Short Communication | Volume: 8, Issue: 2, March-April, 2020

Mycelial biomass, antioxidant, and myco-actives of mycelia of abalone mushroom Pleurotus cystidiosus in liquid culture

Kent Garcia Chester Jhae Garcia Reynante Bustillos Rich Milton Dulay   

Open Access   

Published:  Mar 26, 2020

DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2020.80215
Abstract

The mycelial biomass production of four strains (WS218-1, WS218-2, CST01, and CST02) of Pleurotus cystidiosus in liquid culture using coconut water as a medium was evaluated. Mycelia were extracted and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities and total phenolic contents were analyzed. The mycochemicals of the best strain were also screened using a thin-layer chromatography spot test. Results revealed that WS218-2 strain produced the heaviest mycelial biomass (6.57 g fresh wt. and 0.39 g dry wt.) while CSC02 and WS218-1 strains registered the lowest fresh and dry weight, respectively. Ethanolic extract of the WS218-2 strain showed the highest radical scavenging activity (79.01%) and contained the highest phenolic content (95.67 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of sample). Eleven mycochemicals including essential oil, triterpenes, anthraquinones, tannins, flavonoids, phenols, fatty acids, alkaloids, steroids, sugars, and coumarins were detected in WS218-2 mycelia. Pleurotus cystidiosus mycelia could be a valuable source of natural antioxidants and bioactive metabolites and it is strain-dependent.


Keyword:     Wild strains strain-dependent mycochemicals antioxidant WS218-2 P. cystidiosus.


Citation:

Garcia K, Garcia CJ, Bustillos R, Dulay RM. Mycelial biomass, antioxidant, and myco-actives of mycelia of abalone mushroom Pleurotus cystidiosus in liquid culture. J Appl Biol Biotech, 2020;8(02):94-97. DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2020.80215

Copyright: Author(s). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license.

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1. INTRODUCTION

In Central Luzon, Philippines, Pleurotus species have been commercially cultivated using different formulations of agro-industrial substrates such as rice straw, sawdust, rice bran, among others. These commercially cultivated mushrooms include Pleurotus florida, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus cystidiosus, and Pleurotus sajor-caju. Cultivation of mushrooms provides nutritious food and livelihood for the Filipino farmers and promotes environmental protection through bioconversion of lignocellulosic wastes. Some exotic Pleurotus species such as Pleurotus djamor, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, Pleurotus cornucopiae, and Pleurotus pulmonarius, acquired from other countries, are currently under evaluation for their optimal growth requirements under the tropical conditions of the Philippines by the Center for Tropical Mushroom Research and Development.

With our intention to increase the number of mushrooms to be cultivated, we continuously search and collect for new species and/or better strains of Philippine wild mushrooms. One of the mushroom species that was collected is P. cystidiosus. This basidiomycetous fungus has unique characteristic and that is the ability to produce cystidia—a black-headed coremia stalk-like cells whose tops are fitted with liquid droplets of black spores, which are produced abundantly in culture. In the previous work, we established the optimum mycelial growth conditions of P. cystidiosus in submerged culture and elucidated the lipid compositions, namely, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and polar lipids [1]. Moreover, this mushroom could also play a vital role in bioremediation as it accumulates lead from the lead-contaminated substrate [2].

Herein, we successfully rescued the cell lines of wild strains of P. cystidiosus from the forest area of Central Luzon State University and compared their biomass production performances in liquid culture, radical scavenging activity, and total phenolic content. The best strain in terms of production and the antioxidant property was subjected further in mycochemical analysis.


2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1. Source of Strains and Tissue Culture

Wild fruiting bodies of P. cystidiosus were collected from the forest area of Central Luzon State University, Science City of Munoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines and brought to the laboratory to rescue the mycelia. Internal tissues from the premature basidiocarp were obtained and inoculated onto potato dextrose agar plates. Culture plates were labeled properly as WS218-1, WS218-2, CST01, and CST02, and incubated at room temperature to allow mycelial ramification for 7 days. Mycelial disks in the pure culture were prepared using a flame sterile 10 mm-diameter cork borer and these were used as an inoculant in the evaluation of mycelial biomass production in liquid culture.

2.2. Mycelial Biomass Production in Submerged Culture

In the evaluation of mycelia biomass production of P. cytidiosus, coconut water from mature coconut was served as the medium in liquid culture. Fifty ml was dispensed into each glass bottle, plugged with cotton, and covered with paper. Ten replicates per strain were done. Culture media were sterilized in an autoclave at 121°C, 15 psi for 30 minutes. After cooling, 10 mm-diameter mycelial disk was inoculated into each medium. Cultures were incubated at 30°C for 15 days to allow mycelia growth. The mycelia were harvested, air-dried, and weighed.

2.3. Ethanol Extraction

Five grams of powdered air-dried mycelia of each strain were extracted in 500 ml of 80% ethanol for 48 hours. Extracts were filtered using Whatman filter No. 2 and concentrated to dryness using rotary evaporator. The extracts were harvested and subjected to assay.

2.4. 2,2’diphenyl-1-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Radical Scavenging Activity Assay

The 2,2’diphenyl-1-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay following the standard method of Kolak et al. [3] with minor modifications was used to determine the antioxidant activities of the extracts. One ml of extract at 1,000 μg/ml (dilution in ethanol) concentration was mixed with 4 ml of 0.1 mM DPPH solution in the separate plastic cuvette. A 1,000 μg/ml concentration of catechin was also prepared and this served as the positive control. Triplicate test was done. The prepared mixtures were incubated in the dark at 37°C for 30 minutes. The absorbance readings were monitored at 517 nm using a UV–VIS spectrophotometer (Spectrumlab 752S, Hinotek Instrument Co., LTD, China). The ability to scavenge the DPPH radical was calculated using the formula:

% Radical Scavenging Effect = [( A control A sample )/ A control ] × 1 0 0 .

2.5. Estimation of Phenolic Content

The total phenolic contents of the extracts were estimated using the Folin–Ciocalteu method of Sunita and Dhananjay [4] with modifications. Gallic acid was used as a standard and the total phenolics were expressed as mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of the sample. The different concentrations of gallic acid and the extract at 1 mg/ml (dilution in methanol) concentration were prepared. Each sample (0.5 ml) was introduced into test tubes and mixed with 2.5 ml of a 10-fold dilute Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and 2 ml of 7.5% sodium carbonate. All tests were performed in triplicate. The tubes were covered with parafilm and allowed to stand at 30°C for 30 minutes prior to absorbance reading at 760 nm using a UV–VIS spectrophotometer (Spectrumlab 752S, Hinotek Instrument Co., LTD, China).

2.6. Mycochemical Analysis

The mycochemical compositions of the fruiting bodies were detected following the procedures described by Guevara et al. [5].

2.7. Statistical Analysis

Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and the least significant difference at 5% level of significance was used to compare treatment means.


3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3.1. Mycelial Biomass Production

Mycelial growth and biomass production of mushrooms are species- and strain-dependent. In our intention to determine and to select the best strain, we evaluated the mycelial biomass production of four strains of P. cystidiosus in liquid culture using coconut water as a medium. Table 1 presents the mean yield of mycelial biomass of the four strains of P. cystidiosus after 15 days of incubation. Apparently, the different strains respond differently in the coconut water medium. WS218-2 strain recorded the highest mycelial biomass (6.57 g fresh wt. and 0.39 g dry wt.), whereas CSC02 strain had the lowest fresh weight and WS218-01 had the lowest dry weight. These results strongly indicate that the mycelial biomass production of P. cystidiosus could vary and it is dependent on the type of strain. This finding substantiates the observation of Kalaw et al. [6] who reported that the two strains of each mushroom, namely, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus tigrinus, Volvariella volvacea, Coprinopsis cinerea, and Schizophyllum commune performed differently on the nutritional and physical factors for mycelial growth on solid medium. Moreover, the biomass production performances of the different strains of Agaricus bisporus significantly varied as affected by temperature and method of composting of the substrate [7]. Black (AMRL 63) Morchella strains had a higher growth rate on wheat grains, potato peels, and a mixture than yellow (AMRL 52) strain in solid-state fermentation [8].

3.2. Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Phenolic Content

The DPPH free radical scavenging activity assay is one of the most common methods in determining the antioxidant activity of the extracts or compounds being tested. The antioxidant activity is definitely attributed to the antioxidative agents including total phenolics. In this study, the radical scavenging activities and total phenolic contents of ethanolic extracts of mycelia of four strains of P. cystidiosus were analyzed (Table 2). Apparently, the four extracts exhibited different radical scavenging activities and total phenolic contents. WS218-2 mycelia extract significantly recorded the highest radical scavenging activity of 79.01% and phenolic content 95.67 mg GAE/g of the sample. Accordingly, the results strongly suggest that phenolics were the major antioxidant components in the mushroom extract, which contribute to the antioxidative action via radical scavenging ability. This conforms with the report of Phan et al. [9] that the total phenolics present in the extracts were positively correlated to the free radical scavenging activities of two strains of Pleurotus giganteus. Among strains of P. cystidiosus evaluated, the WS218-2 strain could be a promising source of protective agents to help us reduce oxidative damage and the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Table 1: Yield of mycelial biomass of the four strains of P. cystidiosus grown in liquid culture using coconut water medium after 15 days of incubation.

[Click here to view]

Table 2: Radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content of the four strains P. cystidiosus mycelia.

[Click here to view]

In contrast, CST02 had the lowest radical scavenging activity (57.41%), whereas CST01 contained the lowest phenolic content 81.50 mg GAE/g of sample). Although these values were found lower in the present work, these values are still higher when compared to the scavenging activities of methanolic extracts of specialty mushrooms (63.3%–67.8%) and commercial mushrooms (42.9%–69.9%) and the total phenolic content of methanolic extracts of specialty mushrooms (7.61–16.28 mg/g) and commercial mushrooms (6.27–15.65 mg/g) [10]. Moreover, DPPH free radical scavenging activities of Pleurotus djamour var. djamour (5.5 mg/ml), Pleurotus djamour var. roseus (7.5 mg/ml), P. ostreatus (12.0 mg/ml), P. pulmonarius (6.0 mg/ml), and S. commune (3.0 mg/ml) are far lower compared to the obtained values in the present study [11]. The maximum radical scavenging activity (18.94%) and total phenolics (26.59 mg AAE/g sample) of mycelial extract of L. tigrinus and the highest scavenging activity (16.94%) and total phenolics (25.60 mg AAE/g sample) of mycelial extract of Lentinus sajor-caju in liquid culture using rice bran decoction are also lower [12]. Based on the present results and findings of the previous works, it is noteworthy to say that the different strains of P. cystidiosus could exhibit superior antioxidant activity than among other mushrooms.

3.3. Mycochemical Composition

Mycochemicals are fungal-derived chemicals, which play major roles in several biological activities. The chemical components of some of the Philippine wild mushrooms have been elucidated including Trichaleurina celebica, Trametes elegans, Polyporus grammocephalus, Lentinus strigosus, L. tigrinus, C. cinerea, and Paneaolus antillarium [1319]. In our intention to elucidate the bioactive compositions of the best wild strain, WS218-2, mycochemical detection in thin-layer chromatography was also carried out. Table 3 presents the results of the mycochemical screening. Eleven mycochemicals, namely, essential oil, triterpenes, anthraquinones, tannins, flavonoids, phenols, fatty acids, alkaloids, steroids, sugars, and coumarins were detected in P. cystidiosus WS218-2. In the elucidation of bioactive compounds of P. ostreatus conducted by Mohamed and Farghaly [20], nine chemical groups including 2 metabolites related to acids, 5 alcohols, 27 alkane, 3 amides, 27 esters, 8 fatty acids, 4 terpenoids, 29 heterocyclic, and 2 phenols were detected and these were related to anti-cholesterol and anti-cancer activity of the mentioned mushroom.

Table 3: Mycochemical composition of mycelia of WS218-2 strain of P. cystidiosus.

[Click here to view]

Several research studies have focused on the elucidation of bioactive compounds from Pleurotus species (i.e., [2023]) that can be isolated for nutraceutical and pharmacological purposes. Bioactive compounds from the mushrooms could possess antioxidant, antifungal, antibacterial, and antiviral activities [24]. Terpenoids, phenols, steroids, polysaccharides, fatty acids, and amino acid were reported to act as anticancer agents [25,26]. Phenolic compounds, especially flavonoid and organic acids, were known antioxidant metabolites [20]. The chemical constituents of P. cystidiosus obtained in the present work are very useful mycochemicals that revealed significant antioxidant properties and could provide interesting biological activities that need to be investigated in future studies.


4. CONCLUSION

The mycelial biomass production and antioxidant activity of P. cystidiosus are strain-dependent. WS218-02 strain recorded the most efficient mycelial biomass production and could be a promising source of antioxidants and other myco-metabolites with important biological activities. The other functional activities of the mentioned strain must be investigated in the next study.


CONFLICT OF INTEREST

There are no conflicts of interest declared by the authors.


REFERENCES

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2. Dulay RMR, De Castro MEG, Coloma NB, Bernardo AP, Dela Cruz AG, Tiniola RC, Kalaw SP, Reyes RG. Effects and myco-accumulation of lead in five Pleurotus mushrooms. Int J Biol Pharm Allied Sci 2015b;4(3):1664–77.

3. Kolak U, Öztürk M, Özgökçe F, Ulubelen A. Norditerpene alkaloids from Delphinium linearilobum and antioxidant activity. Phytochemistry 2006;67(19):2170–5. CrossRef

4. Sunita M, Dhananjay S. Quantitative analysis of total phenolics content in Adhantoda vasica Nees Extracts. Int J PharmTech Res 2010;2(4):2403–6.

5. Guevarra B. A guidebook to phytochemical screening: phytochemical and biological. UST Publishing House, Manila, Philippines, 2005.

6. Kalaw SP, Alfonso DO, Dulay RMR, De Leon AM, Undan JQ, Undan JR, et al. Optimization of culture conditions for secondary mycelial growth of wild edible mushrooms from selected areas in Central Luzon, Philippines. Curr Res Environ Appli Mycol 2016;6(4):277–87. CrossRef

7. Kaur S, Kapoor S, Sodhi HS. Screening and evaluation of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. strains for temperature variability. Int J Curr Microbio Appl Sci 2014;3(6):120–7.

8. Papadaki A, Diamantopoulou P, Papanikolaou S, Philippoussis A. Evaluation of biomass and chitin production of Morchella mushrooms grown on starch-based substrates. Foods, 2019;8:239. CrossRef

9. Phan CW, David P, Tan YS, Naidu M, Wong KH, Kuppusamy UR, et al. Intrastrain comparison of the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of an edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus, and its potent neuritogenic properties. Sci World J 2014; Article ID: 378651 CrossRef

10. Lin HC. Evaluation of taste quality and antioxidant properties of edible and medicinal mushrooms. Master’s Thesis, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, 1999.

11. Gan CH, Nurul AB, Asmah R. Antioxidant analysis of different types of edible mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis). Int Food Res J 2013;20(3):1095–102.

12. Dulay RMR, Flores KS, Tiniola RC, Marquez DHH, Dela Cruz AG, Kalaw SP, et al. Mycelial biomass production and antioxidant activity of Lentinus tigrinus and Lentinus sajor-caju in indigenous liquid culture. Mycosphere 2015;6(6):659–66. CrossRef

13. Sogan MM, Maslang JAL, Dulay RMR. Myco-chemicals and teratogenic activity of wild mushroom Trichaleurina celebica from Mt. Palali, Quezon, Nueva Ecija, Luzon Island, Philippines. CLSU Int J Sci Technol 2018;3(2):17–23. CrossRef

14. Nanglihan KEMV, Dulay RMR, Kalaw SP. Myko-actives and functional activities of Philippine wild mushroom Trametes elegans. Int J Biosci 2018;13(5):402–8. CrossRef

15. Aquino YKDC, Vega LDP, Medrano NRM, Dulay RMR. Mycochemicals, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Polyporus grammocephalus Berk (BIL7749). Int J Biol Pharm Allied Sci 2018;7(6):966–75. CrossRef

16. Dulay RMR, Pamiloza DG. Proximate composition and bioactivities of hairy sawgill mushroom, Lentinus strigosus (BIL 1324) from the Philippines. Int J Biol Phar Allied Sci 2018;7(3):361–9. CrossRef

17. Dulay RMR, Arenas MC, Kalaw SP, Reyes RG, Cabrera EC. Proximate composition and functionality of the culinary-medicinal tiger sawgill mushroom, Lentinus tigrinus (Higher basidiomycetes), from the Philippines. Int J Med Mushrooms 2014;16(1):85–94. CrossRef

18. Dulay RMR, Sanguesa KB, Ablaza JLT, Joson AJM, Peria JNT, Quejada CS, et al. Bioactive myco-nutrients of aseptically cultured fruiting bodies of Coprinus comatus (O.F. Müll.) Pers. on rice bran-enriched ruminants’ dung. Int J Biol Pharm Allied Sci 2015;4(4):1896–908.

19. Dulay RMR, Cabalar AC, De Roxas MJB, Concepcion JMP, Cruz NE, Esmeralda M, et al. Proximate composition and antioxidant activity of Panaeolus antillarium, a wild coprophilous mushroom. Curr Res Environ Appl Mycol 2015;5(1):52–9. CrossRef

20. Mohamed EM, Farghaly FA. Bioactive compounds of fresh and dried Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom. Int J Biotechnol Wellness Ind 2014;3:4–14. CrossRef

21. Wekesa NJ, Lilechi DB, Sigot A, Cheruiyot JK, Kamau R, Kisiangani P. Volatile and non-polar chemical constituents of cultivated oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. In J Pharmacogn Phytochem Res 2016;8(3):477–9.

22. Bernas E. Edible mushroom as a source of valuable nutritive constituents. J Agric Food Chem 2006;5:5–20.

23. Overton SV. Determination of volatile organic compounds in mushrooms. Mass Spec Source 2010;18:4–7.

24. Wani BA, Bodha RH, Wani AH. Nutritional and medicinal importance of mushrooms. J Med Plants Res 2010;4(24):2598–604. CrossRef

25. Mizuno T. The extraction and development of antitumor active polysaccharides from medicinal mushrooms in Japan (review). Int J Med Mushrooms 1999;1:9–29. CrossRef

26. Wasser SP, Weis AL. Medicinal properties of substances occurring in higher basidiomycetes mushrooms: current perspectives (review). Int J Med Mushrooms 1999;1:47–50. CrossRef

Reference

1. Dulay RMR, Ray K, Hou CT. Optimization of liquid culture conditions of Philippine wild edible mushrooms as potential source of bioactive lipids. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol 2015;4:409-15.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcab.2015.04.003

2. Dulay RMR, De Castro MEG, Coloma NB, Bernardo AP, Dela Cruz AG, Tiniola RC, Kalaw SP, Reyes RG. Effects and myco-accumulation of lead in five Pleurotus mushrooms. Int J Biol Pharm Allied Sci 2015b;4(3):1664-77.

3. Kolak U, Öztürk M, Özgökçe F, Ulubelen A. Norditerpene alkaloids from Delphinium linearilobum and antioxidant activity. Phytochemistry 2006;67(19):2170-5.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2006.06.006

4. Sunita M, Dhananjay S. Quantitative analysis of total phenolics content in Adhantoda vasica Nees Extracts. Int J PharmTech Res 2010;2(4):2403-6.

5. Guevarra B. A guidebook to phytochemical screening: phytochemical and biological. UST Publishing House, Manila, Philippines, 2005.

6. Kalaw SP, Alfonso DO, Dulay RMR, De Leon AM, Undan JQ, Undan JR, et al. Optimization of culture conditions for secondary mycelial growth of wild edible mushrooms from selected areas in Central Luzon, Philippines. Curr Res Environ Appli Mycol 2016;6(4):277-87.https://doi.org/10.5943/cream/6/4/5

7. Kaur S, Kapoor S, Sodhi HS. Screening and evaluation of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. strains for temperature variability. Int J Curr Microbio Appl Sci 2014;3(6):120-7.

8. Papadaki A, Diamantopoulou P, Papanikolaou S, Philippoussis A. Evaluation of biomass and chitin production of Morchella mushrooms grown on starch-based substrates. Foods, 2019;8:239.https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8070239

9. Phan CW, David P, Tan YS, Naidu M, Wong KH, Kuppusamy UR, et al. Intrastrain comparison of the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of an edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus, and its potent neuritogenic properties. Sci World J 2014;378651.https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/378651

10. Lin HC. Evaluation of taste quality and antioxidant properties of edible and medicinal mushrooms. Master's Thesis, National Chung- Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan, 1999.

11. Gan CH, Nurul AB, Asmah R. Antioxidant analysis of different types of edible mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis). Int Food Res J 2013;20(3):1095-102.

12. Dulay RMR, Flores KS, Tiniola RC, Marquez DHH, Dela Cruz AG, Kalaw SP, et al. Mycelial biomass production and antioxidant activity of Lentinus tigrinus and Lentinus sajor-caju in indigenous liquid culture. Mycosphere 2015;6(6):659-66.https://doi.org/10.5943/mycosphere/6/6/2

13. Sogan MM, Maslang JAL, Dulay RMR. Myco-chemicals and teratogenic activity of wild mushroom Trichaleurina celebica from Mt. Palali, Quezon, Nueva Ecija, Luzon Island, Philippines. CLSU Int J Sci Technol 2018;3(2):17-23.https://doi.org/10.22137/ijst.2018.v3n2.03

14. Nanglihan KEMV, Dulay RMR, Kalaw SP. Myko-actives and functional activities of Philippine wild mushroom Trametes elegans. Int J Biosci 2018;13(5):402-8.https://doi.org/10.12692/ijb/13.5.402-408

15. Aquino YKDC, Vega LDP, Medrano NRM, Dulay RMR. Mycochemicals, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Polyporus grammocephalus Berk (BIL7749). Int J Biol Pharm Allied Sci 2018;7(6):966-75.https://doi.org/10.31032/IJBPAS/2018/7.6.4455

16. Dulay RMR, Pamiloza DG. Proximate composition and bioactivities of hairy sawgill mushroom, Lentinus strigosus (BIL 1324) from the Philippines. Int J Biol Phar Allied Sci 2018;7(3):361-9.https://doi.org/10.31032/IJBPAS/2018/7.3.4400

17. Dulay RMR, Arenas MC, Kalaw SP, Reyes RG, Cabrera EC. Proximate composition and functionality of the culinary-medicinal tiger sawgill mushroom, Lentinus tigrinus (Higher basidiomycetes), from the Philippines. Int J Med Mushrooms 2014;16(1):85-94.https://doi.org/10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v16.i1.80

18. Dulay RMR, Sanguesa KB, Ablaza JLT, Joson AJM, Peria JNT, Quejada CS, et al. Bioactive myco-nutrients of aseptically cultured fruiting bodies of Coprinus comatus (O.F. Müll.) Pers. on rice bran-enriched ruminants' dung. Int J Biol Pharm Allied Sci 2015;4(4): 1896-908.

19. Dulay RMR, Cabalar AC, De Roxas MJB, Concepcion JMP, Cruz NE, Esmeralda M, et al. Proximate composition and antioxidant activity of Panaeolus antillarium, a wild coprophilous mushroom. Curr Res Environ Appl Mycol 2015;5(1):52-9.https://doi.org/10.5943/cream/5/1/7

20. Mohamed EM, Farghaly FA. Bioactive compounds of fresh and dried Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom. Int J Biotechnol Wellness Ind 2014;3:4-14.https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-3037.2014.03.01.2

21. Wekesa NJ, Lilechi DB, Sigot A, Cheruiyot JK, Kamau R, Kisiangani P. Volatile and non-polar chemical constituents of cultivated oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. In J Pharmacogn Phytochem Res 2016;8(3):477-9.

22. Bernas E. Edible mushroom as a source of valuable nutritive constituents. J Agric Food Chem 2006;5:5-20.

23. Overton SV. Determination of volatile organic compounds in mushrooms. Mass Spec Source 2010;18:4-7.

24. Wani BA, Bodha RH, Wani AH. Nutritional and medicinal importance of mushrooms. J Med Plants Res 2010;4(24):2598-604.https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR09.565

25. Mizuno T. The extraction and development of antitumor active polysaccharides from medicinal mushrooms in Japan (review). Int J Med Mushrooms 1999;1:9-29.https://doi.org/10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.v1.i1.20

26. Wasser SP, Weis AL. Medicinal properties of substances occurring in higher basidiomycetes mushrooms: current perspectives (review). Int J Med Mushrooms 1999;1:47-50.https://doi.org/10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.v1.i1.30

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Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quel. (Pleurotaceae): In vitro antioxidant evaluation and the isolation of a steroidal isoprenoid

Blessing Onyinye Okonkwo, Ozadheoghene Eriarie Afieroho, Emeka Daniel Ahanonu, Lambert Okwubie, Kio Anthony Abo

Study of the changes in the growth, protein, and bioactive profile of Chlorella emersonii KJ725233 in response to sodium and ammonium nitrate

Sneha Sunil Sawant, Varsha Kelkar-Mane

Determination of phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of Launaea resedifolia from Algerian Sahara

Amina Bouguerra, Mohamed Hadjadj, Mesaouda Dekmouche, Zhour Rahmani, Houssine Dendougui

Investigation of morphological, phytochemical, and enzymatic characteristics of Anethum graveolens L. using selenium in combination with humic acid and fulvic acid

Parviz Samavatipour, Vahid Abdossi, Reza Salehi, Saeed Samavat,Alireza Ladan Moghadam

A study on the salinity stress effects on the biochemical traits of seedlings and its relationship with resistance toward sensitive and tolerant flax genotypes

Yousef Alaei, Seyed Kamal Kazemitabar, Mohammad Zaefi Zadeh, Hamid Najafi Zarini, Gaffar Kiani

Nyctanthes arbor-tristis: Comprehensive review on its pharmacological, antioxidant, and anticancer activities

Smita Parekh, Anjali Soni

Anti-quorum sensing, antibacterial, antioxidant activities, and phytoconstituents analysis of medicinal plants used in Benin: Acacia macrostachya (Rchb. ex DC.)

Mounirou Tchatchedre, Abdou Madjid O. Amoussa, Ménonvè Atindehou, Aminata P. Nacoulma, Ambaliou Sanni, Martin kiendrebeogo, Latifou Lagnika

Studies on the mechanism of desiccation tolerance in the resurrection fern Adiantum raddianum

Tumkur Govindaraju Banupriya, Chandraiah Ramyashree, Devaraja Akash, Neeragunda Shivaraj Yathish, Ramasandra Govindarao Sharthchandra

Antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effects of aqueous seed extract of Daucus carota L. in triton ×100-induced hyperlipidemic mice

Habibu Tijjani, Abubakar Mohammed, Sani Muktar, Saminu Musa, Yusuf Abubakar, Adegbenro Peter Adegunloye, Ahmed Adebayo Ishola, Enoch Banbilbwa Joel, Carrol Domkat Luka, Adamu Jibril Alhassan

Role of glutathione reductase and catalase enzyme in antioxidant defense mechanism in controlling fluoride-induced oxidative stress

Komal Sharma, Mamta Choudhary, Khushbu Verma

Biological activities and phytochemicals of Hyptis capitata grown in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

Irawan Wijaya Kusuma, Rahmini, Enos Tangke Arung, Arif Yudo Pramono, Erwin, Supomo

Salt stress, its impacts on plants and the strategies plants are employing against it: A review

Zeenat Mushtaq, Shahla Faizan, Basit Gulzar

Impact of oxidizing, reducing, and stabilizing agents on the inhibitory properties of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba trypsin inhibitor

Preeti Patidar, Mahima Golani, Sumati Hajela, Krishnan Hajela

Identification of highest L-Methioninase enzyme producers among soil microbial isolates, with potential antioxidant and anticancer properties

D. Kavya, Varalakshmi Kilingar Nadumane

Astaxanthin: An algae-based natural compound with a potential role in human health-promoting effect: An updated comprehensive review

Jinu Medhi, Mohan Chandra Kalita

Linalool protects hippocampal CA1 neurons and improves functional outcomes following experimental ischemia/reperfusion in rats

Vishal Airao, Prakruti Buch, Tejas Sharma, Devendra Vaishnav, Sachin Parmar

Modification of the time of incubation in colorimetric method for accurate determination of the total antioxidants capacity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl stable free radical

Abhipsa Bal, Samar Gourav Pati, Falguni Panda, Biswaranjan Paital

HR-LC-MS based profiling of phytochemicals from methanol extracts of leaves and bark of Myristica dactyloides Gaertn. from Western Ghats of Karnataka, India

Kuppuru Mallikarjunaiah Marulasiddaswamy, Bettadapura Rameshgowda Nuthan,, Channarayapatna-Ramesh Sunilkumar, Shrisha Naik Bajpe,, Kigga Kaadappa Sampath Kumara, Shailasree Sekhar, Kukkundoor Ramachandra Kini

Preclinical evaluation of anticataract activity of Mentha spicata leaves on isolated goat lens by an in vitro model

Shreya Mohandas, Saahiba Thaleshwari, Myrene Roselyn Dsouza

Green synthesis, characterizations, and in vitro biological evaluation of Cu (II) complexes of quercetin with N ^ N ligands

Tanu Srivastava, Sunil Kumar Mishra, Om Prakash Tiwari

Optimization of extraction conditions of phytochemical compounds in “Xiem” banana peel powder using response surface methodology

Ngo Van Tai, Mai Nhat Linh, Nguyen Minh Thuy

Antioxidative, antiproliferative, and apoptosis effect of Coleus tuberosus flesh and peel ethanol extracts on cervical cancer cell lines

Mutiara Nugraheni, Windarwati Windarwati, Badraningsih Lastariwati

Comparative study of hydroalcoholic extracts of Bryophyllum pinnatum and Macrotyloma uniflorum for their antioxidant, antiurolithiatic, and wound healing potential

Chetna Faujdar, Priyadarshini

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of Precocene II, estimation of enzymatic, nonenzymatic antioxidant, and cytotoxic potentials of methyl jasmonate-elicited shoot culture of Ageratum conyzoides Linn.

Selvaraj Vasantharani, Ramaraj Thirugnanasampandan, Gunasekaran Bhuvaneswari

Suppression of the RAGE gene expression in RAW 264.7 murine leukemia cell line by ethyl acetate extract of Mikania micrantha (L.) Kunth.

Alex Zohmachhuana, Malsawmdawngliana Tlaisun, Vabeiryureilai Mathipi, Lalrinzuali Khawlhring, Joyce Sudandara Priya

A review on fish peptides isolated from fish waste with their potent bioactivities

Ayusman Behera, Rajashree Das, Pranati Patnaik, Jyotirmaya Mohanty, Gargee Mohanty

Quantification of phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant activities from various parts of Euphorbia neriifolia Linn.

Priya Chaudhary, Pracheta Janmeda

Influence of soaking and germination treatments on the nutritional, anti-nutritional, and bioactive composition of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.)

Qurat Ul Eain Hyder Rizvi, Krishan Kumar, Naseer Ahmed, Ajar Nath Yadav, Divya Chauhan, Priyanka Thakur, Sumaira Jan, Imran Sheikh

Impact of diverse processing treatments on nutritional and anti-nutritional characteristics of soybean (Glycine max L.)

Priyanka Thakur, Krishan Kumar, Naseer Ahmed, Ajar Nath Yadav, Sunil Kumar, Qurat Ul Eain Hyder Rizvi, Divya Chauhan, Sumaira Jan

Cathelicidin-HR from Hoplobatrachus rugulosus: an antioxidant peptide that performs a protective effect against UV/H2O2 -induced DNA damage

Piyachat Wiriyaampaiwong, Chutima Karnmongkol, Arpaporn Punpad, Nattapong Srisamoot, Wutti Rattanavichai, Alongkod Tanomtong, Sakda Daduang,, Sompong Klaynongsruang,, Anupong Tankrathok,

Woodfordia fruticosa (Linn.) Kurz’s fungal endophyte Mucor souzae’s secondary metabolites, kaempferol and quercetin, bestow biological activities

Kavyashree Doreswamy, Priyanka Shenoy, Sneha Bhaskar, Ramachandra K. Kini, Shailasree Sekhar

Characterization of the crude extract of Portulaca oleracea and the determination of the polyphenol oxidase kinetics in the presence of Cu and Zn

Omar Mohammad Atrooz, Shada Zaher Al-Maitah

Effect of diverse fermentation treatments on nutritional composition, bioactive components, and anti-nutritional factors of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.)

Sumaira Jan, Krishan Kumar, Ajar Nath Yadav, Naseer Ahmed, Priyanka Thakur, Divya Chauhan, Qurat-Ul-Eain Hyder Rizvi, Harcharan Singh Dhaliwal

Optimization of active antioxidative defatted Canarium indicum L. (Canary) protein hydrolysate production

Cintya Nurul Apsari,, Ilma Nugrahani, Sukrasno, Tutus Gusdinar

Elemental, nutritional, and phytochemical profiling and antioxidant activity of Cordia obliqua Willd. (Clammy Cherry): An important underutilized forest tree of East India

Mamta Naik#,, Shashikanta Behera#,,, Sadhni Induar, Swaraj K. Babu, Pradeep K. Naik

Effects of enzymatic hydrolysis on the antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysate derived from the larvae of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.)

Muhammad Yusuf Abduh,, Diah Ayu Prawitasari,, Ula Aulia Fitrian,, Mochamad Firmansyah,

Evaluation of functional characteristics of roselle seed and its use as a partial replacement of wheat flour in soft bread making

Nguyen Minh Thuy, Nguyen Bao Tram, Dinh Gia Cuong, Huynh Khanh Duy, Ly Thanh An, Vo Quoc Tien, Tran Ngoc Giau, Ngo Van Tai

Total phenolic, flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activity of three selected Portulaca grandiflora mutants in MV8 generation as a result of recurrent irradiation technique

Waras Nurcholis,, Syarifah Iis Aisyah, Regina Agritena Mayrischa Saraswati, Yoshua Shandy Yudha