis on a Finney computer program.


3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In the continuation of our search into the scientific basis of H. capitata utilization, the present study is limited to the analysis of the phytochemicals and biological activities of H. capitata leaf extracts collected from two different locations in East Kalimantan, Indonesia.

3.1. Phytochemical Analysis

Phytochemical screening of H. capitata extract collected from two locations in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, was conducted using various chemical assays to identify either the presence or absence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, tannins, carotenoids, steroids, carbohydrates, and coumarins. Table 1 showed secondary metabolites present in all extracts assayed. Alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, carbohydrates, and coumarins were found in all samples. The samples did not reveal any terpenoids, carotenoids, and steroids. Qualitatively, phytochemicals analysis of H. capitata leaf extracts showed no difference between growing locations. Phytochemicals are plant chemicals without nutritive function and can be found in various parts of plants such as leaves, fruit, root, flower, and barks. Most phytochemicals have protective or disease preventive properties [25]. The occurrence of phytochemicals can be a marker to identify a plant species or genus and to differentiate plants growing at different locations.

3.2. Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents

The phenolic content found in the extracts was determined by the linear regression equation using gallic acid (for TPC) or catechin (for TFC) as standard. The analysis of total phenolic and TFCs was displayed in Table 2. Phenolic compounds are secondary metabolites that occur abundantly in plants. The phenolic and flavonoid compounds were reported to play important roles in the antioxidant activity of plants. TPC and TFCs of H. capitata were measured. The results obtained in this study showed that H. capitata collected from location 1 (Samarinda area) possessed a higher TPC. Furthermore, the content of flavonoids as one class of secondary plant metabolites mostly used in plants to produce yellow and other pigments was determined by the aluminum chloride colorimetry method. The result displayed that H. capitata collected from location 1 (Samarinda area) had higher flavonoid content than the one collected from location 2 (West Kutai).

Table 2: TPC in leaf extracts of H. capitata from two locations.

[Click here to view]

The environmental condition such as light intensity, temperature, soil nutrition, and predator risk may affect the production of secondary metabolites, including the mechanism of phenolic and flavonoid biosynthesis. Based on the results of this study, the differences between the sampled locations in total phenolic and total flavonoid compounds could be related to environmental conditions. Phenolics and flavonoids play a significant role in the bioactivity of plants. In the scavenging mechanism against free radicals, phenolic and flavonoids are two classes of chemicals belonging to highly active scavengers. Flavonoids have been reported to play significant roles in the antioxidant activity of the plants. Furthermore, phenolics increase plant tolerance to oxidative stress [26,27].

Figure 1: Thin-layer chromatogram of H. capitata collected from location 1 (HSM, left spot) and location 2 (HWK, right spot) (a = solvent system 1, n-hexane:ethyl acetate:ethanol 7:3:0.1; b = solvent system 2, dichloromethane:ethyl acetate 9:1).

[Click here to view]

3.3. Thin-Layer Chromatography Analysis

The profile of chemicals in H. capitata extracts obtained from the plant grown in two different locations was analyzed by normal phase thin-layer chromatography. The chromatograms of the plant extracts are presented in Figure 1. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) chromatogram developed by two solvent systems of H. capitata leaf extracts displayed the difference of H. capitata collected from location 1 (HSM, left spot) and location 2 (HWK, right spot). H. capitata collected from location 2 (West Kutai) showed more compounds, particularly the red spot (Rf 0.68 at solvent system 1 and 0.56 at solvent system 2). Thin-layer chromatography is a fast, reliable, cheap, and powerful tool used for an initial analysis of the phytochemical profile. This method allows the differentiation of chemical composition as displayed on the silica gel plate under UV illumination. Our analysis showed that there was a clear difference between the phytochemicals of H. capitata grown in Samarinda (HSM) and that grown at West Kutai (HWK). This condition may affect the biological activities of H. capitata as evaluated in the present study.

3.4. Antimicrobial Activity

The leaf extracts of H. capitata collected from two growing locations were assayed their antimicrobial activity against five human pathogen microbial strains, Propionibacterium acnes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Candida albicans. The results were recorded in Table 3. Hyptis capitata from West Kutai (HWK) was the most effective against all the tested microorganisms at concentration 500 μg/ml while H. capitata from Samarinda (HSM) was effective only against S. aureus and S. sobrinus. Both extracts had no ability to inhibit C. albicans. The antimicrobial activity of H. capitata extracts was considerably affected by the collecting location.

3.5. Antioxidant Activity

The leaf extracts of H. capitata collected from Samarinda area (HSM) and West Kutai area (HWK) were subjected to antioxidant assays by means of DPPH and superoxide radical scavenging activity. Antioxidant activity of H. capitata extracts was represented by IC50 values to scavenge DPPH and superoxide radicals. As depicted in Table 4, growing location caused a significant difference in DPPH and superoxide free radical scavenging activity of H. capitata. HSM demonstrated the highest scavenging activity (lowest IC50; 13.69 μg/ml). However, the radical scavenging activity of both H. capitata extracts was lower than that of positive standards (ascorbic acid). Lower IC50 values represent stronger free radical scavenging activity, as strong free-radical scavengers are active at low concentrations. Previous reports explained that the antioxidant activity of plants is considerably associated with their phytochemical contents, especially that of flavonoids and phenolic acids [28,29]. In this study, the highest antioxidant activity, as well as the highest content of phenolics, flavonoids, and phenolic acids, was observed in H. capitata from location 1 (Samarinda area) as presented in Table 5. This could also be related to the variation in climatic conditions, soil nutrients, and water quality (hydrogen potential and electrical conductivity) of two growing locations, subsequently influencing the production of phytochemicals and the antioxidant activities.

Table 3: Antimicrobial activity (percent of inhibition) of H. capitata.

[Click here to view]

Table 4: IC50 of H. capitata for DPPH and superoxide scavenging activity assays.

[Click here to view]

3.6. Brine Shrimp Lethality Test

Safety information of plant extract as a medicinal plant is essential for the development of further products. As a quick reference and suitable tools, brine shrimp lethality assay was conducted to assess the cytotoxicity. The result of the cytotoxicity assay of H. capitata extract is presented in Table 5. The results of the cytotoxicity assay of H. capitata at different concentrations showed no toxicity of the plant extracts. According to Meyer et al. [30], the plant extract is classified as toxic when the LC50 values are less than 1,000 μg/ml. Concerning the concentration tested without any mortality to the brine shrimp, this study showed the safe level for the use of Hyptis capitata as a herbal remedy.

Table 5: Brine shrimp lethality bioassay of H. capitata extracts.

[Click here to view]

Secondary metabolites play important roles in plants, especially as a natural defense of plants against the predator. It has been reported that the production of secondary metabolites is closely related to environmental conditions since the plants have a unique adaptation to environmental change. Many of the special metabolites are directly involved in the mechanisms that allow the adaptation of plants to their habitat [31]. Biological activities of plants may also be affected by many environmental factors that have been proved to cause the difference in special metabolites production [32].

In the present research, H. capitata plants collected from two growing regions displayed different compositions of phytochemicals, in terms of phenolic and flavonoid contents. Activities of the leaf extract as antioxidant and antibacterial substances were also different. Sample 1 of H. capitata (HSM) was collected from the outskirt of Samarinda city, with typical humid and under shaded environments. Sample 2 of H. capitata was collected from a dry and relatively open area. In line with our results, biosynthesis of flavonoid and phenolic compounds were reported to be different under different growing locations, possibly caused by weather, temperature, latitude, soil nutrition, and sunlight [33].

The present study displayed the difference of chemical composition and biological activities of H. capitata from two different locations, meaning that the uses of H. capitata as herbal raw materials should consider the effect of growing location to obtain standardized plant extracts.


4. CONCLUSION

This study emphasized that the extracts of H. capitata collected from two different sampling locations had various differences in terms of phytochemicals and biological activities. The present results suggested that the environmental factors may play important roles in the characterization of phytochemicals and the biological activities of H. capitata.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This work was funded by the Indonesian Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education under the Competitive-Based Research Grant (Grant number: 119/UN17.41/KL/2018). The authors thank Mr. Murdiyanto (West Kutai) for providing plant materials. The authors express their thanks to the Lab Head of Forest Products Chemistry, Mulawarman University, and the members for technical support.


CONFLICT OF INTEREST

There is no conflicts of interest reported by each author.


REFERENCES

1. Sofowora A, Ogunbodede E, Onayade A. The role and place of medicinal plants in the strategies for disease prevention. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2013;10:210–29. CrossRef

2. Pramono E. The traditional use of traditional knowledge and medicinal plants in Indonesia. Multi-stakeholder dialoque on trade, intellectual property and biological resources in Asia. BRAC Centre for Development Management, Rajendrapur, Bangladesh, 2002.

3. Agra MF, Silva KN, Basílio IJLD, Freitas PF, Barbosa-Filho JM. Survey of medicinal plants used in the region Northeast of Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 2008;18:472–508. CrossRef

4. Coutinho HDM, Costa JGM, Siqueira-Júnior JP, Lima EO. In vitro anti-staphylococcal activity of Hyptis martiusii Benth against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-MRSA strains. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 2008;18:670–5. CrossRef

5. Santos KKA, Matias EFF, Sobral-Souza CE, Tintino SR, Morais-Braga MFB, Guedes GMM, et al. Trypanocide, cytotoxic, and anti-Candida activities of natural products: Hyptis martiusii Benth. Eur J Integrative Med 2013;5:427–31. CrossRef

6. Kusuma IW, Arung ET, Kim YU. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of medicinal plants used by the Bentian tribe from Indonesia. Food Sci Hum Well 2014;3:191–6. CrossRef

7. Defillips RA, Maina SI, Crepin J. Medicinal plants of Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2004.

8. Sampaio BL, Edrada-Ebel RA, Da Costa FB. Effect of the environment on the secondary metabolic profile of Tithonia diversifolia: a model for environmental metabolomics of plants. Sci Rep 2016;6:1–11. CrossRef

9. Yang L, Zheng ZS, Cheng F, Ruan X, Jiang DA, Pan CD, et al. Seasonal dynamics of metabolites in needles of Taxus wallichiana var. mairei. Molecules 2016;21:E1403. CrossRef

10. Bertolucci SKV, Pereira ABD, Pinto JEB, Oliveira AB, Braga FC. Seasonal variation on the contents of coumarin and kaurane-type diterpenes in Mikania laevigata and M. glomerata leaves under different shade levels. Chem Biodivers 2013;10:288–95. CrossRef

11. Griesser M, Weingart G, Schoedl-Hummel K, Neumann N, Becker M, Varmuza K, et al. Severe drought stress is affecting selected primary metabolites, polyphenols, and volatile metabolites in grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir). Plant Physiol Biochem 2015;88:17–26. CrossRef

12. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZE, Rahmat A. Phytochemical constituents and biological activities of different extracts of Strobilanthes crispus (L.) Bremek leaves grown in different locations of Malaysia. BMC Complement Altern Med 2015;15:422. CrossRef

13. Nguyen T, Talbi H, Hilali A, Anthonissen R, Maes A, Verschaeve L. In vitro toxicity, genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of Nigella sativa extracts from different geographic locations. South African J Bot; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2019.02.015 CrossRef

14. Govindaraghavana S, Sucher NJ. Quality assessment of medicinal herbs and their extracts: criteria and prerequisites for consistent safety and efficacy of herbal medicines. Epilepsy & Behavior 2015;52:363–71. CrossRef

15. Kokate CK. Pharmacognosy 16th Edition. Mumbai, India: Niali Prakasham, 2001.

16. Harborne JB. Phytochemical Methods 2nd Edition. Bandung: ITB Press, 1987.

17. Evans WC. Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy (15th Edition). Evans WC (ed.). W.B. Saunders, Edinburgh, UK, 2002.

18. Takaidza S, Mtunzi F, Pillay M. Analysis of the phytochemical contents and antioxidant activities of crude extracts from Tulbaghia species. JTCM 2018:272–9.

19. Stancovic N, Krstev TM, Zlatkovic B, Jovanovic VS, Mitic V, Jovic J, et al. Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of traditional medicinal plants from the Balkan Peninsula. NJAS-Wageningen J Life Sci 2016;78:21–8.

20. Bahadori MB, Valizadeh H, Asghari B, Dinparast L, Farimani MM, Bahadori S. Chemical composition and antimicrobial, cytotocicity, antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of Salvia spinosa L. J Func Foods 2015;18:727–36.

21. Singh B, Sahu PM, Sharma MK. Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of triterpenoids from Strobilanthes callosus Nees. Phytomedicine 2002;9:355–9.

22. Shimizu K, Kondo R, Sakai K, Takeda N, Nagahata T, Oniki T. Novel vitamin E derivative with 4-substituted resorcinol moiety has both antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory properties. Lipids 2001;36:1321–6.

23. Babu D, Gurumurthy P, Borra SK, Cherlan KM. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of triphala determined by using different in vitro models. J Med Plant Res 2013;7:2898–905.

24. Sahreen S, Khan MR, Khan RA, Hadda TB. Evaluation of phytochemical content, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antitumor activities of extract from Rumex hastatus D. Don roots. BMC Complement Altern Med 2015;15:211.

25. Essiet UA, Bassey IE. Comparative phytochemical screening and nutritional potentials of the flowers (petals) of Senna alata (I) Roxb, Senna hirsuta (I.) Irwin and Barneby, and Senna obtusifolia (I.) Irwin and Barneby (Fabaceae). J App Pharm Sci 2013;3:97–101.

26. Bravo L. Polyphenols: chemistry, dietary sources, metabolism and nutritional significance. Nutr Rev 1998;56:317–33.

27. Rebaya A, Belghith SI, Baghdikian B, Leddet VM, Mabrouki F, Olivier E, et al. Total phenolic, total flavonoid, tannin content, and antioxidant capacity of Halimium halimifolium (Cistaceae). J App Pharm Sci 2014;5:52–7.

28. Sharififar F, Dehghn-Nudeh G, Mirtajaldini M. Major flavonoids with antioxidant activity from Teucrium polium L. Food Chemistry 2009;112:885–8.

29. Rahmat A, Khan M, Rashid K, Sumaira S, Mushtaq A. Assessment of flavonoids contents and in vitro antioxidant activity of Launaea procumbens. Chem Cent J 2012;6(2012):43–53.

30. Meyer BN, Ferrigni NR, Putnam JE, Jacobsen LB, Nichols DE, McLaughlin JL. Brine shrimp: a convenient general bioassay for active plant constituents. Planta Med 1982;45:31–4.

31. Fan GJ, Ndolo VU, Katundu M, Kerr RB, Arntfield S, Beta T. Comparison of phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity in three bean varieties grown in Central Malawi. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2016;71:204–10.

32. Ghazemsadeh A, Jaafar HZE, Bukhori MFM, Rahmat MH, Rahmat A. Assessment and comparison of phytochemical constituents and biological activities of bitter bean (Parkia speciosa Hassk.) collected from different locations in Malaysia. Chem Cent J 2018;12:12.

33. Jaakola L, Hohtola A. Effect of latitude on flavonoid biosynthesis in plants. Plant Cell Environ 2010;33:1239–47.

Reference

1. Sofowora A, Ogunbodede E, Onayade A. The role and place of medicinal plants in the strategies for disease prevention. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2013;10:210-29.https://doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v10i5.2

2. Pramono E. The traditional use of traditional knowledge and medicinal plants in Indonesia. Multi-stakeholder dialoque on trade, intellectual property and biological resources in Asia. BRAC Centre for Development Management, Rajendrapur, Bangladesh, 2002.

3. Agra MF, Silva KN, Basílio IJLD, Freitas PF, Barbosa-Filho JM. Survey of medicinal plants used in the region Northeast of Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 2008;18:472-508.https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2008000300023

4. Coutinho HDM, Costa JGM, Siqueira-Júnior JP, Lima EO. In vitro anti-staphylococcal activity of Hyptis martiusii Benth against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-MRSA strains. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 2008;18:670-5.https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2008000500005

5. Santos KKA, Matias EFF, Sobral-Souza CE, Tintino SR, Morais- Braga MFB, Guedes GMM, et al. Trypanocide, cytotoxic, and anti- Candida activities of natural products: Hyptis martiusii Benth. Eur J Integrative Med 2013;5:427-31.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eujim.2013.06.001

6. Kusuma IW, Arung ET, Kim YU. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of medicinal plants used by the Bentian tribe from Indonesia. Food Sci Hum Well 2014;3:191-6.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fshw.2014.12.004

7. Defillips RA, Maina SI, Crepin J. Medicinal plants of Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2004.

8. Sampaio BL, Edrada-Ebel RA, Da Costa FB. Effect of the environment on the secondary metabolic profile of Tithonia diversifolia: a model for environmental metabolomics of plants. Sci Rep 2016;6:1-11.https://doi.org/10.1038/srep29265

9. Yang L, Zheng ZS, Cheng F, Ruan X, Jiang DA, Pan CD, et al. Seasonal dynamics of metabolites in needles of Taxus wallichiana var. mairei. Molecules 2016;21:E1403.https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21101403

10. Bertolucci SKV, Pereira ABD, Pinto JEB, Oliveira AB, Braga FC. Seasonal variation on the contents of coumarin and kaurane-type diterpenes in Mikania laevigata and M. glomerata leaves under different shade levels. Chem Biodivers 2013;10:288-95.https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.201200166

11. Griesser M, Weingart G, Schoedl-Hummel K, Neumann N, Becker M, Varmuza K, et al. Severe drought stress is affecting selected primary metabolites, polyphenols, and volatile metabolites in grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir). Plant Physiol Biochem 2015;88:17-26.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2015.01.004

12. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZE, Rahmat A. Phytochemical constituents and biological activities of different extracts of Strobilanthes crispus (L.) Bremek leaves grown in different locations of Malaysia. BMC Complement Altern Med 2015;15:422.https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-015-0873-3

13. Nguyen T, Talbi H, Hilali A, Anthonissen R, Maes A, Verschaeve L. In vitro toxicity, genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of Nigella sativa extracts from different geographic locations. South African J Bot; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2019.02.015https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2019.02.015

14. Govindaraghavana S, Sucher NJ. Quality assessment of medicinal herbs and their extracts: criteria and prerequisites for consistent safety and efficacy of herbal medicines. Epilepsy & Behavior 2015;52:363-71.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2015.03.004

15. Sofowora A, Ogunbodede E, Onayade A. The role and place of medicinal plants in the strategies for disease prevention. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2013;10:210-29.https://doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v10i5.2

16. Pramono E. The traditional use of traditional knowledge and medicinal plants in Indonesia. Multi-stakeholder dialoque on trade, intellectual property and biological resources in Asia. BRAC Centre for Development Management, Rajendrapur, Bangladesh, 2002.

17. Agra MF, Silva KN, Basílio IJLD, Freitas PF, Barbosa-Filho JM. Survey of medicinal plants used in the region Northeast of Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 2008;18:472-508.https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2008000300023

18. Coutinho HDM, Costa JGM, Siqueira-Júnior JP, Lima EO. In vitro anti-staphylococcal activity of Hyptis martiusii Benth against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-MRSA strains. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 2008;18:670-5.https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2008000500005

19. Santos KKA, Matias EFF, Sobral-Souza CE, Tintino SR, Morais- Braga MFB, Guedes GMM, et al. Trypanocide, cytotoxic, and anti- Candida activities of natural products: Hyptis martiusii Benth. Eur J Integrative Med 2013;5:427-31.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eujim.2013.06.001

20. Kusuma IW, Arung ET, Kim YU. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of medicinal plants used by the Bentian tribe from Indonesia. Food Sci Hum Well 2014;3:191-6.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fshw.2014.12.004

21. Defillips RA, Maina SI, Crepin J. Medicinal plants of Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2004.

22. Sampaio BL, Edrada-Ebel RA, Da Costa FB. Effect of the environment on the secondary metabolic profile of Tithonia diversifolia: a model for environmental metabolomics of plants. Sci Rep 2016;6:1-11.https://doi.org/10.1038/srep29265

23. Yang L, Zheng ZS, Cheng F, Ruan X, Jiang DA, Pan CD, et al. Seasonal dynamics of metabolites in needles of Taxus wallichiana var. mairei. Molecules 2016;21:E1403.https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21101403

24. Bertolucci SKV, Pereira ABD, Pinto JEB, Oliveira AB, Braga FC. Seasonal variation on the contents of coumarin and kaurane-type diterpenes in Mikania laevigata and M. glomerata leaves under different shade levels. Chem Biodivers 2013;10:288-95.https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.201200166

25. Griesser M, Weingart G, Schoedl-Hummel K, Neumann N, Becker M, Varmuza K, et al. Severe drought stress is affecting selected primary metabolites, polyphenols, and volatile metabolites in grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir). Plant Physiol Biochem 2015;88:17-26.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2015.01.004

26. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZE, Rahmat A. Phytochemical constituents and biological activities of different extracts of Strobilanthes crispus (L.) Bremek leaves grown in different locations of Malaysia. BMC Complement Altern Med 2015;15:422.https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-015-0873-3

27. Nguyen T, Talbi H, Hilali A, Anthonissen R, Maes A, Verschaeve L. In vitro toxicity, genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of Nigella sativa extracts from different geographic locations. South African J Bot; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2019.02.015https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2019.02.015

28. Govindaraghavana S, Sucher NJ. Quality assessment of medicinal herbs and their extracts: criteria and prerequisites for consistent safety and efficacy of herbal medicines. Epilepsy & Behavior 2015;52:363-71.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2015.03.004

Article Metrics

9 Absract views 148 PDF Downloads 157 Total views

Related Search

By author names

Citiaion Alert By Google Scholar


Similar Articles

Bioactivity assessment of endophytic fungi associated with Centella asiatica and Murraya koengii

Archana Nath, Jyoti Pathak and SR Joshi

Asparagus racemosus extract increases the life span in Drosophila melanogaster

K. V. Kiran Kumar, K. S. Prasanna, J. S. Ashadevi

Comparative three way analysis of biochemical responses in cereal and millet crops under salinity stress

Ritika Bhatt, Prem Prakash Asopa, Santosh Sihag, Rakesh Sharma, Sumita Kachhwaha, S.L. Kothari

Impact of Phyllanthus amarus extract on antioxidant enzymes in Drosophila melanogaster

N. Manasa, J. S. Ashadevi

Alterations in antioxidant defense system in hepatic and renal tissues of rats following aspartame intake

Saeed A. Alwaleedi

Ten different brewing methods of green tea: comparative antioxidant study

Naila Safdar, Amina Sarfaraz, Zehra Kazmi, Azra Yasmin

Medicinal and Functional Values of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) Herb

Eqbal M. A. Dauqan, Aminah Abdullah

Buffalo (Bubalus bubilis) colostrum and milk fat globule membrane fractions are potent antioxidants

N. Brijesha, H. S. Aparna

Effect of extraction solvents on phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of Artocarpus chaplasha and Carissa carandas fruits from Bangladesh

Gouri Dhar, Sonam Akther, Afrin Sultana, Uchen May, Mohammed Moinul Islam, Mowri Dhali, Dwaipayan Sikdar

In Vitro Antidiabetic and Anti-oxidant Activities of Methanol Extract of Tinospora Sinensis

Anindita Banerjee, Bithin Maji, Sandip Mukherjee, Kausik Chaudhuri, Tapan Seal

Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil of Vetiveria nigritana (Benth.) Stapf roots from Burkina Faso

Zenabou Semde, Jean Koudou, Cheikna Zongo, Gilles Figueredo, Marius K. Somda, Leguet Ganou, Alfred S. Traore

Crosstalk of brassinosteroids with other phytohormones under various abiotic stresses

Farhan Ahmad, Ananya Singh, Aisha Kamal

In vitro propagation by axillary shoot proliferation, assessment of antioxidant activity, and genetic fidelity of micropropagated Paederia foetida L.

Biswaranjan Behera, Priyajeet Sinha, Sushanto Gouda, Sakti K. Rath, Durga P. Barik, Padan K. Jena, Pratap C. Panda, Soumendra K. Naik

Effect of growth hormones in induction of callus, antioxidants, and antibacterial activity in Nerium odorum

Avinash Prakasha, S Umesha

Aroclor 1254 induced oxidative stress and histopathological changes in mice liver

Jalpa Raja, Shweta Pathak, Rahul Kundu

A study of endophytic fungi Neofusicoccum ribis from Gandaria (Bouea macrophylla Griffith) as enzyme inhibitor, antibacterial, and antioxidant

Trisanti Anindyawati, Praptiwi

Determination of phytochemical, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and protein binding qualities of hydroethanolic extract of Celastrus paniculatus

Vijay Kumar¥, Simranjeet Singh¥, Arjun Singh¥, Amit Kumar Dixit¥, Bhavana Shrivastava, Sapna Avinash Kondalkar, Joginder Singh, Ravindra Singh, Gurpreet Kaur Sidhu, Rajesh Partap Singh, Varanasi Subhose, Om Prakash

Effect of Trema guineensis leaves (celtidaceae) on glucose-induced hypertension in Wistar rats

Balakiyém Kadissoli, P A Mouzou, T Pakoussi, K Eklu-Gadegbeku, A K Aklikokou, M Gbeassor

Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Aidia borneensis leaf extracts

Zulhamizan Awang-Jamil, Aida Maryam Basri, Norhayati Ahmad, Hussein Taha

Comparative chemical and biological investigations of three Saudi Astragalus species

Mohamed A. Ashour

Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant potential of Ocimum gratissimum Linn (Lamiaceae) commonly consumed in the Republic of Benin

Hinnoutondji Wilfrid Kpètèhoto, Abdou Madjid Olatoundé Amoussa, Roch Christian Johnson, Eustache Enock Meinsan Houéto , Franck Maurille Zinsou Mignanwandé, Hounnankpon Yédomonhan, Frédéric Loko, Honoré Bankolé, Latifou Lagnika

Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quel. (Pleurotaceae): In vitro antioxidant evaluation and the isolation of a steroidal isoprenoid

Blessing Onyinye Okonkwo, Ozadheoghene Eriarie Afieroho, Emeka Daniel Ahanonu, Lambert Okwubie, Kio Anthony Abo

Study of the changes in the growth, protein, and bioactive profile of Chlorella emersonii KJ725233 in response to sodium and ammonium nitrate

Sneha Sunil Sawant, Varsha Kelkar-Mane

Determination of phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of Launaea resedifolia from Algerian Sahara

Amina Bouguerra, Mohamed Hadjadj, Mesaouda Dekmouche, Zhour Rahmani, Houssine Dendougui

Investigation of morphological, phytochemical, and enzymatic characteristics of Anethum graveolens L. using selenium in combination with humic acid and fulvic acid

Parviz Samavatipour, Vahid Abdossi, Reza Salehi, Saeed Samavat,Alireza Ladan Moghadam

A study on the salinity stress effects on the biochemical traits of seedlings and its relationship with resistance toward sensitive and tolerant flax genotypes

Yousef Alaei, Seyed Kamal Kazemitabar, Mohammad Zaefi Zadeh, Hamid Najafi Zarini, Gaffar Kiani

Nyctanthes arbor-tristis: Comprehensive review on its pharmacological, antioxidant, and anticancer activities

Smita Parekh, Anjali Soni

Anti-quorum sensing, antibacterial, antioxidant activities, and phytoconstituents analysis of medicinal plants used in Benin: Acacia macrostachya (Rchb. ex DC.)

Mounirou Tchatchedre, Abdou Madjid O. Amoussa, Ménonvè Atindehou, Aminata P. Nacoulma, Ambaliou Sanni, Martin kiendrebeogo, Latifou Lagnika

Studies on the mechanism of desiccation tolerance in the resurrection fern Adiantum raddianum

Tumkur Govindaraju Banupriya, Chandraiah Ramyashree, Devaraja Akash, Neeragunda Shivaraj Yathish, Ramasandra Govindarao Sharthchandra

Antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effects of aqueous seed extract of Daucus carota L. in triton ×100-induced hyperlipidemic mice

Habibu Tijjani, Abubakar Mohammed, Sani Muktar, Saminu Musa, Yusuf Abubakar, Adegbenro Peter Adegunloye, Ahmed Adebayo Ishola, Enoch Banbilbwa Joel, Carrol Domkat Luka, Adamu Jibril Alhassan

Role of glutathione reductase and catalase enzyme in antioxidant defense mechanism in controlling fluoride-induced oxidative stress

Komal Sharma, Mamta Choudhary, Khushbu Verma

Mycelial biomass, antioxidant, and myco-actives of mycelia of abalone mushroom Pleurotus cystidiosus in liquid culture

Kent Garcia, Chester Jhae Garcia, Reynante Bustillos, Rich Milton Dulay

Salt stress, its impacts on plants and the strategies plants are employing against it: A review

Zeenat Mushtaq, Shahla Faizan, Basit Gulzar

Impact of oxidizing, reducing, and stabilizing agents on the inhibitory properties of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba trypsin inhibitor

Preeti Patidar, Mahima Golani, Sumati Hajela, Krishnan Hajela

Identification of highest L-Methioninase enzyme producers among soil microbial isolates, with potential antioxidant and anticancer properties

D. Kavya, Varalakshmi Kilingar Nadumane

Astaxanthin: An algae-based natural compound with a potential role in human health-promoting effect: An updated comprehensive review

Jinu Medhi, Mohan Chandra Kalita

Linalool protects hippocampal CA1 neurons and improves functional outcomes following experimental ischemia/reperfusion in rats

Vishal Airao, Prakruti Buch, Tejas Sharma, Devendra Vaishnav, Sachin Parmar

Modification of the time of incubation in colorimetric method for accurate determination of the total antioxidants capacity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl stable free radical

Abhipsa Bal, Samar Gourav Pati, Falguni Panda, Biswaranjan Paital

HR-LC-MS based profiling of phytochemicals from methanol extracts of leaves and bark of Myristica dactyloides Gaertn. from Western Ghats of Karnataka, India

Kuppuru Mallikarjunaiah Marulasiddaswamy, Bettadapura Rameshgowda Nuthan,, Channarayapatna-Ramesh Sunilkumar, Shrisha Naik Bajpe,, Kigga Kaadappa Sampath Kumara, Shailasree Sekhar, Kukkundoor Ramachandra Kini

Preclinical evaluation of anticataract activity of Mentha spicata leaves on isolated goat lens by an in vitro model

Shreya Mohandas, Saahiba Thaleshwari, Myrene Roselyn Dsouza

Green synthesis, characterizations, and in vitro biological evaluation of Cu (II) complexes of quercetin with N ^ N ligands

Tanu Srivastava, Sunil Kumar Mishra, Om Prakash Tiwari

Optimization of extraction conditions of phytochemical compounds in “Xiem” banana peel powder using response surface methodology

Ngo Van Tai, Mai Nhat Linh, Nguyen Minh Thuy

Antioxidative, antiproliferative, and apoptosis effect of Coleus tuberosus flesh and peel ethanol extracts on cervical cancer cell lines

Mutiara Nugraheni, Windarwati Windarwati, Badraningsih Lastariwati

Comparative study of hydroalcoholic extracts of Bryophyllum pinnatum and Macrotyloma uniflorum for their antioxidant, antiurolithiatic, and wound healing potential

Chetna Faujdar, Priyadarshini

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of Precocene II, estimation of enzymatic, nonenzymatic antioxidant, and cytotoxic potentials of methyl jasmonate-elicited shoot culture of Ageratum conyzoides Linn.

Selvaraj Vasantharani, Ramaraj Thirugnanasampandan, Gunasekaran Bhuvaneswari

Suppression of the RAGE gene expression in RAW 264.7 murine leukemia cell line by ethyl acetate extract of Mikania micrantha (L.) Kunth.

Alex Zohmachhuana, Malsawmdawngliana Tlaisun, Vabeiryureilai Mathipi, Lalrinzuali Khawlhring, Joyce Sudandara Priya

A review on fish peptides isolated from fish waste with their potent bioactivities

Ayusman Behera, Rajashree Das, Pranati Patnaik, Jyotirmaya Mohanty, Gargee Mohanty

Quantification of phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant activities from various parts of Euphorbia neriifolia Linn.

Priya Chaudhary, Pracheta Janmeda

Influence of soaking and germination treatments on the nutritional, anti-nutritional, and bioactive composition of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.)

Qurat Ul Eain Hyder Rizvi, Krishan Kumar, Naseer Ahmed, Ajar Nath Yadav, Divya Chauhan, Priyanka Thakur, Sumaira Jan, Imran Sheikh

Impact of diverse processing treatments on nutritional and anti-nutritional characteristics of soybean (Glycine max L.)

Priyanka Thakur, Krishan Kumar, Naseer Ahmed, Ajar Nath Yadav, Sunil Kumar, Qurat Ul Eain Hyder Rizvi, Divya Chauhan, Sumaira Jan

Cathelicidin-HR from Hoplobatrachus rugulosus: an antioxidant peptide that performs a protective effect against UV/H2O2 -induced DNA damage

Piyachat Wiriyaampaiwong, Chutima Karnmongkol, Arpaporn Punpad, Nattapong Srisamoot, Wutti Rattanavichai, Alongkod Tanomtong, Sakda Daduang,, Sompong Klaynongsruang,, Anupong Tankrathok,

Woodfordia fruticosa (Linn.) Kurz’s fungal endophyte Mucor souzae’s secondary metabolites, kaempferol and quercetin, bestow biological activities

Kavyashree Doreswamy, Priyanka Shenoy, Sneha Bhaskar, Ramachandra K. Kini, Shailasree Sekhar

Characterization of the crude extract of Portulaca oleracea and the determination of the polyphenol oxidase kinetics in the presence of Cu and Zn

Omar Mohammad Atrooz, Shada Zaher Al-Maitah

Effect of diverse fermentation treatments on nutritional composition, bioactive components, and anti-nutritional factors of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.)

Sumaira Jan, Krishan Kumar, Ajar Nath Yadav, Naseer Ahmed, Priyanka Thakur, Divya Chauhan, Qurat-Ul-Eain Hyder Rizvi, Harcharan Singh Dhaliwal

Optimization of active antioxidative defatted Canarium indicum L. (Canary) protein hydrolysate production

Cintya Nurul Apsari,, Ilma Nugrahani, Sukrasno, Tutus Gusdinar

Elemental, nutritional, and phytochemical profiling and antioxidant activity of Cordia obliqua Willd. (Clammy Cherry): An important underutilized forest tree of East India

Mamta Naik#,, Shashikanta Behera#,,, Sadhni Induar, Swaraj K. Babu, Pradeep K. Naik

Effects of enzymatic hydrolysis on the antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysate derived from the larvae of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.)

Muhammad Yusuf Abduh,, Diah Ayu Prawitasari,, Ula Aulia Fitrian,, Mochamad Firmansyah,

Evaluation of functional characteristics of roselle seed and its use as a partial replacement of wheat flour in soft bread making

Nguyen Minh Thuy, Nguyen Bao Tram, Dinh Gia Cuong, Huynh Khanh Duy, Ly Thanh An, Vo Quoc Tien, Tran Ngoc Giau, Ngo Van Tai

Total phenolic, flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activity of three selected Portulaca grandiflora mutants in MV8 generation as a result of recurrent irradiation technique

Waras Nurcholis,, Syarifah Iis Aisyah, Regina Agritena Mayrischa Saraswati, Yoshua Shandy Yudha

Clonal propagation of female plants of Garcinia indica Choiss: a tree species of high medicinal value

Swapna Deodhar, Kiran Pawar , Nitasha Singh, R.J. Thengane, S.R. Thengane

An efficient micropropagation protocol of Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell through two-stage culture of nodal segments and ex vitro acclimatization

Shashikanta Behera, Nibedita Nayak, Shasmita, Durga P. Barik, Soumendra K. Naik

In vitro studies of Asian medicinal plants with potential activity against breast cancer

Zaida Zakaria, Siew Hua Gan, Mahaneem Mohamed

Biochemical and ultrastructural alterations in the brain of mice induced by aqueous leaf extract of a medicinal plant, Lantana camara L. and its amelioration by nimodipine and flunarizine

H. Ashalata Singha, Mahuya Sengupta, Meenakshi Bawari

Analysis of the chemical composition (GC–MS) of Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) essential oil and its insecticidal effect on the post-embryonic development of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

Rahul Maddheshiya, Deep Mala Sahu, Krishna Pal Singh

Improvement in ornamental, medicinal, and aromatic plants through induced mutation

Lalit Agrawal, Manish Kumar

Efficient plant regeneration and molecular marker-based genetic integrity analysis of Ceropegia lawii Hook: An endemic and endangered herb

Mukta R. Bhamare, Hemantkumar A. Thakur, Jaykumar J. Chavan