Engineering to enhance thermostability of xylanase: For the new era of biotechnology

Chitranshu Pandey Pallavi Sharma Neeraj Gupta   

Open Access   

Published:  Oct 12, 2022

DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2023.110204

Xylanases are crucial hydrolase enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of β-1, 4 glycosidic bonds of the xylan backbone polymeric chain that comprises xylose monomers. There are a variety of industrial implementations as commercial enzyme for heat-stable xylanase. Thermostable xylanases were utilized in a wide range of industries, for instance, in the pulp and paper industry industries; biofuels; and food and feed manufacturing industries; and textiles industries. Improvement of the thermostability of xylanase employed commercially or industrially will improve their efficiency and business success due to improved enzymatic abilities and cost-effectiveness. This study discusses the development of xylanases industrial stability. Even the different approaches of protein engineering and metabolic engineering were developed to enhance the operational stability of xylanase. To improve the nutrient content of livestock feed, thermostable xylanases have been reported. We do have employed directly in bakeries and breweries including significant use as a bio-bleaching agent in the paper and pulp industries. This review focuses on a few uses of thermostable xylanase in bioengineering.

Keyword:     Thermostable Enzyme Xylanase Hemicellulose Xylan


Pandey C, Sharma P, Gupta N. Engineering to enhance thermostability of xylanase: For the new era of biotechnology. J App Biol Biotech.  2022.

Copyright: Author(s). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license.

HTML Full Text

1. Dahlberg L, Holst O, Kristjansson JK. Thermostable xylanolytic enzymes from Rhodothermus marinus grown on xylan. Appl

Microbiol Biotechnol 1993;40:63-8.

2. Selvarajan E, Veena R. Recent advances and future perspectives of thermostable xylanase. Biosci Biotechnol Res Asia 2017;14:421-38.

3. Shao W, Obi S, Puls J, Wiegel J. Purification and characterization of the (alpha)-glucuronidase from Thermoanaerobacterium sp. Strain JW/SL-YS485, an important enzyme for the utilization of substituted xylans. Appl Environ Microbial 1995;61:1077-81.

4. Saha BC. Hemicellulose bioconversion. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2003;30:279-91.

5. Haltrich D, Nidetzky B, Kulbe KD, Steiner W, Župan?i? S. Production of fungal xylanases. Bioresour Technol 1996;58:137-61.

6. Moehlenbrock MJ, Minteer SD. Introduction to the field of enzyme immobilization and stabilization. In: Enzyme Stabilization and Immobilization. Berlin: Springer; 2017. p. 1-7.

7. Mateo C, Palomo JM, Fernandez-Lorente G, Guisan JM, Fernandez-Lafuente R. Improvement of enzyme activity, stability and selectivity via immobilization techniques. Enzyme Microb Technol 2007;40:1451-63.

8. Jampala P, Preethi M, Ramanujam S, Harish BS, Uppuluri KB, Anbazhagan V. Immobilization of levan-xylanase nanohybrid on an alginate bead improves xylanase stability at wide pH and temperature. Int J Biol Macromol 2017;95:843-9.

9. Kumar L, Nagar S, Mittal A, Garg N, Gupta VK. Immobilization of xylanase purified from Bacillus pumilus VLK-1 and its application in enrichment of orange and grape juices. J Food Sci Technol 2014;51:1737-49.

10. Chen M, Zeng G, Xu P, Lai C, Tang L. How do enzymes "meet" nanoparticles and nanomaterials? Trends Biochem Sci 2017;42:914-30.

11. Wang J, Liu Z, Zhou Z. Improving pullulanase catalysis via reversible immobilization on modified Fe3O4@ polydopamine nanoparticles. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2017;182:1467-77.

12. Ansari SA, Husain Q. Potential applications of enzymes immobilized on/in nano materials: A review. Biotechnol Adv 2012;30:512-23.

13. Li C, Jiang S, Zhao X, Liang H. Co-immobilization of enzymes and magnetic nanoparticles by metal-nucleotide hydrogelnan ofibers for improving stability and recycling. Molecules 2017;22:179.

14. Singh S, Madlala AM, Prior BA. Thermomyces lanuginosus: Properties of strains and their hemicellulases. FEMS Microbiol Rev 2003;27:3-16.

15. Basheer SM, Chellappan S. Enzyme engineering. In: Bioresources and Bioprocess in Biotechnology. Berlin, Germany: Springer; 2017. p. 151-68.

16. Pucci F, Rooman M. Physical and molecular bases of protein thermal stability and cold adaptation. Curr Opin Struct Biol 2017;42:117-28.

17. Kahrani ZF, Emamzadeh R, Nazari M, Rasa SM. Molecular basis of thermostability enhancement of Renilla luciferase at higher temperatures by insertion of a disulfide bridge into the structure. Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom 2017;1865:252-9.

18. Chang A, Scheer M, Grote A, Schomburg I, Schomburg D. BRENDA, Amenda and FRENDA the enzyme information system: New content and tools in 2009. Nucleic Acids Res 2009;37:D588-92.

19. Han N, Miao H, Ding J, Li J, Mu Y, Zhou J, et al. Improving the thermostability of a fungal GH11 xylanase via site-directed mutagenesis guided by sequence and structural analysis. Biotechnol Biofuels Bioprod 2017;10:1-12.

20. Ebert MC, Pelletier JN. Computational tools for enzyme improvement: Why everyone can-and should-use them. Curr Opin Chem Biol 2017;37:89-96.

21. Wijma HJ, Floor RJ, Janssen DB. Structure-and sequence-analysis inspired engineering of proteins for enhanced thermostability. Curr Opin Struct Biol 2013;23:588-94.

22. Bin Abdul Wahab MK, Bin Jonet MA, Illias RM. Thermostability enhancement of xylanase Aspergillus fumigatus RT-1. J Mol Catal B Enzym 2016;134:154-63.

23. Donohoue PD, Barrangou R, May AP. Advances in industrial biotechnology using CRISPR-Cas systems. Trends Biotechnol 2018;36:134-46.

24. Yadav R, Kumar V, Baweja M, Shukla P. Gene editing and genetic engineering approaches for advanced probiotics: A review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2018;58:1735-46.

25. Gupta PK, Agrawal P, Hedge P, Akhtar MS. Xylooligosaccharides and their anticancer potential: An update. In: Anticancer Plants: Natural Products and Biotechnological Implements. Berlin, Germany: Springer; 2018. p. 255-71.

26. Qian C, Liu N, Yan X, Wang Q, Zhou Z, Wang Q. Engineering a high-performance, metagenomic-derived novel xylanase with improved soluble protein yield and thermostability. Enzyme Microb Technol 2015;70:35-41.

27. Acevedo JP, Reetz MT, Asenjo JA, Parra LP. One-step combined focused epPCR and saturation mutagenesis for thermostability evolution of a new cold-active xylanase. Enzyme Microb Technol 2017;100:60-70.

28. Boonyapakron K, Jaruwat A, Liwnaree B, Nimchua T, Champreda V, Chitnumsub P. Structure-based protein engineering for thermostable and alkaliphilic enhancement of endo-β-1, 4-xylanase for applications in pulp bleaching. J Biotechnol 2017;259:95-102.

29. Wang K, Luo H, Tian J, Turunen O, Huang H, Shi P, et al. Thermostability improvement of a Streptomyces xylanase by introducing proline and glutamic acid residues. Appl Environ Microb 2014;80:2158-65.

30. Irfan M, Guler HI, Ozer A, Sapmaz MT, Belduz AO, Hasan F, et al. C-Terminal proline-rich sequence broadens the optimal temperature and pH ranges of recombinant xylanase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans C5. Enzyme Microb Technol 2016;91:34-41.

31. Irfan M, Guler HI, Shah AA, Sal FA, Inan K, Belduz AO. Cloning, purification and characterization of halotolerant xylanase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans C5. J Microb Biotechnol Food Sci 2021;2021:523-9.

32. Sriprang R, Asano K, Gobsuk J, Tanapongpipat S, Champreda V, Eurwilaichitr L. Improvement of thermostability of fungal xylanase by using site-directed mutagenesis. J Biotechnol 2006;126:454-62.

33. Chen W, Ye L, Guo F, Lv Y, Yu H. Enhanced activity of an alkaline phytase from Bacillus subtilis 168 in acidic and neutral environments by directed evolution. Biochem Eng J 2015;98:137-43.

34. Sun DP, Sauer U, Nicholson H, Matthews BW. Contributions of engineered surface salt bridges to the stability of T4 lysozyme determined by directed mutagenesis. Biochemistry 1991;30:7142-53.

35. Motta FL, Andrade CC, Santana MH. A review of xylanase production by the fermentation of xylan: Classification, characterization and applications. In: Sustainable Degradation of lignocellulosic Biomass-Techniques, Applications And Commercialization. London: IntechOpen; 2013.

36. Paës G, Berrin JG, Beaugrand J. GH11 xylanases: Structure/function/properties relationships and applications. Biotechnol Adv 2012;30:564-92.

37. Zhang ZG, Yi ZL, Pei XQ, Wu ZL. Improving the thermostability of Geobacillusstearo thermophilus xylanase XT6 by directed evolution and site-directed mutagenesis. Bioresour Technol 2010;101:9272-8.

38. Joo JC, Pack SP, Kim YH, Yoo YJ. Thermostabilization of Bacillus circulans xylanase: Computational optimization of unstable residues based on thermal fluctuation analysis. J Biotechnol 2011;151:56-65.

39. Yang HM, Yao B, Meng K, Wang YR, Bai YG, Wu NF. Introduction of a disulfide bridge enhances the thermostability of a Streptomyces olivaceoviridis xylanase mutant. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2007;34:213-8.

40. Ayadi DZ, Sayari AH, Ben HH, Ben MS, Mezghani M, Bejar S. Improvement of Trichoderma reesei xylanase II thermal stability by serine to threonine surface mutations. Int J Biol Macromol


41. Tang F, Chen D, Yu B, Luo Y, Zheng P, Mao X, et al. Improving the thermostability of Trichoderma reesei xylanase 2 by introducing disulfide bonds. Electron J Biotechnol 2017;26:52-9.

42. You S, Xie C, Ma R, Huang H, Herman RA, Su X, et al. Improvement in catalytic activity and thermostability of a GH10 xylanase and its synergistic degradation of biomass with cellulase. Biotechnol Biofuels 2019;12:278.

43. Wang Y, Feng S, Zhan T, Huang Z, Wu G, Liu Z. Improving catalytic efficiency of endo-β-1, 4-xylanase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus by directed evolution and H179 saturation mutagenesis. J Biotechnol 2013;168:341-7.

44. Jia H, Li Y, Liu Y, Yan Q, Yang S, Jiang Z. Engineering a thermostable β-1, 3-1, 4-glucanase from Paecilomyces thermophila to improve catalytic efficiency at acidic pH. J Biotechnol 2012;159:50-5.

45. Trollope KM, Görgens JF, Volschenk H. Semirational directed evolution of loop regions in Aspergillus japonicus β-fructofuranosidase for improved fructooligosaccharide production. Appl Environ Microbiol 2015;81:7319-29.

46. Yang JH, Park JY, Kim SH, Yoo YJ. Shifting pH optimum of Bacillus circulans xylanase based on molecular modeling. J Biotechnol 2008;133:294-300.

47. Cantarel BL, Coutinho PM, Rancurel C, Bernard T, Lombard V, Henrissat B. The carbohydrate-active enzymes database (CAZy): An expert resource for glycogenomics. Nucleic Acids Res 2009;37:D233-8.

48. Jun H, Bing Y, Keying Z, Xuemei D, Daiwen C. Thermostable carbohydrate binding module increases the thermostability and substrate-binding capacity of Trichoderma reesei xylanase 2. N Biotechnol 2009;26:53-9.

49. Mamo G, Hatti-Kaul R, Mattiasson B. Fusion of carbohydrate binding modules from Thermotoga neapolitana with a family 10 xylanase from Bacillus halodurans S7. Extremophiles 2007;11:169-77.

50. Sajjad M, Khan MI, Zafar R, Ahmad S, Niazi UH, Akhtar MW. Influence of positioning of carbohydrate binding module on the activity of endoglucanaseCelA of Clostridium thermocellum. J Biotechnol 2012;161:206-12.

51. Sajjad M, Khan MI, Akbar NS, Ahmad S, Ali I, Akhtar MW. Enhanced expression and activity yields of Clostridium thermocellum xylanases without non-catalytic domains. J Biotechnol 2010;145:38-42.

52. Liu L, Zeng L, Wang S, Cheng J, Li X, Song A, et al. Activity and thermostability increase of xylanase following transplantation with modules sub-divided from hyper-thermophilic CBM9 1-2. Process Biochem 2012;47:853-7.

53. Sunna A, Gibbs MD, Bergquist PL. The thermostabilizing domain, XynA, of Caldibacillus cellulovorans xylanase is a xylan binding domain. Biochem J 2000;346:583-6.

54. Liu L, Cheng J, Chen H, Li X, Wang S, Song A, et al. Directed evolution of a mesophilic fungal xylanase by fusion of a thermophilic bacterial carbohydrate-binding module. Process Biochem 2011;46:395-8.

55. Miao H, Ma Y, Zhe Y, Tang X, Wu Q, Huang Z, et al. Improving the thermostability of a fungal GH11 xylanase via fusion of a submodule (C2) from hyperthermophilic CBM9 1-2. Int J Mol Sci 2022;23:463.

56. Wrenbeck EE. Deep Sequencing Driven Protein Engineering: New Methods and Applications in Studying the Constraints of Functional Enzyme Evolution. Michigan: Michigan State University; 2017.

57. Santero E, Floriano B, Govantes F. Harnessing the power of microbial metabolism. Curr Opinion Microbiol 2016;31:63-9.

58. Kohanski MA, Collins JJ. Rewiring bacteria, two components at a time. Cell 2008;133:947-8.

59. Tian J, Ma K, Saaem I. Advancing high-throughput gene synthesis technology. Mol Biosyst 2009;5:714-22.

60. Esvelt KM, Wang HH. Genome-scale engineering for systems and synthetic biology. Mol Syst Biol 2013;9:641.

61. Courtin CM, Delcour J. Arabinoxylans and endoxylanases in wheat flour bread-making. J Cereal Sci 2002;35:225-43.

62. Camacho NA, Aguilar G. Production, purification, and characterization of a low-molecular-mass xylanase from Aspergillus sp. and its application in baking. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2003;104:159-71.

63. Butt MS, Tahir-Nadeem M, Ahmad Z, Sultan MT. Xylanases and their applications in baking industry. Food Technol Biotechnol 2008;46:22-31.

64. Polizeli M, Rizzatti AC, Monti R, Terenzi HF, Jorge JA, Amorim DS. Xylanases from fungi: Properties and industrial applications. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2005;67:577-91.

65. Driss D, Bhiri F, Siela M, Bessess S, Chaabouni S, Ghorbel R. Improvement of breadmaking quality by xylanase GH 11 from Penicillium occitanis Pol6. J Texture Stud 2013;44:75-84.

66. Ghoshal G, Shivhare US, Banerjee UC. Effect of xylanase on quality attributes of whole-wheat bread. J Food Qual 2013;36:172-80.

67. Bajpai P. Sources, production, and classification of xylanases. In: Xylanolytic Enzymes. Tokyo: Academic Press, Elsevier; 2014. p. 43-52.

68. Cunha CC, Gama AR, Cintra LC, Bataus LA, Ulhoa CJ. Improvement of bread making quality by supplementation with a recombinant xylanase produced by Pichia pastoris. PLoS One 2018;13:e0192996.

69. Danalache F, Mata P, Alves VD, Moldão-Martins M. Enzyme-assisted extraction of fruit juices. In: Fruit Juices. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier; 2018. p. 183-200.

70. Rosmine E, Sainjan NC, Silvester R, Alikkunju A, Varghese SA. Statistical optimisation of xylanase production by estuarine Streptomyces sp. and its application in clarification of fruit juice. J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2017;15:393-401.

71. Shahrestani H, Taheri-Kafrani A, Soozanipour A, Tavakoli O. Enzymatic clarification of fruit juices using xylanase immobilized on 1, 3, 5-triazine-functionalized silica-encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles. Biochem Eng J 2016;109:51-8.

72. Adigüzel AO, Tunçer M. Production, characterization and application of a xylanase from Streptomyces sp. AOA40 in fruit juice and bakery industries. Food Biotechnol 2016;30:189-218.

73. Adiguzel G, Faiz O, Sisecioglu M, Sari B, Baltaci O, Akbulut S, et al. A novel endo-β-1, 4-xylanase from Pediococcus acidilactici GC25; purification, characterization and application in clarification of fruit juices. Int J Biol Macromol 2019;129:571-8.

74. Facchini FD, Vici AC, Reis VR, Jorge JA, Terenzi HF, Reis RA, et al. Production of fibrolytic enzymes by Aspergillus japonicus CO3 using agro-industrial residues with potential application as additives in animal feed. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 2011;34:347-55.

75. Pirgozliev V, Whiting I, Rose SP, Ivanova SG, Staykova G, Amerah AM. Variability between wheat dry distillers grains with solubles samples influence the effectiveness of exogenous enzymes when fed to broiler chickens. Vet Med Anim Stud 2016;6:61-9.

76. Liu N, Ru YJ, Tang DF, Xu TS, Partridge GG. Effects of corn distillers dried grains with solubles and xylanase on growth performance and digestibility of diet components in broilers. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2011;163:260-6.

77. Paloheimo M, Mäntylä A, Kallio J, Puranen T, Suominen P. Increased production of xylanase by expression of a truncated version of the xyn11A gene from nonomuraeaflexuosa in Trichoderma reesei. Appl Environ Microbiol 2007;73:3215-24.

78. Van Dorn R, Shanahan D, Ciofalo V. Safety evaluation of xylanase 50316 enzyme preparation (also known as VR007), expressed in Pseudomonas fluorescens, intended for use in animal feed. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2018;97:48-56.

79. Passos AA, Park I, Ferket P, Von Heimendahl E, Kim SW. Effect of dietary supplementation of xylanase on apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients, viscosity of digesta, and intestinal morphology of growing pigs fed corn and soybean meal based diet. Anim Nutr 2015;1:19-23. 80. Rychen G, Aquilina G, Azimonti G, Bampidis V, Bastos M De, Bories G, et al. Safety and efficacy of ECONASE® XT (endo-1, 4-β-xylanase) as a feed additive for laying hens. EFSA J 2018;16:e05216.

81. Beg Q, Kapoor M, Mahajan L, Hoondal GS. Microbial xylanases and their industrial applications: A review. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2001;56:326-38.

82. Subramaniyan S, Prema P. Biotechnology of microbial xylanases: Enzymology, molecular biology, and application. Crit Rev Biotechnol 2002;22:33-64.

83. Thomas L, Sindhu R, Binod P, Pandey A. Production of an alkaline xylanase from recombinant Kluyveromyces lactis (KY1) by submerged fermentation and its application in bio-bleaching. Biochem Eng J 2015;102:24-30.

84. Sharma D, Chaudhary R, Kaur J, Arya SK. Greener approach for pulp and paper industry by xylanase and laccase. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol 2020;25:101604.

85. Viikari L, Kantelinen A, Sundquist J, Linko M. Xylanases in bleaching: From an idea to the industry. FEMS Microbiol Rev 1994;13:335-50.

86. Pérez J, Munoz-Dorado J, De la Rubia T, Martinez J. Biodegradation and biological treatments of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin: An overview. Int Microbiol 2002;5:53-63.

87. Lin X, Wu Z, Zhang C, Liu S, Nie S. Enzymatic pulping of lignocellulosic biomass. Ind Crops Prod 2018;120:16-24.

88. Bajpai P. Biotechnology for Pulp and Paper Processing. Berlin, Germany: Springer; 2012.

89. Azeri C, Tamer UA, Oskay M. Thermoactivecellulase-free xylanase production from alkaliphilic Bacillus strains using various agro-residues and their potential in biobleaching of kraft pulp. Afr J Biotechnol 2010;9:63-72.

90. Maity C, Ghosh K, Halder SK, Jana A, Adak A, Mohapatra PK, et al. Xylanase isozymes from the newly isolated Bacillus sp. CKBx1D and optimization of its deinking potentiality. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2012;167:1208-19.

91. Chandra R, Singh R. Decolourisation and detoxification of rayon grade pulp paper mill effluent by mixed bacterial culture isolated from pulp paper mill effluent polluted site. Biochem Eng J 2012;61:49-58.

92. Dhiman SS, Garg G, Sharma J, Kalia VC, Kang YC, Lee JK. Reduction in acute ecotoxicity of paper mill effluent by sequential application of xylanase and laccase. PLoS One 2014;9:e102581.

93. Virk AP, Puri M, Gupta V, Capalash N, Sharma P. Combined enzymatic and physical deinking methodology for efficient eco-friendly recycling of old newsprint. PLoS One 2013;8:e72346.

94. Gupta V, Garg S, Capalash N, Gupta N, Sharma P. Production of thermo-alkali-stable laccase and xylanase by co-culturing of Bacillus sp. and B. halodurans for biobleaching of kraft pulp and deinking of waste paper. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 2015;38:947-56.

95. Kumar V, Satyanarayana T. Production of endoxylanase with enhanced thermostability by a novel polyextremophilic Bacillus halodurans TSEV1 and its applicability in waste paper deinking. Process Biochem 2014;49:386-94.

96. Kumar NV, Rani ME, Gunaseeli R, Kannan ND. Paper pulp modification and deinking efficiency of cellulase-xylanase complex from Escherichia coli SD5. Int J Biol Macromol 2018;111:289-95.

97. Dhiman SS, Sharma J, Battan B. Pretreatment processing of fabrics by alkalothermophilic xylanase from Bacillus stearothermophilus SDX. Enzyme Microbial Technol 2008;43:262-9.

98. Singh A, Kaur A, Patra AK, Mahajan R. A sustainable and green process for scouring of cotton fabrics using xylano-pectinolytic synergism: Switching from noxious chemicals to eco-friendly catalysts. 3 Biotech 2018;8:184.

99. Abd El Aty AA, Saleh SA, Eid BM, Ibrahim NA, Mostafa FA. Thermodynamics characterization and potential textile applications of Trichoderma longibrachiatum KT693225 xylanase. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol 2018;14:129-37.

100. Vazquez MJ, Alonso JL, Dom?nguez H, Parajo JC. Xylooligosaccharides: Manufacture and applications. Trends Food Sci Technol 2000;11:387-93.

101. Chang S, Chu J, Guo Y, Li H, Wu B, He B. An efficient production of high-pure xylooligosaccharides from corncob with affinity adsorption-enzymatic reaction integrated approach. Bioresour Technol 2017;241:1043-9.

102. Chen HH, Chen YK, Chang HC, Lin SY. Immunomodulatory effects of xylooligosaccharides. Food Sci Technol Res 2012;18:195-9.

103. Kallel F, Driss D, Bouaziz F, Neifer M, Ghorbel R, Chaabouni SE. Production of xylooligosaccharides from garlic straw xylan by purified xylanase from Bacillus mojavensis UEB-FK and their in vitro evaluation as prebiotics. Food Bioproducts Process 2015;94:536-46.

104. Aachary AA, Prapulla SG. Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) as an emerging prebiotic: Microbial synthesis, utilization, structural characterization, bioactive properties, and applications. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2011;10:2-16.

105. Li T, Li S, Du L, Wang N, Guo M, Zhang J, et al. Effects of haw pectic oligosaccharide on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in experimental hyperlipidemia mice induced by high-fat diet. Food Chem 2010;121:1010-3.

106. Huang C, Jeuck B, Du J, Yong Q, Chang H, Jameel H, et al. Novel process for the coproduction of xylo-oligosaccharides, fermentable sugars, and lignosulfonates from hardwood. Bioresour Technol 2016;219:600-7.

107. Moniz P, Ho AL, Duarte LC, Kolida S, Rastall RA, Pereira H, et al. Assessment of the bifidogenic effect of substituted xylo-oligosaccharides obtained from corn straw. Carbohydr Polym 2016;136:466-73.

108. Gowdhaman D, Ponnusami V. Production and optimization of xylooligosaccharides from corncob by Bacillus aerophilus KGJ2 xylanase and its antioxidant potential. Int J Biol Macromol 2015;79:595-600.

109. Otieno DO, Ahring BK. A thermochemical pretreatment process to produce xylooligosaccharides (XOS), arabinooligosaccharides (AOS) and mannooligosaccharides (MOS) from lignocellulosic biomasses. Bioresour Technol 2012;112:285-92.

110. Jayapal N, Samanta AK, Kolte AP, Senani S, Sridhar M, Suresh KP, et al. Value addition to sugarcane bagasse: Xylan extraction and its process optimization for xylooligosaccharides production. Ind Crops Prod 2013;42:14-24.

111. Xiao X, Bian J, Peng XP, Xu H, Xiao B, Sun RC. Autohydrolysis of bamboo (Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro) culm for the production of xylo-oligosaccharides. Bioresour Technol 2013;138:63-70.

112. Haddar A, Driss D, Frikha F, Ellouz-Chaabouni S, Nasri M. Alkaline xylanases from Bacillus mojavensis A21: Production and generation of xylooligosaccharides. Int J Biol Macromol 2012;51:647-56.

113. Gowdhaman D, Manaswini VS, Jayanthi V, Dhanasri M, Jeyalakshmi G, Gunasekar V, et al. Xylanase production from Bacillus aerophilus KGJ2 and its application in xylooligosaccharides preparation. Int J Biol Macromol 2014;64:90-8.

114. Ding C, Li M, Hu Y. High-activity production of xylanase by Pichia stipitis: Purification, characterization, kinetic evaluation and xylooligosaccharides production. Int J Biol Macromol 2018;117:72-7.

115. Bhardwaj N, Kumar B, Agarwal K, Chaturvedi V, Verma P. Purification and characterization of a thermo-acid/alkali stable xylanases from Aspergillus oryzae LC1 and its application in Xylo-oligosaccharides production from lignocellulosic agricultural wastes. Int J Biol Macromol 2019;122:1191-202.

116. Basit A, Liu J, Miao T, Zheng F, Rahim K, Lou H, et al. Characterization of two endo-β-1, 4-xylanases from Myceliophthora thermophila and their saccharification efficiencies, synergistic withcommercial cellulase. Front Microbiol 2018;9:233.

117. Hu J, Arantes V, Saddler JN. The enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates by the addition of accessory enzymes such as xylanase: Is it an additive or synergistic effect? Biotechnol Biofuels 2011;4:1-14.

118. Chadha BS, Kanwar SS, Garcha HS. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of rice straw into ethanol Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 1995;42:71-5.

119. Shen B, Sun X, Zuo X, Shilling T, Apgar J, Ross M, et al. Engineering a thermoregulatedintein-modified xylanase into maize for consolidated lignocellulosic biomass processing. Nat Biotechnol 2012;30:1131-6.

120. Bajaj P, Mahajan R. Cellulase and xylanase synergism in industrial biotechnology. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2019;103:8711-24.

121. Ventorim RZ, Mendes TA, Trevizano LM, Camargos AM, Guimarães VM. Impact of the removal of N-terminal non-structured amino acids on activity and stability of xylanases from Orpinomyces sp. PC-2. Int J Biol Macromol 2018;106:312-9.

122. Li Q, Sun B, Xiong K, Teng C, Xu Y, Li L, et al. Improving special hydrolysis characterization into Talaromyces thermophilus F1208 xylanase by engineering of N-terminal extension and site-directed mutagenesis in C-terminal. Int J Biol Macromol 2017;96:451-8.

123. Alponti JS, Maldonado RF, Ward RJ. Thermostabilization of Bacillus subtilis GH11 xylanase by surface charge engineering. Int J Biol Macromol 2016;87:522-8.

124. Wang Y, Fu Z, Huang H, Zhang H, Yao B, Xiong H, et al. Improved thermal performance of Thermomyces lanuginosus GH11 xylanase by engineering of an N-terminal disulfide bridge. Bioresour Technol 2012;112:275-9.

125. Long C, Cheng Y, Cui J, Liu J, Gan L, Zeng B, et al. Enhancing cellulase and hemicellulase production in Trichodermaorientalis EU7-22 via knockout of the creA. Mol Biotechnol 2018;60:55-61.

126. Sanhueza C, Carvajal G, Soto-Aguilar J, Lienqueo ME, Salazar O. The effect of a lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase and a xylanase from Gloeophyllum trabeum on the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic residues using a commercial cellulase. Enzyme Microb Technol 2018;113:75-82.

127. Guo Z, Duquesne S, Bozonnet S, Nicaud JM, Marty A, O'Donohue MJ. Expressing accessory proteins in cellulolytic Yarrowia lipolytica to improve the conversion yield of recalcitrant cellulose. Biotechnol Biofuels 2017;10:298.

128. Jonnadula R, Imran M, Poduval PB, Ghadi SC. Effect of polysaccharide admixtures on expression of multiple polysaccharide-degrading enzymes in Microbulbifer strain CMC-5. Biotechnol Rep (Amst) 2018;17:93-6.

129. Berikashvili V, Sokhadze K, Kachlishvili E, Elisashvili V, Chikindas ML. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spore production under solid-state fermentation of lignocellulosic residues. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2018;10:755-61.

130. Chen L, Gu W, Xu H, Yang GL, Shan XF, Chen G, et al. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus velezensis 157 isolated from Eucommia ulmoides with pathogenic bacteria inhibiting and lignocellulolytic enzymes production by SSF. 3 Biotech 2018;8:114.

131. Singh B. Engineering fungal morphology for enhanced production of hydrolytic enzymes by Aspergillus oryzae SBS50 using microparticles. 3 Biotech 2018;8:283.

132. Zhang W, Wu S, Cai L, Liu X, Wu H, Xin F, et al. Improved treatment and utilization of rice straw by Coprinopsis cinerea. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2018;184:616-29.

133. Arriola KG, Oliveira AS, Ma ZX, Lean IJ, Giurcanu MC, Adesogan AT. A meta-analysis on the effect of dietary application of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes on the performance of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 2017;100:4513-27.

Article Metrics

13 Absract views 11 PDF Downloads 24 Total views

Related Search

By author names

Citiaion Alert By Google Scholar

Similar Articles

Optimization production of thermo active levansucrase from Bacillus subtilis Natto CCT 7712

Bruna Caroline Marques Gonçalves, Janaina Mantovan, Mara Lúcia Luis Ribeiro, Dionísio Borsato, Maria Antonia Pedrine Colabone Celligoi

Enzymes and qualitative phytochemical screening of endophytic fungi isolated from Lantana camara Linn. Leaves

Mbouobda Hermann Desire , Fotso Bernard , Muyang Rosaline Forsah , Chiatoh Thaddeus Assang, Omokolo Ndoumou Denis

Production and Characterization of Alkaline Phosphatase Produced by Bacillus Species

Suganya Kannaiyram, Ravikumar Vedhachalam, Murugan Thanigaimalai

Impact of Phyllanthus amarus extract on antioxidant enzymes in Drosophila melanogaster

N. Manasa, J. S. Ashadevi

Enhanced fibrinolytic protease production by Serratia marcescens RSPB11 through Plackett-Burman and response surface methodological approaches

Paruchuru Lakshmi Bhargavi, Reddy Shetty Prakasham

The Characterization of Amylolytic Enzyme Present in Fermented Sweet Sap of Palmyrah

Arumugam Vengadaramana, Mehala Uthayasooriyan, Thananthika Sittampalam, Nirosha Razeek, Ranganathan Kapilan

Production and Characterization of Collagenase by Penicillium sp. UCP 1286 Isolated From Caatinga Soil

Maria Carolina de Albuquerque Wanderley , Jose Manoel Wanderley Duarte Neto, Carolina de Albuquerque Lima, Sara Isabel da Cruz Silverio, Jose Luiz de Lima Filho, Jose Antonio Couto Teixeira, Ana Lucia Figueiredo Porto

Physiological and biochemical characterization of Sesamum germplasms tolerant to NaCl

Tapaswini Hota, C. Pradhan, G. R. Rout

Enzymatic responses of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of an oilfield wastewater

Nedie Patience Akani, Ugwemorubon Ujagwung Gabriel

Effect of various dietary fats supplementation on the liver glycogen, protein and digestive enzymes activities in striped murrel, Channa striatus

Rajesh Dayal, Prem Prakash Srivastava , Joykrushna Jena, Sudhir Raizada, Akhilesh Kumar Yadav, Anita Bhatnagar, Shipra Chowdhary

Trichoderma oligosaccharides priming mediates resistance responses in pearl millet against downy mildew pathogen

Boregowda Nandini, Puttaswamy Hariprasad, Harischandra Sripathy Prakash, Nagaraja Geetha

Fermentative Production of Microbial Enzymes and their Applications: Present status and future prospects

Viswanath Vittaladevaram

Morphological, enzymatic screening, and phylogenetic analysis of thermophilic bacilli isolated from five hot springs of Myagdi, Nepal

Punam Yadav , Suresh Korpole, Gandham S Prasad, Girish Sahni , Jyoti Maharjan, Lakshmaiah Sreerama, Tribikram Bhattarai

Cold-active enzymes in food biotechnology: An updated mini review

Mohammed Kuddus

Aroclor 1254 induced oxidative stress and histopathological changes in mice liver

Jalpa Raja, Shweta Pathak, Rahul Kundu

A study of endophytic fungi Neofusicoccum ribis from Gandaria (Bouea macrophylla Griffith) as enzyme inhibitor, antibacterial, and antioxidant

Trisanti Anindyawati, Praptiwi

The effects of diet and temperature on enzymes, hormones, and fecundity of the African Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822)

Waleed Abdul-Aziz A. Al-Deghayem, El Amin Mohamed Suliman

Investigation of morphological, phytochemical, and enzymatic characteristics of Anethum graveolens L. using selenium in combination with humic acid and fulvic acid

Parviz Samavatipour, Vahid Abdossi, Reza Salehi, Saeed Samavat,Alireza Ladan Moghadam

A study on the salinity stress effects on the biochemical traits of seedlings and its relationship with resistance toward sensitive and tolerant flax genotypes

Yousef Alaei, Seyed Kamal Kazemitabar, Mohammad Zaefi Zadeh, Hamid Najafi Zarini, Gaffar Kiani

Role of glutathione reductase and catalase enzyme in antioxidant defense mechanism in controlling fluoride-induced oxidative stress

Komal Sharma, Mamta Choudhary, Khushbu Verma

Dye degradation potential and its degradative enzymes synthesis of Bacillus cereus SKB12 isolated from a textile industrial effluent

Thangaraj Sheela, Senthil Kumar Sadasivam

Purification and characterization of an iron-activated alkaline phosphatase produced by Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus under submerged fermentation using rye flour

Pedro Henrique de Oliveira Ornela, Luis Henrique Souza Guimarães

Determination of the activity and kinetics parameters of proteases in the crude plant extracts of Mentha piperita L. and Thymus capitatus L.

Omar Mohammad Atrooz, Fatmah Nasser Alomari

Health endorsing potential of Lactobacillus plantarum MBTU-HK1 and MBTU-HT of Honey bee gut origin

Honey Chandran Chundakkattumalayil, Keerthi Thalakattil Raghavan

Comparative transcriptomic analysis of Aspergillus niger cultured in peanut or cashew nut flour based media

Christopher P. Mattison, Brian M. Mack, Jeffrey W. Cary

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of Precocene II, estimation of enzymatic, nonenzymatic antioxidant, and cytotoxic potentials of methyl jasmonate-elicited shoot culture of Ageratum conyzoides Linn.

Selvaraj Vasantharani, Ramaraj Thirugnanasampandan, Gunasekaran Bhuvaneswari

Purification and characterization of a polygalacturonase from the xylophagous insect Oncideres albomarginata chamela (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

Alicia Lara-Márquez, Nayeli Soria-Calderón, Maria Guadalupe Villa-Rivera, Everardo López-Romero, Nancy Calderón-Cortés

Media optimization for the production of alkaline protease by Bacillus cereus PW3A using response surface methodology

Gururaj B. Tennalli, Soumya Garawadmath, Lisa Sequeira, Shreya Murudi, Vaibhavi Patil, Manisha N. Divate, Basavaraj S. Hungund

Statistical optimization of asparaginase production by a novel isolated bacterium Brevibacillus borstelensis ML12 using Plackett–Burman design and response surface methodology

Rupkatha Mukherjee, Debabrata Bera

Health-related risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: A systematic review

Meenakshi S, Raghunath N, Vishal B Rawal, Ramith Ramu

Isolation and characterization of starch degrading bacteria from disparate soil samples

Vidhyutha Srivathsan, Mahima Bhandari, Priya Swaminathan

Industrial biotechnology: An Indian perspective

Kumud Tiwari, Garima Singh, Gajender Singh, Sonika Kumari Sharma, Samarendra Kumar Singh

Calcium influences biochemical and antioxidant enzymatic activities in tomato fruits during storage

S. Salma Santhosh, Thiyagarajan Chitdeshwari

In silico modeling, docking of ThPON1-like protein, and in vitro validation of pesticide tolerance in Trichoderma harzianum

Archana Kumari, Krishna Sundari Sattiraju

Endophytic Fungi as Emerging Bioresources for Bioactive Compounds for Sustainable Development

Divjot Kour, Neelam Yadav, Ajar Nath Yadav

Albizia lebbeck fruit pods as a substrate for the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes by Aspergillus niger

Mamatha Pingili, Shailaja Raj Marla, Ramakrishna Raparla

Production and optimization of enzyme xylanase by Aspergillus flavus using agricultural waste residues

Jyoti Richhariya, Tirthesh Kumar Sharma, Sippy Dassani

Optimization of process and conditions for enhanced xylanase production under SSF using inexpensive agro-industrial waste

Vimalashanmugam Kanagasabai, Karuppaiya Maruthai

Cloning and expression of a GH11 xylanase from Bacillus pumilus SSP-34 in Pichia pastoris GS115: Purification and characterization

Sagar Krishna Bhat,, Kavya Purushothaman, Appu Rao Gopala Rao Appu Rao, K Ramachandra Kini

Fermentation medium optimization for the 1,4-ß-Endoxylanase production from Bacillus pumilus using agro-industrial waste

Varsha D. Savanth, B. S. Gowrishankar, K. B. Roopa