Mini Review | Volume 12, Issue 2, March, 2024

Recent important insight into nutraceuticals potential of pigmented rice cultivars: A promising ingredient for future food

Le Thi Kim Loan Bui The Vinh Ngo Van Tai   

Open Access   

Published:  Feb 20, 2024

DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2024.161864
Abstract

Many phytochemicals and nutraceuticals have historically been known to have positive effects on health, especially in ancient and modern health systems. Due to the presence of colour, rice, a common basic meal, has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and nutritional effects. It has been shown that polyphenols in rice extracts can alter important signalling pathways involved in cancer. It is also commonly used for its nutritional benefits and to promote general health. We cover the phytochemicals and potential health benefits of coloured rice in this brief review. This article discusses the relatively limited in vivo research that has been done to date to formally establish the nutritional potential of rice. Importantly, the available literature supports and promotes the use of colored rice as an anti-diabetic agent, source of prebiotics, and cancer-preventing agent. To methodically evaluate the clinical efficacy and potential of coloured rice, future research must focus on properly planned clinical trials in cancer and diabetes patients. Further scientific research on rice extract alone or colored rice flour as a nutritional food and/or functional food could pave the way for new ways to explore the health benefits of rice from experiment to the clinic to prevent disease.


Keyword:     Rice Color Nutraceutical Antioxidant Healthy


Citation:

Loan LTK, Vinh BT, Tai NV. Recent important insight into nutraceuticals potential of pigmented rice cultivars: A promising ingredient for future food. J App Biol Biotech. 2024;12(2):36-42. http://doi.org/10.7324/JABB.2024.161864

Copyright: Author(s). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license.

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ARTICLE HIGHLIGHTS

  • This paper presents an analysis of colored rice, focusing on its bioactive chemical content, concentration, activities, and potential health benefits
  • The updated information on the bioactive compounds of colored/pigmented rice varieties was presented
  • The link between the antioxidants and health benefits was providing by current researches
  • The current status of the application of pigmented rice was summarized, and further application was suggested
  • Pigmented rice could have more potential in future food with high promising nutraceutical properties.

1. INTRODUCTION

Two-thirds of the world’s population consumes rice (Oryza sativa); therefore, it is the most important grain ingredient. Due to its monopoly nutritional value and high energy content, rice is the main source of food for humans [1]. A small portion of rice grains are employed as ingredients in the production of foods and non-foods, whereas the majority is consumed as cooked form [2]. Rice is a significant source of fiber, energy, minerals, proteins, vitamins, antioxidants, and other biomolecules that may work in concert and have a positive impact on health [1-4]. According to Zhang et al. [1], rice is a significant source of a variety of antioxidant compounds that are crucial for promoting good health.

Since the 1980s, when antioxidants first gained attention as a “miracle substance,” research on antioxidant compounds has become a major topic of interest. Due to their therapeutic effects, antioxidant supplements are being used by the general public more frequently every day. However, when the impact of antioxidant supplementation was examined, the results of the randomized controlled trials were inconsistent. However, pre-clinical research and ongoing studies have proven the potentially beneficial benefits of antioxidant molecules in a variety of chronic and acute disorders [5]. Consuming nutritious foods always has a positive impact on one’s health, and the antioxidant molecules found in food are crucial in this regard [1,6-11]. Eating foods high in antioxidants and consuming antioxidant molecules can prevent or treat diseases such as oxidative stress, inflammation, and neurodegenerative disorders as well as cardiovascular, metabolic, and gastrointestinal issues [8]. Numerous studies are being conducted to determine the health benefits of rice and to identify strong bioactive phytomolecules, especially pigmented rice. Numerous findings from regions where colored rice consumption is common suggested that rice may protect against diseases linked to oxidative stress [12,13]. Co-products of rice, such as husk, bran, and rice bran oil from these rice varieties, include various medicinal nutraceuticals and have impressive curative and preventive effects on a variety of chronic and acute disorders. The nutritional and therapeutic benefits of colored rice were also described in traditional literature. A variety of rice varieties are still employed in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of illnesses. A comprehensive compilation of data on the phytochemicals present in rice, the therapeutic activity of rice part, analysis of the likely mechanism of action of rice/rice biomolecules in light of current investigations, and also reporting on the pharmaceutical application of pigmented rice will be helpful for researchers working in this field to encourage the use of colored rice/rice biomolecules for therapeutic purposes. The major objective of this review is to summarize the most recent research on the bioactive compounds present in colored rice, their therapeutic potential, and potential pharmaceutical uses. This review also explores the connections between the antioxidant effect and therapeutic impact as well as the underlying mechanisms of these effects.


2. SEARCHING METHODOLOGY AND ARTICLE SELECTION

Several scientific website databases, including Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, PubMed, SpringerLink, and the Wiley Online Library, were thoroughly searched. Search terms included anti-oxidants, antibacterial, anticancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory properties of colored or pigmented rice. There were no limitations on the methodology of the study, size of sample, or outcome measurement. An article is considered eligible if it satisfies the following criteria: utilization of colored rice in various disorders, utilization of pigmented rice as an antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anticancer, and antibacterial agent, adherence to the language requirement of exclusively using English, inclusion in the Scopus database for article indexing, and publication within the past 5 years. Patient studies, review articles, letters, and conference abstracts without specific details were omitted from the analysis.


3. BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN PIGMENTED RICE CULTIVARS

The secondary metabolites known as bioactive chemicals in plants have the potential to have toxicological or pharmacological effects on human life [14-20]. Aside from the major biosynthetic and metabolic chemicals, plants also produce secondary metabolites, which are chemical molecules having biological activity. By promoting the interaction of these metabolites with the environment, sometimes referred to as phytochemicals, with the environment, plants are better able to develop, reproduce, and disperse. In addition to their role in the creation of colors, tastes, perfumes, and insecticides, phytochemicals are also responsible for a number of food-based products’ microbiological and nutraceutical qualities [14]. The number of secondary metabolites in plants, which are completely accumulated in various plant sections, is crucial for treating a wide range of illnesses that are connected to health. Most profusely available classes of plant phytochemicals are alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoid, steroids and glycosides and are known to serve as an antioxidant, antiviral, antidiabetic, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory agents [14,21,22]. About half of the world’s population eats rice (O. sativa L.), a staple grain that offers nutrients [23]. One of the distinguishing characteristics between colored rice and white rice is the superior antioxidant capacity of colored rice, which come from the bioactive compound intrinsic in rice. Unique polyphenol subgroups found in whole grain rice of various colors have a favorable effect on human health [1]. Increased whole grain consumption is strongly linked to a lower prevalence of chronic illnesses, according to the numerous epidemiological research [24]. Recent studies have shown that colored rice has high levels of antioxidants [2], which were identified by various cutting-edge method as ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, ultra-HPLC Online-ABTS system. However, the antioxidant of rice mainly consists in the outer layer of rice and was little in core of grain. Due to their bioactive components’ increased antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects as well as additional medicinal properties, colored rice varieties - especially black and red rice - have lately attracted increased interest [2]. These substances have quantities of total phenolic and flavonoid chemicals [21,25-27]. Phenolic, flavonoid, Vitamin E derivatives, γ-oryzanol, and proanthocyanidin antioxidant substances were identified in colored rice [2]. However, different locations or cultivars could lead to a change in the profile of antioxidant compounds in rice. High level of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (C3G), peonidin 3-O-glucoside (P3G), and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside were found in glutinous and non-glutinous rice varieties in Southern of Thailand by applying HPLC technique [28]. Using HPLC-PDA-MS2 found that anthocyanins, with C3G and P3G, were the primary compounds in colored rice [29]. Red rice was also distinguished by a significant number of oligomeric procyanidins, which accounted for >60% of the secondary metabolite content. Ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and vanillic acid are the three elementary phenolic compounds found in black and red rice varietals. White and red rice has much lower quantities of vanillic acid than black rice [30]. Flavonoids, a type of widely distributed and naturally formed polyphenolic substances found in fruits, vegetables, and drinks made from plants, are often divided into flavones, flavanones, isoflavones, flavonols, and anthocyanins. Supplements in the diet containing flavonoids are regarded as health enhancing and disease promoting [31]. There are notable variations between different types of rice, and the quantity and variety of flavonoids present are directly tied to the color of the grain. Black rice and other colored cereal grains contain a type of flavonoids called anthocyanins, which range in color from red to purple [32]. Whole-grain black rice had a considerably lower total anthocyanin concentration than bran black rice, indicating that the bran layer is where most anthocyanins are found [33]. Although red rice is often rich in proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins were found in Italian black and purple rice varietals [2]. The two anthocyanins found in rice that are most representative are C3G and P3G.


4. PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF PIGMENTED RICE

Currently, pigmented rice was presented with many health perspectives as presented in Figure 1, which outlined and detailed information as sub-section below.

Figure 1: Physiological functions of pigmented/colored rice cultivars.



[Click here to view]

4.1. Antioxidant Properties of Colored Rice

The diverse antioxidant activities that the phytochemical components of rice - rice bran, rice hulls, and so forth - possess are linked to their potential health benefits. A number of antioxidant compounds, including vitamin E, γ-oryzanol, phenolic acids, anthocyanin, and proanthocyanidin, and flavonoids, are reported to be present in rice and are considered to be good sources of them. Phenolic compounds in rice are very diverse in composition, which could be divided into two main types such as free and bound phenolic. Phenolic compounds and antioxidation are significantly positively correlated [23,30,34]. Analytical techniques such the reducing power assay (FRAP - ferric reducing antioxidant power), nitric oxide, hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide radical, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) have been used to establish the substance’s antioxidant ability [35,36]. Recently, comparative study of Colombo et al. [2] on Italian colored rice varieties shown that the black rice cultivar has the higher antioxidant activity (DPPH assay) than the orange and non-pigmented rice varieties. The reducing antioxidant activity due to the polishing process was reported, which mainly because of the losses of rice bran. The reported data from this study also were comparable with study of Melini et al. [37] on France and Italian rice on Italian market. Anthocyanin and proanthocyanidins (oligomers and polymers) of unpolished black rice kernels and bran extract displayed potent protective effects against oxidative stress [38]. Intermediates of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidins also have the ability to prevent activation and deactivation of different signaling pathways, including inflammatory pathway responsible to produce oxidative stress [39]. Indian rice was reported by Singh et al. [6], which revealed that pigmented rice possess the rich antioxidant compounds. According to reports, eleven rice varieties from Northeast India - black, red, and white - were examined for their antioxidant capacity, mineral content, and protein content in this study. Total phenolic content was 94.8 mg GAE/100 g in Idwa rice, whereas Lumre rice has 900.90 mg GAE/100 g. The range for the total flavonoid concentration was 3.46 (Idaw) to 286.76 mg QE/100 g (Menil mibabaret). Between 0.23 (Farel) and 93.52 mg/100 g (Chakhao poireiton), total anthocyanin concentration varied. The pigmented rice also contains high levels of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase, all of which are effective at reducing the oxidative stress response [6].

Anthocyanins are abundant in black rice, and consumers are aware of their antioxidant properties [3]. The results demonstrated that black rice anthocyanin extract boosted antioxidant enzyme activities and reduced reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde accumulation in PC12 cells brought on by H2O2. Besides, the study of Pattananandecha et al. [28] also showed that potential antioxidant activity of pigmented rice through various analyses such as ABTS assay, lipid peroxidation, superoxide anions, a suppression effect on nitric oxide and an inducible nitric oxide synthase production in combined lipopolysaccharide-interferon-γ-activated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells through IC50 values. However, further studies should be considered application in various industries, especially it also could be the promising ingredient for food application.

4.2. Pigmented Rice as a Source of Anti-proliferative and Anti-cancer Agent

The presence of bioactive compound in the colored rice acts as the potent anti-cancerous agent. They impede the metastasis cascade mechanism, boost anti-angiogenic activity, and cause proptosis in the body to stop the carcinogens through the inhibition of cancer cell motility. The anti-proliferative activity of rice extract was recently assessed by using the neutral red assay, in human T-lymphocyte (Jurkat), hepatocellular carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma (HCT116), melanoma, and noncancerous cells [40]. This research showed that, due to high content of antioxidant compounds, the anti-proliferative activity of black glutinous rice was also high. Besides, by causing apoptosis and the activity of caspase 3/7, black glutinous rice demonstrated the most effective selective anti-proliferation against Jurkat cells. Thirty lines of rice variety in Indonesia were ethanol extracted, and the extracts showed the potential ability to cause cytotoxicity in the presence of the cancer cell lines MCF-7, HeLa, and OVK-18 [41]. For the in vivo study of Talib et al. [42], mice’s food had added 10% and 20% rice bran, which provided by local mills in Al-Najaf (south of Iraq). For 2 weeks, mice were given rice bran-infused mouse food as a treatment. EMT6/P breast cancer cells were subcutaneously injected into the abdomen of each animal during the 3rd week of the experiment (106 cells/mL). Following a 14-day tumor inoculation period, the growing tumors’ sizes were measured. This study reported that rice bran was found to be beneficial in boosting the immune system by stimulating the proliferation of lymphocytes and phagocytes, while also modulating cytokine levels. Three bacterial strains were utilized to test the antibacterial effectiveness of rice bran extracts using the microbroth dilution method. In ethanol and n-hexane extracts, the strongest anti-proliferative efficacy was seen. The most potent apoptosis-inducing and angiogenesis-inhibiting effects were seen in ethanol and methanol extracts. By stimulating lymphocyte and phagocyte proliferation and altering cytokine levels, both extracts were also effective at boosting immunity. When compared to the negative control, the addition of rice bran to mice’s diet reduced tumor growth and development by 20%. According to this study, rice bran is a rich source of phytochemicals that are active and may help prevent cancer and boost the immune system. Multiple phytochemicals that work together synergistically in rice bran may be the cause of its biological effects. Black rice flour has recently been shown to be effective against the HCT116 and 3T3-L1 mouse embryo cell line by Thanuja et al. [43] Suantai et al. [44] studied on antiviral and anticancer potential of extract of red jasmine rice in Thailand. The study revealed that the ethanolic extract had a higher level of toxicity than the aqueous extract and had the potential to kill Caco-2 cells by intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic routes, fragmenting their DNA. These results imply that red jasmine rice extract exhibits biological activity on herpes simplex virus, free radicals, and cancer cell inhibition in addition to nutritional value.

4.3. Anti-Diabetic Properties of Pigmented Rice

All health-care organizations are extremely concerned about the diabetes epidemic, which has become a global hazard. Both in vitro and in vivo studies were done to determine the ability of colored rice manages diabetes and the issues that come with these problems. According to Suwannasom et al. [45] research on black and red rice in Thailand, rats given these rice had considerably better glucose management, and the levels of triglycerides and cholesterol in the diabetic groups were also lowered. These rice resulted in lower concentrations of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, aspartate aminotransferase, and malondialdehyde. In addition, diabetic rats treated with red rice or black rice had considerably higher glutathione concentrations in their serum and liver tissue [46]. Superhongmi rice in Korea found to have high rat small intestinal sucrase inhibitory activity and the anti-hyperglycemic effect using a Sprague-Dawley rat model [47]. Pigmented rice (O. sativa L., Superhongmi cultivar) has been shown to improve glucose and bone metabolism by changing the levels of insulin and adipokine in postmenopausal ovariectomized rats. According to a study in Thailand, eating rice bran extract lessened fat deposition and activated the genes for insulin signaling and glucose sensing in obese rodents that had been given high-fat diets, which in turn reduced pancreatic dysfunction [48]. With regard to its ability to treat type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM), black rice was regarded as a nutritious food. In rats, the levels of inflammatory cytokines, lipid metabolism, blood glucose, insulin resistance, and serum oxidative stress state were all considerably improved by black rice husk anthocyanin extracts, according to the Sun et al. [49] study, which also shown that liver damage was reduced. Black rice husk anthocyanin extracts altered the structure of the gut microbiota, increased the amount of short-chain fatty acids, activated activated protein kinase, PI3K, and AKT, suppressed the expression of HMGCR, G6pase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis. In T2DM rats, the levels of urea, deoxycytidine, L-citrulline, pseudouridine, and other blood metabolites were altered, which also resulted in a downregulation of the pyrimidine metabolism and arginine production pathways. The range of the red rice’s in vivo glycemic index in Sri Lankra was between 52.5 and 64.0 [50]. Rice consumption and the glycemic index are typically viewed as diabetes risk factors. According to this study, consuming more colored grains may lower the chance of developing metabolic disease. Numerous studies have shown that eating colored brown rice instead of white rice has multiple health benefits since it contains larger concentrations of GABA and phenolic chemicals, which regulate the body’s glycemic index, metabolic parameters, and endothelium activities.

4.4. Potential of Anti-inflammatory

Rich antioxidant compound could provide many potentials to anti-inflammatory. In black rice, 9 anthocyanin compounds were discovered using the UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS/MS technique. Furthermore, these substances dramatically reduced the release of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 from LPS-stimulated W264.7 cells, demonstrating their anti-inflammatory effects. Black rice bran extract impacts the control of jun-amino-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p65, and IB phosphorylation and inhibits the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappa B pathways [51]. Jomet al. [52] studied on pairwise correlation was used to identify the phytosterols causing colored rice bran oil’s anti-inflammatory effect, and showed a substantial association with the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes. Activating cytokines known as type I interferons (IFNs-I) are involved in the pathophysiology of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Production of IFNs-I is triggered by signaling through nucleic acid sensors. When interferon genes are activated, a DNA sensor called a stimulator of interferon genes (STING) transmits signals that trigger the synthesis of IFNs-I. Through the stimulation of STING signaling, the red rice bran extract (RRBE)’s anti-inflammatory actions on macrophages were discovered in the Onsa-Ard et al. [53]’s investigation. With and without RRBE, STING agonist (DMXAA) was used to activate RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunoassay, the production of inflammatory cytokines was examined, and the level of mRNA expression was assessed. As a result, STING, and interferon-stimulated genes transcription is found to be considerably reduced by RRBE.

Two mechanisms - oxidative stress and inflammation - have an impact on research on the etiology of celiac disease (CD) [7]. To evaluate the possible antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of extracts from several varieties of black rice within the context of CD, this study developed a particular cellular model based on the use of gliadin as a pro-inflammatory stimulus. Moreover, by using the K562(S) agglutination test, it was demonstrated how the extracts modulate the activation of epithelial cells in CD. In particular, the lymphocyte-attracting CXCL-10 both before and after digestion was shown to be inhibited by the black rice extracts in their ability to produce the oxidative and inflammatory mediators under consideration. The observed anti-inflammatory action during in vitro digestion may be explained by the presence of anthocyanins and their digestive byproducts. Using black rice as a nutritious food or component of food supplements for celiacs is supported by the preliminary data from this study.

One of the most popular functional meals in the world, black rice has many health advantages. Special rice varieties have been created that offer higher nutrient values and demonstrate consumer-beneficial biological activities in an effort to support the rising trend of consumer interest in foods that promote well health. Mapoung et al. [4] studied on eight selected black rice germ and bran extracts from four non-glutinous and four glutinous rice varieties were compared for their phytochemical content, antioxidant levels, and anti-inflammatory effects. In line with this, glutinous BR extracts had higher levels of C3G, P3G, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory characteristics than non-glutinous black rice extracts. According to Pearson’s correlation, there was a significant positive correlation between the antioxidant capabilities and the amount of C3G in the black rice extracts. While P3G showed a high correlation between its anti-inflammatory capabilities. Last but not least, the black rice varieties were divided into three groups based on the results of the principal component analysis: Group A had the highest concentration of C3G and the best antioxidant properties; Group B had the highest concentration of P3G and the strongest anti-inflammatory properties; and Group C had the lowest concentration of phytochemical contents and the weakest bioactivities. The results of this study could help the food industry choose the type of black rice for functional foods based on its anthocyanin concentration, which could assist consumers for a new normal healthy lifestyle.

4.5. Other Health Perspectives

First, colored rice could potential in metabolic disorders, cardiovascular diseases and obesity. In preclinical and clinical trials involving diabetic, hypercholesterolemic, obese, and healthy individuals, rice bran and rice bran oil shown strong cardiometabolic protective benefits [54,55]. The black rice bran’s anthocyanin is regarded as a significant hepatoprotective compound [56,57]. Moreover, the potential of prebiotic also presented on the colored rice. Jia et al. [58] was examined the effect of three colored rice cultivars’ phenolic compound extracts on the gastrointestinal microbiome. According to this study, the main metabolites produced by gut microbiota fermentation were protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and p-coumaric acid. Phenolic compounds stimulated the growth of these organisms [59]. While the presence of Megamonas was favorably connected with catechin and caffeic acid, the concentrations of ferulic and syringic acids were positively correlated with Bifidobacterium [58].


5. CURRRENT APPLICATION STATUS OF PIGMENTED RICE

Colored rice cultivars have garnered significant attention in exploratory research due to their possible applications and processing technologies that might enhance quality features and offer advantageous health properties. This is mostly attributed to the various health-promoting and chronic-disease-preventing effects associated with these cultivars. According to Surh and Koh [60], pigmented rice serves as a significant or subordinate component in several culinary preparations such as paella, rice cakes, fried rice, pancakes, risotto, and cereal [Table 1]. For example, the black rice was applied to pasta production, which is not only create the color for pasta but also provide the antioxidant sources [61]. Purple rice in Tien Giang (Vietnam) was also used for making instant rice with high content of antioxidant and potential to low glycemic index food [12]. The germinated flour from purple rice was also potential the functional ingredients in gluten-free bread production [62,63]. A high antioxidant vinegar was produced by Thai pigmented rice, which shown the highest efficacy in suppressing the growth of harmful bacteria, encompassing both Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains, was glutinous rice vinegar [64]. A functional product from Riceberry, a purple rice in Thailand, was used in beverage, which shown acceptance by consumers and high antioxidant compound [65]. A wine from Taiwanese purple rice was produced with aid of sonication process, which indicated the high antioxidant releasing and antioxidant activities [66]. As a result of its distinctive functions, this ingredient has gained significance as a key component in several innovative culinary products, including beverages, puddings, children’s meals, porridge, desserts, traditional rice cake, bread, and pasta. However, the clinical test should be considered for acquiring the potential health benefits of these products.

Table 1: Current application of pigmented rice in food industry.

CountryColor of rice/varietyProductReferences
VietnamPurple “Cam” riceInstant rice[12]
Purple “Cam” riceGerminated rice four[62]
Purple “Cam” riceRice bread[12]
ST 25 (purple rice)Rice milk[67]
ThailandHom nil rice (black rice)Vinegar[64]
Purple riceberry riceDrinking beverage[65]
Riceberry and hom nil riceRice noodle[68]
TaiwanPurple riceWine[66]
ChinaBlack riceSteamed bread[69]

6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE PROSPECTS

Rice is one of the most widely used and healthiest cereal components worldwide. In addition to providing good nutrients, rice may also have helpful secondary metabolites. Pharmacological and phytochemical research on rice has received a lot of attention since rice bran includes bioactive compounds such γ-oryzanol, phytosterols, tocopherol, phenolic components, anthocyanin, and proanthocyanin. A wide range of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, immunomodulatory, anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic, cardiovascular protective, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, and nephroprotective properties, have been linked to rice bran or rice constituents through a number of mechanisms. The rice plant’s many antioxidant compounds demonstrated strong advantages for health. Because rice plants provide the food industry with a wide range of raw materials and significant nutraceuticals, several food supplements have been produced. In the food business, rice by-products such rice bran, rice hull, rice bran oil, broken rice, and rice straw are the main raw materials utilized to make functional foods and supplements, particularly from rice that is rich in polyphenols. Colored rice bran has just lately been discovered to be a significant source of therapeutic chemicals. Rice starch is increasingly regarded as a key ingredient in nanofilms, mucoadhesives, and pharmacological adjuvants. There are many different medical and pharmacological applications for rice bran and its bioactive components, according to the literature that is currently available. Consuming whole-colored rice grains could be a future technique of illness prevention or treatment for conditions brought on by oxidative stress. Pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat a range of human diseases, such as metabolic disorders, inflammatory conditions, oxidative stress-related pathogenesis, and cancer, may soon be made using colored rice and its biomolecules. Due to rice’s multiple applications in the production of complex formulations, its use and significance are expanding in the pharmaceutical business. Amylose is highly concentrated in both whole rice components and dietary supplements. Colored rice cultivars with high amylose bundle concentrations are required for the production of a variety of rice products, including noodles, cakes, desserts, alternative lipids, and nutritional supplements in powder form for immune system support.


7. AUTHORS’ CONTRIBUTIONS

All authors made substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, and analysis and interpretation of data. Ngo Van Tai took part in drafting the article; Ngo Van Tai, Le Thi Kim Loan and Bui The Vinh took part in revising the drafting of manuscript and providing valuable suggestions. All authors agreed to submit to the current journal; gave final approval of the version to be published; and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work. All the authors are eligible to be an author as per the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) requirements/guidelines.


8. FUNDING

There is no funding to report.


9. CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

The authors report no financial or any other conflicts of interest in this work.


10. ETHICAL APPROVALS

This study does not involve experiments on animals or human subjects.


11. DATA AVAILABILITY

All data generated and analyzed are included within this review article.


12. PUBLISHER’S NOTE

This journal remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published institutional affiliation.

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18.  Thuy NM, Phuong NP, Suong CT, Van Tai N. Physical and chemical characteristics of goldenberry (Physalis peruviana) grown in Lam Dong province, Vietnam. Food Res 2020;4:1217-25. [https://doi.org/10.26656/fr.2017.4(4).085]

19.  Thuy NM, Han LN, Van Tai N. Thermal stability of anthocyanin in mixed raspberry-pomegranate-banana nectar in the presence of ascorbic acid and citric acid. J Appl Biol Biotechnol 2022;10:189-95.

20.  Thuy NM, Phung LB, Van Tai N, Minh VQ. Impact of foaming conditions on quality for foam-mat drying of butterfly pea flower by multiple regression analysis. Plant Sci Today 2023;10:51-7.

21.  Thuy NM, Nhu PH, Van Tai N, Minh VQ. Extraction optimization of crocin from Gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) fruits using response surface methodology and quality evaluation of foam-mat dried powder. Horticulturae 2022;8:1199. [https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121199]

22.  Thuy NM, Hiep LH, Van Tai N, Huong HT, Minh VQ. Impact of drying temperatures on drying behaviours, energy consumption and quality of purple sweet potato flour. Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment 2022;21:379-87. [https://doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.2022.1061 https://doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.1061]

23.  SubbuThavamurugan, Dhivyadharchini M, Suresh P, Manikandan T, Vasuki A, Nandhagopalan V, et al. Investigation on nutritional, phytochemical, and antioxidant abilities of various traditional rice varieties. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2023;195:2719-42. [https://doi.org/10.1007/s12010-022-04264-1]

24.  Fratta Pasini AM, Cominacini L. Potential benefits of antioxidant phytochemicals on endogenous antioxidants defences in chronic diseases. Antioxidants (Basel) 2023;12:890. [https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12040890]

25.  Yu X, Yang T, Qi Q, Du Y, Shi J, Liu X, et al. Comparison of the contents of phenolic compounds including flavonoids and antioxidant activity of rice (Oryza sativa) and Chinese wild rice (Zizania latifolia). Food Chem 2021;344:1268000. [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128600]

26.  Thuy NM, Ngoc PT, Van Tai N. Effect of conventional and ultrasonic-assisted extracts on betacyanin content of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus). Food Res 2022;6:389-95. [https://doi.org/10.26656/fr.2017.6(3).754]

27.  Thuy NM, Ben TC, Ngoc PT, Van Tai N. Application of butterfly pea flower extract in processing some Vietnamese traditional foods. J Appl Biol Biotechnol 2022;10:143-50. [https://doi.org/10.7324/JABB.2022.100518]

28.  Pattananandecha T, Apichai S, Sirilun S, Julsrigival J, Sawangrat K, Ogata F, et al. Anthocyanin profile, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial against foodborne pathogens activities of purple rice cultivars in Northern Thailand. Molecules 2021;26:5234. [https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26175234]

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31.  Karak P. Biological activities of flavonoids:An overview. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2019;10:1567-74.

32.  Francavilla A, Joye IJ. Anthocyanins in whole grain cereals and their potential effect on health. Nutrients 2020;12:2922. [https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12102922]

33.  Yamuangmorn S, Prom-U-Thai C. The potential of high-anthocyanin purple rice as a functional ingredient in human health. Antioxidants (Basel) 2021;10:833. [https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10060833]

34.  Van Tai N, Linh MN, Thuy NM. Optimization of extraction conditions of phytochemical compounds in “Xiem”banana peel powder using response surface methodology. J Appl Biol Biotechnol 2021;9:56-62.

35.  Thuy NM, Han DH, Minh VQ, Van Tai N. Effect of extraction methods and temperature preservation on total anthocyanins compounds of Peristrophe bivalvis L. Merr leaf. J Appl Biol Biotechnol 2022;10:146-53.

36.  Thuy NM, Tien VQ, Van Tai N, Minh VQ. Effect of foaming conditions on foam properties and drying behavior of powder from magenta (Peristrophe roxburghiana) leaves extracts. Horticulturae 2022;8:546. [https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8060546]

37.  Melini V, Panfili G, Fratianni A, Acquistucci R. Bioactive compounds in rice on Italian market:Pigmented varieties as a source of carotenoids, total phenolic compounds and anthocyanins, before and after cooking. Food Chem 2019;277:119-27. [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.10.053]

38.  Amrinola W, Sitanggang AB, Kusnandar F, Budijanto S. Characterization of pigmented and non-pigmented flakes glutinous rice (ampiang) on chemical compositions, free fatty acids compositions, amino acids compositions, dietary fiber content, and antioxidant properties. Food Sci Technol 2021;42:e86621. [https://doi.org/10.1590/fst.86621]

39.  Sen S, Chakraborty R, Kalita P. Rice-not just a staple food:A comprehensive review on its phytochemicals and therapeutic potential. Trends Food Sci 2020;97:265-85. [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2020.01.022]

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41.  Limbongan Y, Ramadhan R, Shimizu K, Tangkearung E. Agronomic characteristics of 30 promising lines of aromatic, red, and black rice and their antioxidant and cytotoxic effects in some cancer cells. Biodiversitas J Biol Divers 2021;22:1695-700. [https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d220412]

42.  Talib WH, Mahmod AI, Awajan D, Hamed RA, Al-Yasari IH. Immunomodulatory, anticancer, and antimicrobial effects of rice bran grown in iraq:An in vitro and in vivo study. Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2022;15:1502. [https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15121502]

43.  Thanuja B, Parimalavalli R, Vijayanand S, Alharbi RM, Abdel-Raouf N, Ibraheem IB, et al. Anticancer and cytotoxicity activity of native and modified black rice flour on colon cancer cell lines. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022;2022:8575026. [https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/8575026]

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46.  Munkong N, Somnuk S, Jantarach N, Ruxsanawet K, Nuntaboon P, Kanjoo V, et al. Red rice bran extract alleviates high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and dyslipidemia in mice. Nutrients 2023;15:246. [https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010246]

47.  Yoon KD, Lee JY, Kim TY, Kang H, Ha KS, Ham TH, et al. In vitro and in vivo anti-hyperglycemic activities of taxifolin and its derivatives isolated from pigmented rice (Oryzae sativa L. Cv. Superhongmi). J Agric Food Chem 2020;68:742-50. [https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.9b04962]

48.  Devi K, Kumar V, Kumar V, Mahajan N, Kaur J, Sharma S, et al. Modified cereal bran (MCB) from finger millet, kodo millet, and rice bran prevents high-fat diet-induced metabolic derangements. Food Funct 2023;14:1459-75. [https://doi.org/10.1039/D2FO02095E]

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63.  Le Loan TK, Thuy NM, Le Tri Q, Sunghoon P. Characterization of gluten-free rice bread prepared using a combination of potato tuber and ramie leaf enzymes. Food Sci Biotechnol 2021;30:521-9. [https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-021-00891-2]

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13. Thuy NM, Ha HT, Tai NV. Optimization of carrot fermentation conditions in rice bran bed using Lactobacillus plantarum. Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment 2021;20:449-57. https://doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.0944

14. Twaij BM, Hasan MN. Bioactive secondary metabolites from plant sources: Types, synthesis, and their therapeutic uses. Int J Plant Biol 2022;13:4-14. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb13010003

15. Thuy NM, Tien VQ, Tuyen NN, Giau TN, Minh VQ, Tai NV. Optimization of mulberry extract foam-mat drying process parameters. Molecules 2022;27:8570. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27238570

16. Thuy NM, Linh MN, My LT, Minh VQ, Van Tai N. Physico-chemical changes in "Xiem" banana cultivar (cultivated in Vietnam) during ripening and storage at different temperatures. Food Res 2021;5:229-37. https://doi.org/10.26656/fr.2017.5(6).370

17. Thuy NM, Ben TC, Minh VQ, Van Tai N. Effect of extraction techniques on anthocyanin from butterfly pea flowers (Clitoria ternatea L.) cultivated in Vietnam. J Appl Biol Biotechnol 2021;9:173-80. https://doi.org/10.7324/JABB.2021.96022

18. Thuy NM, Phuong NP, Suong CT, Van Tai N. Physical and chemical characteristics of goldenberry (Physalis peruviana) grown in Lam Dong province, Vietnam. Food Res 2020;4:1217-25. https://doi.org/10.26656/fr.2017.4(4).085

19. Thuy NM, Han LN, Van Tai N. Thermal stability of anthocyanin in mixed raspberry-pomegranate-banana nectar in the presence of ascorbic acid and citric acid. J Appl Biol Biotechnol 2022;10:189-95.

20. Thuy NM, Phung LB, Van Tai N, Minh VQ. Impact of foaming conditions on quality for foam-mat drying of butterfly pea flower by multiple regression analysis. Plant Sci Today 2023;10:51-7.

21. Thuy NM, Nhu PH, Van Tai N, Minh VQ. Extraction optimization of crocin from Gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) fruits using response surface methodology and quality evaluation of foam-mat dried powder. Horticulturae 2022;8:1199. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121199

22. Thuy NM, Hiep LH, Van Tai N, Huong HT, Minh VQ. Impact of drying temperatures on drying behaviours, energy consumption and quality of purple sweet potato flour. Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment 2022;21:379-87. https://doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.2022.1061

23. SubbuThavamurugan, Dhivyadharchini M, Suresh P, Manikandan T, Vasuki A, Nandhagopalan V, et al. Investigation on nutritional, phytochemical, and antioxidant abilities of various traditional rice varieties. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2023;195:2719-42. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12010-022-04264-1

24. Fratta Pasini AM, Cominacini L. Potential benefits of antioxidant phytochemicals on endogenous antioxidants defences in chronic diseases. Antioxidants (Basel) 2023;12:890. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12040890

25. Yu X, Yang T, Qi Q, Du Y, Shi J, Liu X, et al. Comparison of the contents of phenolic compounds including flavonoids and antioxidant activity of rice (Oryza sativa) and Chinese wild rice (Zizania latifolia). Food Chem 2021;344:128600. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128600

26. Thuy NM, Ngoc PT, Van Tai N. Effect of conventional and ultrasonic-assisted extracts on betacyanin content of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus). Food Res 2022;6:389-95. https://doi.org/10.26656/fr.2017.6(3).754

27. Thuy NM, Ben TC, Ngoc PT, Van Tai N. Application of butterfly pea flower extract in processing some Vietnamese traditional foods. J Appl Biol Biotechnol 2022;10:143-50. https://doi.org/10.7324/JABB.2022.100518

28. Pattananandecha T, Apichai S, Sirilun S, Julsrigival J, Sawangrat K, Ogata F, et al. Anthocyanin profile, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial against foodborne pathogens activities of purple rice cultivars in Northern Thailand. Molecules 2021;26:5234. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26175234

29. Zheng RL, Ren T, Niu CT, Zheng FY, Wang JJ, Liu CF, et al. Anthocyanins composition and antioxidant activity of purple rice and color degradation under sunlight exposure of purple rice wine. J Food Meas Charact 2022;16:1889-900. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11694-022-01285-6

30. Kotamreddy JN, Hansda C, Mitra A. Semi-targeted metabolomic analysis provides the basis for enhanced antioxidant capacities in pigmented rice grains. J Food Meas Charact 2020;14:1183-91. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11694-019-00367-2

31. Karak P. Biological activities of flavonoids: An overview. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2019;10:1567-74.

32. Francavilla A, Joye IJ. Anthocyanins in whole grain cereals and their potential effect on health. Nutrients 2020;12:2922. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12102922

33. Yamuangmorn S, Prom-U-Thai C. The potential of high-anthocyanin purple rice as a functional ingredient in human health. Antioxidants (Basel) 2021;10:833. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10060833

34. Van Tai N, Linh MN, Thuy NM. Optimization of extraction conditions of phytochemical compounds in "Xiem" banana peel powder using response surface methodology. J Appl Biol Biotechnol 2021;9:56-62.

35. Thuy NM, Han DH, Minh VQ, Van Tai N. Effect of extraction methods and temperature preservation on total anthocyanins compounds of Peristrophe bivalvis L. Merr leaf. J Appl Biol Biotechnol 2022;10:146-53.

36. Thuy NM, Tien VQ, Van Tai N, Minh VQ. Effect of foaming conditions on foam properties and drying behavior of powder from magenta (Peristrophe roxburghiana) leaves extracts. Horticulturae 2022;8:546. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8060546

37. Melini V, Panfili G, Fratianni A, Acquistucci R. Bioactive compounds in rice on Italian market: Pigmented varieties as a source of carotenoids, total phenolic compounds and anthocyanins, before and after cooking. Food Chem 2019;277:119-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.10.053

38. Amrinola W, Sitanggang AB, Kusnandar F, Budijanto S. Characterization of pigmented and non-pigmented flakes glutinous rice (ampiang) on chemical compositions, free fatty acids compositions, amino acids compositions, dietary fiber content, and antioxidant properties. Food Sci Technol 2021;42:e86621. https://doi.org/10.1590/fst.86621

39. Sen S, Chakraborty R, Kalita P. Rice-not just a staple food: A comprehensive review on its phytochemicals and therapeutic potential. Trends Food Sci 2020;97:265-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2020.01.022

40. So V, Pocasap P, Sutthanut K, Sethabouppha B, Thukhammee W, Wattanathorn J, et al. Effect of harvest age on total phenolic, total anthocyanin content, bioactive antioxidant capacity and antiproliferation of black and white glutinous rice sprouts. Appl Sci 2020;10:7051. https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207051

41. Limbongan Y, Ramadhan R, Shimizu K, Tangkearung E. Agronomic characteristics of 30 promising lines of aromatic, red, and black rice and their antioxidant and cytotoxic effects in some cancer cells. Biodiversitas J Biol Divers 2021;22:1695-700. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d220412

42. Talib WH, Mahmod AI, Awajan D, Hamed RA, Al-Yasari IH. Immunomodulatory, anticancer, and antimicrobial effects of rice bran grown in iraq: An in vitro and in vivo study. Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2022;15:1502. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15121502

43. Thanuja B, Parimalavalli R, Vijayanand S, Alharbi RM, Abdel-Raouf N, Ibraheem IB, et al. Anticancer and cytotoxicity activity of native and modified black rice flour on colon cancer cell lines. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022;2022:8575026. https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/8575026

44. Suantai B, Jantakee K, Kaewkod T, Sangboonruang S, Chitov T, Tragoolpua Y. Anthocyanins in red jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L.) Extracts and efficacy on inhibition of herpes simplex virus, free radicals and cancer cell. Nutrients 2022;14:1905. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091905

45. Suwannasom N, Thepmalee C, Khoothiam K, Thephinlap C. Evaluation of anti-hyperglycemia and complications of red and black Thai Jasmine rice cultivars in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Molecules 2022;27:8043. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27228043

46. Munkong N, Somnuk S, Jantarach N, Ruxsanawet K, Nuntaboon P, Kanjoo V, et al. Red rice bran extract alleviates high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and dyslipidemia in mice. Nutrients 2023;15:246. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15010246

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48. Devi K, Kumar V, Kumar V, Mahajan N, Kaur J, Sharma S, et al. Modified cereal bran (MCB) from finger millet, kodo millet, and rice bran prevents high-fat diet-induced metabolic derangements. Food Funct 2023;14:1459-75. https://doi.org/10.1039/D2FO02095E

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Ricardo Diego Duarte Galhardo De Albuquerque, Edmundo Arturo Venegas-Casanova, Felipe Rúben Rubio-López, Miriam E. Gutiérrez-Ramos, Iris Melina Alfaro-Beltrán, Rafael Jara-Aguilar, Francisco Tito Cerna-Reyes

Secondary metabolite profiles, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of callus, and leaves extract of Piper sarmentosum Roxb.

Junairiah Junairiah, Listijani Suhargo, Tri Nurhariyati, Nabilah Istighfari Zuraidassanaaz

Phylogenetic study of some major Dendrobium species of Eastern Himalaya using internal transcribed spacer marker

Animesh Mondal, Kalyan Kumar De

Growth and yield of carrot (Daucus carota L.) as influenced by seed priming

Sunandha Pusuluri, Monisha Rawat, Khushboo Kathayat

Crop establishment methods and herbicide mixtures induced weed dynamics, productivity, and profitability of summer rice

Alena Nongmaithem, Ashirbachan Mahapatra, Rajesh Shriram Kalasare, Saurav Barman

A review on fish peptides isolated from fish waste with their potent bioactivities

Ayusman Behera, Rajashree Das, Pranati Patnaik, Jyotirmaya Mohanty, Gargee Mohanty

Vitamin K2: An emerging essential nutraceutical and its market potential

Sunita Aggarwal, Siddharth Gupta, Shalini Sehgal, Praneeta Srivastava, Aparajita Sen, Garishma Gulyani, Anmol Jain

Leafy vegetable diversity and their ethnomedicinal uses against gastrointestinal disorders in the Balasore district of Odisha, India

Niquehat Noor, Kunja Bihari Satapathy

Bioactivity assessment of endophytic fungi associated with Centella asiatica and Murraya koengii

Archana Nath, Jyoti Pathak and SR Joshi

Asparagus racemosus extract increases the life span in Drosophila melanogaster

K. V. Kiran Kumar, K. S. Prasanna, J. S. Ashadevi

Comparative three way analysis of biochemical responses in cereal and millet crops under salinity stress

Ritika Bhatt, Prem Prakash Asopa, Santosh Sihag, Rakesh Sharma, Sumita Kachhwaha, S.L. Kothari

Impact of Phyllanthus amarus extract on antioxidant enzymes in Drosophila melanogaster

N. Manasa, J. S. Ashadevi

Alterations in antioxidant defense system in hepatic and renal tissues of rats following aspartame intake

Saeed A. Alwaleedi

Ten different brewing methods of green tea: comparative antioxidant study

Naila Safdar, Amina Sarfaraz, Zehra Kazmi, Azra Yasmin

Medicinal and Functional Values of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) Herb

Eqbal M. A. Dauqan, Aminah Abdullah

Buffalo (Bubalus bubilis) colostrum and milk fat globule membrane fractions are potent antioxidants

N. Brijesha, H. S. Aparna

Effect of extraction solvents on phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of Artocarpus chaplasha and Carissa carandas fruits from Bangladesh

Gouri Dhar, Sonam Akther, Afrin Sultana, Uchen May, Mohammed Moinul Islam, Mowri Dhali, Dwaipayan Sikdar

In Vitro Antidiabetic and Anti-oxidant Activities of Methanol Extract of Tinospora Sinensis

Anindita Banerjee, Bithin Maji, Sandip Mukherjee, Kausik Chaudhuri, Tapan Seal

Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil of Vetiveria nigritana (Benth.) Stapf roots from Burkina Faso

Zenabou Semde, Jean Koudou, Cheikna Zongo, Gilles Figueredo, Marius K. Somda, Leguet Ganou, Alfred S. Traore

Crosstalk of brassinosteroids with other phytohormones under various abiotic stresses

Farhan Ahmad, Ananya Singh, Aisha Kamal

In vitro propagation by axillary shoot proliferation, assessment of antioxidant activity, and genetic fidelity of micropropagated Paederia foetida L.

Biswaranjan Behera, Priyajeet Sinha, Sushanto Gouda, Sakti K. Rath, Durga P. Barik, Padan K. Jena, Pratap C. Panda, Soumendra K. Naik

Effect of growth hormones in induction of callus, antioxidants, and antibacterial activity in Nerium odorum

Avinash Prakasha, S Umesha

Aroclor 1254 induced oxidative stress and histopathological changes in mice liver

Jalpa Raja, Shweta Pathak, Rahul Kundu

A study of endophytic fungi Neofusicoccum ribis from Gandaria (Bouea macrophylla Griffith) as enzyme inhibitor, antibacterial, and antioxidant

Trisanti Anindyawati, Praptiwi

Determination of phytochemical, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and protein binding qualities of hydroethanolic extract of Celastrus paniculatus

Vijay Kumar¥, Simranjeet Singh¥, Arjun Singh¥, Amit Kumar Dixit¥, Bhavana Shrivastava, Sapna Avinash Kondalkar, Joginder Singh, Ravindra Singh, Gurpreet Kaur Sidhu, Rajesh Partap Singh, Varanasi Subhose, Om Prakash

Effect of Trema guineensis leaves (celtidaceae) on glucose-induced hypertension in Wistar rats

Balakiyém Kadissoli, P A Mouzou, T Pakoussi, K Eklu-Gadegbeku, A K Aklikokou, M Gbeassor

Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Aidia borneensis leaf extracts

Zulhamizan Awang-Jamil, Aida Maryam Basri, Norhayati Ahmad, Hussein Taha

Comparative chemical and biological investigations of three Saudi Astragalus species

Mohamed A. Ashour

Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant potential of Ocimum gratissimum Linn (Lamiaceae) commonly consumed in the Republic of Benin

Hinnoutondji Wilfrid Kpètèhoto, Abdou Madjid Olatoundé Amoussa, Roch Christian Johnson, Eustache Enock Meinsan Houéto , Franck Maurille Zinsou Mignanwandé, Hounnankpon Yédomonhan, Frédéric Loko, Honoré Bankolé, Latifou Lagnika

Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quel. (Pleurotaceae): In vitro antioxidant evaluation and the isolation of a steroidal isoprenoid

Blessing Onyinye Okonkwo, Ozadheoghene Eriarie Afieroho, Emeka Daniel Ahanonu, Lambert Okwubie, Kio Anthony Abo

Study of the changes in the growth, protein, and bioactive profile of Chlorella emersonii KJ725233 in response to sodium and ammonium nitrate

Sneha Sunil Sawant, Varsha Kelkar-Mane

Determination of phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of Launaea resedifolia from Algerian Sahara

Amina Bouguerra, Mohamed Hadjadj, Mesaouda Dekmouche, Zhour Rahmani, Houssine Dendougui

Investigation of morphological, phytochemical, and enzymatic characteristics of Anethum graveolens L. using selenium in combination with humic acid and fulvic acid

Parviz Samavatipour, Vahid Abdossi, Reza Salehi, Saeed Samavat,Alireza Ladan Moghadam

A study on the salinity stress effects on the biochemical traits of seedlings and its relationship with resistance toward sensitive and tolerant flax genotypes

Yousef Alaei, Seyed Kamal Kazemitabar, Mohammad Zaefi Zadeh, Hamid Najafi Zarini, Gaffar Kiani

Nyctanthes arbor-tristis: Comprehensive review on its pharmacological, antioxidant, and anticancer activities

Smita Parekh, Anjali Soni

Anti-quorum sensing, antibacterial, antioxidant activities, and phytoconstituents analysis of medicinal plants used in Benin: Acacia macrostachya (Rchb. ex DC.)

Mounirou Tchatchedre, Abdou Madjid O. Amoussa, Ménonvè Atindehou, Aminata P. Nacoulma, Ambaliou Sanni, Martin kiendrebeogo, Latifou Lagnika

Studies on the mechanism of desiccation tolerance in the resurrection fern Adiantum raddianum

Tumkur Govindaraju Banupriya, Chandraiah Ramyashree, Devaraja Akash, Neeragunda Shivaraj Yathish, Ramasandra Govindarao Sharthchandra

Antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effects of aqueous seed extract of Daucus carota L. in triton ×100-induced hyperlipidemic mice

Habibu Tijjani, Abubakar Mohammed, Sani Muktar, Saminu Musa, Yusuf Abubakar, Adegbenro Peter Adegunloye, Ahmed Adebayo Ishola, Enoch Banbilbwa Joel, Carrol Domkat Luka, Adamu Jibril Alhassan

Role of glutathione reductase and catalase enzyme in antioxidant defense mechanism in controlling fluoride-induced oxidative stress

Komal Sharma, Mamta Choudhary, Khushbu Verma

Biological activities and phytochemicals of Hyptis capitata grown in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

Irawan Wijaya Kusuma, Rahmini, Enos Tangke Arung, Arif Yudo Pramono, Erwin, Supomo

Mycelial biomass, antioxidant, and myco-actives of mycelia of abalone mushroom Pleurotus cystidiosus in liquid culture

Kent Garcia, Chester Jhae Garcia, Reynante Bustillos, Rich Milton Dulay

Salt stress, its impacts on plants and the strategies plants are employing against it: A review

Zeenat Mushtaq, Shahla Faizan, Basit Gulzar

Impact of oxidizing, reducing, and stabilizing agents on the inhibitory properties of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba trypsin inhibitor

Preeti Patidar, Mahima Golani, Sumati Hajela, Krishnan Hajela

Identification of highest L-Methioninase enzyme producers among soil microbial isolates, with potential antioxidant and anticancer properties

D. Kavya, Varalakshmi Kilingar Nadumane

Astaxanthin: An algae-based natural compound with a potential role in human health-promoting effect: An updated comprehensive review

Jinu Medhi, Mohan Chandra Kalita

Linalool protects hippocampal CA1 neurons and improves functional outcomes following experimental ischemia/reperfusion in rats

Vishal Airao, Prakruti Buch, Tejas Sharma, Devendra Vaishnav, Sachin Parmar

Modification of the time of incubation in colorimetric method for accurate determination of the total antioxidants capacity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl stable free radical

Abhipsa Bal, Samar Gourav Pati, Falguni Panda, Biswaranjan Paital

HR-LC-MS based profiling of phytochemicals from methanol extracts of leaves and bark of Myristica dactyloides Gaertn. from Western Ghats of Karnataka, India

Kuppuru Mallikarjunaiah Marulasiddaswamy, Bettadapura Rameshgowda Nuthan,, Channarayapatna-Ramesh Sunilkumar, Shrisha Naik Bajpe,, Kigga Kaadappa Sampath Kumara, Shailasree Sekhar, Kukkundoor Ramachandra Kini

Preclinical evaluation of anticataract activity of Mentha spicata leaves on isolated goat lens by an in vitro model

Shreya Mohandas, Saahiba Thaleshwari, Myrene Roselyn Dsouza

Green synthesis, characterizations, and in vitro biological evaluation of Cu (II) complexes of quercetin with N ^ N ligands

Tanu Srivastava, Sunil Kumar Mishra, Om Prakash Tiwari

Optimization of extraction conditions of phytochemical compounds in “Xiem” banana peel powder using response surface methodology

Ngo Van Tai, Mai Nhat Linh, Nguyen Minh Thuy

Antioxidative, antiproliferative, and apoptosis effect of Coleus tuberosus flesh and peel ethanol extracts on cervical cancer cell lines

Mutiara Nugraheni, Windarwati Windarwati, Badraningsih Lastariwati

Comparative study of hydroalcoholic extracts of Bryophyllum pinnatum and Macrotyloma uniflorum for their antioxidant, antiurolithiatic, and wound healing potential

Chetna Faujdar, Priyadarshini

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of Precocene II, estimation of enzymatic, nonenzymatic antioxidant, and cytotoxic potentials of methyl jasmonate-elicited shoot culture of Ageratum conyzoides Linn.

Selvaraj Vasantharani, Ramaraj Thirugnanasampandan, Gunasekaran Bhuvaneswari

Suppression of the RAGE gene expression in RAW 264.7 murine leukemia cell line by ethyl acetate extract of Mikania micrantha (L.) Kunth.

Alex Zohmachhuana, Malsawmdawngliana Tlaisun, Vabeiryureilai Mathipi, Lalrinzuali Khawlhring, Joyce Sudandara Priya

Quantification of phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant activities from various parts of Euphorbia neriifolia Linn.

Priya Chaudhary, Pracheta Janmeda

Influence of soaking and germination treatments on the nutritional, anti-nutritional, and bioactive composition of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.)

Qurat Ul Eain Hyder Rizvi, Krishan Kumar, Naseer Ahmed, Ajar Nath Yadav, Divya Chauhan, Priyanka Thakur, Sumaira Jan, Imran Sheikh

Impact of diverse processing treatments on nutritional and anti-nutritional characteristics of soybean (Glycine max L.)

Priyanka Thakur, Krishan Kumar, Naseer Ahmed, Ajar Nath Yadav, Sunil Kumar, Qurat Ul Eain Hyder Rizvi, Divya Chauhan, Sumaira Jan

Cathelicidin-HR from Hoplobatrachus rugulosus: an antioxidant peptide that performs a protective effect against UV/H2O2 -induced DNA damage

Piyachat Wiriyaampaiwong, Chutima Karnmongkol, Arpaporn Punpad, Nattapong Srisamoot, Wutti Rattanavichai, Alongkod Tanomtong, Sakda Daduang,, Sompong Klaynongsruang,, Anupong Tankrathok,

Woodfordia fruticosa (Linn.) Kurz’s fungal endophyte Mucor souzae’s secondary metabolites, kaempferol and quercetin, bestow biological activities

Kavyashree Doreswamy, Priyanka Shenoy, Sneha Bhaskar, Ramachandra K. Kini, Shailasree Sekhar

Characterization of the crude extract of Portulaca oleracea and the determination of the polyphenol oxidase kinetics in the presence of Cu and Zn

Omar Mohammad Atrooz, Shada Zaher Al-Maitah

Effect of diverse fermentation treatments on nutritional composition, bioactive components, and anti-nutritional factors of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.)

Sumaira Jan, Krishan Kumar, Ajar Nath Yadav, Naseer Ahmed, Priyanka Thakur, Divya Chauhan, Qurat-Ul-Eain Hyder Rizvi, Harcharan Singh Dhaliwal

Optimization of active antioxidative defatted Canarium indicum L. (Canary) protein hydrolysate production

Cintya Nurul Apsari,, Ilma Nugrahani, Sukrasno, Tutus Gusdinar

Elemental, nutritional, and phytochemical profiling and antioxidant activity of Cordia obliqua Willd. (Clammy Cherry): An important underutilized forest tree of East India

Mamta Naik#,, Shashikanta Behera#,,, Sadhni Induar, Swaraj K. Babu, Pradeep K. Naik

In vitro antioxidant and antibacterial potential of biosynthesized yttrium oxide nanoparticles using floral extract of Illicium verum

Karthikeyan Kandasamy, Premkumar Kumpati

Optimization of pasteurization process of the ready-to-drink beverage from Hong Quan (Flacourtia jangomas) fruit by response surface methodology

Tan Duy Nguyen,, Tuyen Thi Xuan Vo,, Khang Nghia Tran,

Increasing polyphenol antioxidant in Orthosiphon stamineus Benth leaves with fermentation extraction by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC-9763

Muhammad Aria Chandra, Khaswar Syamsu, Laksmi Ambarsari, Nurul Fatimah, Waras Nurcholis,

Phytochemical composition and antiproliferative activity of Opuntia elatior Mill.: In vitro and in silico studies on breast cancer cell line MCF-7

Foram Patel, Khushali Upadhyay, Denni Mammen, Elizabeth Robin, A.V. Ramachandran, Darshee Baxi

Bioactive properties of the extracts of peels, pomace, seeds, and essential oils of Citrus limon and Citrus aurantifolia

Folasade Oluwatobi, Olakunle Afolabi, Pius Okiki, Funmilayo Adeniyi, Oghenerobor Akpor

High resolution-liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer characterization of bioactive compounds in pineapple wastes: Valorization of antioxidant and enzymatic activity

Suman Polaki, Sourav Nayak, K. Sampad Kumar, Rabi Prasad B

Solid-state fermentation of pigment producing endophytic fungus Fusarium solani from Madiwala lake and its toxicity studies

Bhoomika Prakash Poornamath, Suma Sarojini, Saranya Jayaram, Soma Biswas, Anand Kaloor, Mridul Umesh

Elucidation of antioxidant compounds recovery capacity from “Cam” purple rice bran by different sustainable extraction techniques

Le Thi Kim Loan, Bui The Vinh, Ngo Van Tai