Review Articles | Volume 11, Issue 1, January, 2023

Microbes as a potential bioremediation tool for atrazine-contaminated soil: A review

Chiranjib Mili Sanjib Kalita Subham Roy   

Open Access   

Published:  Nov 22, 2022

DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2023.110102
Abstract

Atrazine is a controversial and widely used herbicide to control weeds in both agriculture fields and residential sites. Instead of adopting manual weed control, atrazine is being used by people who resulted in a negative impact on the environment. Therefore, removing atrazine in soil has received considerable attention. Microorganisms have terrific potential for degradation of hazardous pollutants which always motivates continuous bioremediation-directed research. The objective of this review is to identify, analyze, and compile all the studies on atrazine–degrading microorganisms. Particular emphasis is made on the atrazine degradation pathways, a diverse group of bacteria, fungi, and yeast along with the genetics and enzymology aspects of degradation. The present review may act as a source of information for developing a cheaper and microbiological method for rescuing the atrazine-contaminated soil and water in the future.


Keyword:     Atrazine Herbicide Bioremediation Bacteria Fungi Yeast


Citation:

Mili C, Kalita S, Roy S. Microbes as a potential bioremediation tool for atrazine-contaminated soil: A review. J App Biol Biotech. 2023; 11(1):8-15. https://doi.org/10.7324/JABB.2023.110102

Copyright: Author(s). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license.

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1. INTRODUCTION

The widespread and long-term use of chemicals including atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) herbicide in both agriculture and non-agricultural field is still a severe concern today. These compounds have the potential to runoff and leach through the soil leading to surface and groundwater contamination [1]. Most attentively, atrazine can cause serious human health problems such as endocrine disruption, central nervous system, reproductive system, immune system, and carcinogenic disorders [2]. Atrazine inhibits photosynthesis efficiency, superfluous energy dissipation in electron transport, and destroys cellular structure which resulted in the inhibition of growth in algae [3]. Moreover, atrazine has a moderately persistent, long half-life, and high mobility in soil than some other herbicides. Due to its high toxicity, persistence, and mobility in the environment, atrazine was prohibited by the European Union in 2004 [4], but it is still one of the most extensively used herbicides against weeds today in several countries, for example, annually 23 million kg in the USA [5], 27 million kg in Brazil, 16 million kg in Argentina [6], and 3 million kg in India [1]. Therefore, for a safe and sound environment, the rapid abolition of atrazine from the contaminated site has become very crucial.

Microorganisms have tremendous potential for bioremediation and herbicide degradation due to the presence of various catalytic enzymes [7]. The presence of such characteristics, microorganisms can degrade atrazine into different metabolites that act as a source of energy for other organisms. Many strains have been reported for their abilities in atrazine mineralization including members of the genera Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Arthrobacter, Enterobacter, and Norcardioides [8-11]. In addition, several fungal species belonging to the genera Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Pleurotus have also been isolated and studied for degradation of atrazine [2,12,13]. Therefore, microorganisms can be chosen for easy and better strategies for the rescue of atrazine polluted sites ecofriendly.

In recent years, several review papers have been published on the degradation of atrazine in different aspects such as the impact of atrazine in the aquatic environment, technologies used to reduce the toxicity of atrazine as well as advantage and disadvantages [14,15]. In 2021, a similar review was published by Abd Rani et al. [16] that focused on only bacteria while fungi and yeast are neglected. In contrast, this review is a humble attempt to accumulate all the microbes associated with atrazine degradation in a single article that has already been gathered through vigorous research. This article also presents the clear degradation pathways along with the genes and enzymes involved in atrazine-degradation. This review will help researchers to develop a cost-effective and efficient microbiological technology for the remediation of atrazine-contaminated soil.


2. DEGRADATION OF ATRAZINE

2.1. Pathways of Atrazine-degradation

Degradation pathways of atrazine occur through three major different pathways that channel into cyanuric acid metabolism [1]. The degradation pathway is generally initiated by two enzymes, that is, atrazine chlorohydrolase and atrazine monooxygenase. The first pathway is initiated by the enzyme atrazine chlorohydrolase catalyzes the hydrolytic dechlorination of atrazine and produces hydroxyatrazine (HA) which is further converted into N-Isopropylammelide by the activity of atrazine ethylaminohydrolase and finally into Cyanuric acid later on by N-isopropylammelide isopropylaminohydrolase [17].

The second and third pathways are beginning with atrazine monooxygenase activity that degrades the atrazine into Deisopropylatrazine and Deethylatrazine, respectively [18]. In the second pathway, the enzyme s-triazine hydrolase transforms the Deisopropylatrazine into deisopropylhydroxyatrazine which is then converted into 2,4-Dihydroxy-6-(N’-ethyl)amino-1,3,5-triazine by 2,4-Dihydroxy-6-(N’- ethyl)amino-1,3,5-triazine aminohydrolase. Later, ethylaminohydrolase convert it into Cyanuric acid. In the third pathway, Deethylatrazine is transformed into deisopropyldeethylatrazine by deethylatrazine monooxygenase which is then converted into cyanuric acid through several steps [18] [Figure 1].

Figure 1: Atrazine-degradation pathways. a=atrazine chlorohydrolase, b=atrazine monooxygenase, c=Hydroxydechloatrazine ethylaminohydrolase, d=N-isopropylammelide isopropylamido hydrolase, e=s-triazine hydrolase, f=2,4-Dihydroxy-6-(N’-ethyl)amino-1,3,5-triazine hydrolase, g=ethylaminohydrolase, h=deethylatrazine monooxygenase, i=s-triazine hydrolase, j=hydroxychloroatrazine ethyaminohydrolase, k=N-isopropylammelide isopropylaminohydrolase.



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2.2. Atrazine-degrading Microorganisms

A large range of microorganisms involved in the degradation of atrazine leads to the production of metabolites while some other microorganisms derive their nutrients and energy by mineralizing them completely into CO2 and NH4+ [19]. Atrazine degrading microorganisms are not limited to only bacteria and fungi, but many microalgae; for example, Chlamydomonas mexicana, Chlorella sp., and Selenastrum capricornutum have also been reported by several researchers [20,21].

2.2.1. Bacteria

Bacteria are the most widely reported microorganism for atrazine elimination from polluted sites [22]. As the potential machines for bioremediation, a large variety of strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria that degrade atrazine have been isolated and identified. Atrazine degrading bacteria produce various catalytic enzymes that break down atrazine (i.e., atrazine chlorohydrolase, allophanate amidohydrolase, HA hydrolase, N-isopropylammelide amidohydrolase, triazine hydrolase, 1-carboxybiuret amidohydrolase, and cyanuric acid amidohydrolase) and enhance the metabolic mechanisms. They decrease the degradation half-life of atrazine by the different metabolic processes including dechlorination, dealkylation, hydroxylation, and ring cleavage [23]. The atrazine-degrading strains, for example, Pseudomonas strain ADP break down atrazine into cyanuric acid through three enzymatic steps, and cyanuric acid acts as a source of nitrogen for many other bacteria [24]. Moreover, some other bacteria belonging to the genera Rhodococcus, Acinetobacter, Streptomyces, Pseudomonas, Clavibacter [25], Arthrobacter [26], Bacillus, Alcaligenes, Klebsiella, and Agrobacterium [27], transform atrazine into cyanuric acid which further metabolized and produce carbon and nitrogen source compounds. However, in the past 10 years, among the most isolated atrazine-degrading bacteria only Arthrobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Bacillus sp. are reported as capable of fully degrading atrazine into carbon dioxide and ammonia [16]. In a study, two atrazine degrading bacteria such as Bacillus lichenoformis and Bacillus megaterium were isolated from soil that showed 98.6% and 99.6% degradation efficiency of atrazine after 7 days [7]. At the same time, the degradation of atrazine was faster when two strains were used in combination under the same conditions. Based on the previous data, some of the bacteria and their producing metabolites are listed in Table 1.

Table 1: List of some Atrazine-degrading bacteria.

BacteriaGram statusGenBank accession no.Detected metabolitesReferences
Bacillus licheniformis ATLJ-5+MH879786Hydroxyatrazine and N-isopropylammelide[7]
Bacillus megaterium ATLJ-11+MH879805
Pseudaminobacter sp.-ndHydroxyatrazine and N-ethylammelide[51]
Nocardioides sp.+
Bacillus atrophaeus+MH685187nd[43]
Paenarthrobacter sp. W11+ndnd[52]
Arthrobacter sp.C2+MF405158Hydroxyatrazine, N-isopropylammelide, cyanuric acid, and deisopropylhydroxyatrazine (DIHA)[26]
Klebsiella variicola FH-1.-ndnd[53]
Pseudomonas spp.strains ACB and TLB-ndnd[10]
Variovorax sp.strain 38R-CP062121nd[11]
Arthrobacter sp.strain TES+CP062235
Chelatobacter sp.strain SR38-CP062112
Myriophyllum spicatum-ndHydroxyatrazine (HA), deelthylatrazine (DEA), didealkylatrazine (DDA), cyanuric acid (CYA), and biuret[22]
Acetobacter sp.-
Arthrobacter sp.strain HB-5+ndnd[23]
Ensifer sp.-ndN-isopropylammelide, Cyanuric acid (CA)[54]
Nocardioides+ndN-isopropylammelide (IPA), ammelid, biuret, and cyanuric acid[55]
Arthrobacter,+
Bradyrhizobium,-
Burkholderia,-
Methylobacterium-
Mycobacterium,+
Clostridium.+
Rhodococcus sp. strain MB-P1+FN357284De-ethyl de-isopropyl atrazine, De-isopropyl atrazine, De-ethyl atrazine[56]
Citricoccus sp. strain TT3.+ndnd[57]
Klebsiella variicola Strain FH-1-MH2502022-hydroxyl-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine (HEIT) 2-hydroxyl-4,6-bis (ethylamino)-1,3,5-triazine (MEET), and 4,6-bis (ethylamino)-1,3,5-triazin-2 (1H)-one (AEEO)[58]

In the table, nd=no data obtained in the cited reference.

2.2.2. Fungi

Fungi are another main element of soil microflora involved in atrazine degradation after bacteria. They degrade atrazine at different rates and produce different metabolites through N-dealkylation of either alkylamino group [28]. The application of fungi may be the most important way to remove atrazine from contaminated soil. They are very effective in bioremediation as they can use different carbon sources for metabolism by producing different enzymes which catabolize different steps during the transformation of chemicals [29].

Among fungi, wood-degrading basidiomycetes are also a key player in atrazine degradation. The ability of chemical degradation of white-rot fungi is due to the existence of the ligninolytic system [30]. Fungi belonging to basidiomycetes and ascomycetes produce both extracellular and intracellular enzymes that biotechnologically and industrially valued molecules are responsible for herbicides and pesticide degradation [31]. The purpose of white-rot fungi in atrazine degradation may be advantageous because they can tolerate a wide range of environmental circumstances, including varying temperature, moisture, and nutrient contents. For example, Trametes versicolor belonging to basidiomycetes can actively grow and degrade atrazine in nonsterile soil under low water availability conditions [32]. A well-known white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been reported to degrade a large variety of environmentally persistent chemicals.

The potential roles of mycorrhizal fungi in the degradation of atrazine have been addressed by several authors. Axenic cultures of ectomycorrhizae fungi can degrade atrazine, and degradation was increased when they were full-fledged in symbiosis with plants [33]. Besides, ericoid mycorrhizal fungi have also been reported to degrade atrazine when they are axenically cultured [34]. Moreover, arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi have remarkable potential for atrazine degradation. They enhance soil microbial activity and increase the activities of soil enzymes [28]. Glomus caledonium and G. etunicatum can accumulate in fugal hyphae or the associated roots and atrazine dissipation in the near rhizosphere and bulk soils [35]. Some of the fungi associated with atrazine degradation are listed in Table 2.

Table 2: List of some atrazine-degrading fungi.

FungiDivisionGeneBank accession no.Metabolite producedReferences
Anthracophyllum discolorBasidiomycotandnd[59]
Glomus caledoniumGlomeromycotandDeethylatrazine (DEA) (2-amino-4-chloro-6-isopropylanine-striazine) and deisopropylatrazine (DIA) (2-amino-4-chloro6-ethylamino-s-triazine)[35]
Trametes versicolorBasidiomycotandnd[32]
Fusarium sp. CCLM_DFAscomycotaMT062480Deisopropylatrazine (DIA) and deethylatrazine (DEA)[2]
Fusarium sp. CCLM_GUMT062481
Fusarium sp. CCLM_GWMT062482
Fusarium sp. CCLM_IBMT062483
Aspergillus nigerAscomycotandnd[60]
Pleurotuso streatus INCQS 40310BasidiomycotandDeisopropylatrazine (DIA) and deethylatrazine (DEA)[12]
Pluteus cubensis SXS320,Basidiomycotinandnd[61]
Gloelophyllum striatum MCA7, and Agaricales MCA17
Bjerkandera adustaBasidiomycotaEF441742nd[62]
Metarhizium robertsiiAscomycotand2-hydroxy atrazine and desethylatrazine[63]
Aspergillus niger AN 400AscomycotandDeethylatrazine ( DEA), deisopropilatrazine (DIA), hydroxyatrazine (HA)[64]
Penicillium chrysogenum NRRL 807Ascomycotandnd[13]
Saccharomyces cerevisiaeAscomycotandHydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine, deisopropylatrazine[22]
Aspergillus fumigatusAscomycotandnd[19]
Penicillium citrinum

In the table, nd=no data obtained in the cited reference.

2.2.3. Yeast

Apart from bacteria and filamentous fungi, yeast also has atrazine-degrading potential. A novel yeast strain Pichia kudriavzevii strain Atz-EN-01 was isolated from atrazine-contaminated soil which showed the efficient degradation in liquid culture media and soil [36]. This strain breaks atrazine down into three intermediates such as HA, N-isopropylammelide, and cyanuric acid. Another species of Pichia has (Pichia pastoris strain X-33) also been reported as the ability to transform atrazine into hydroxylisopropylatrazine, atraton (2-methoxy-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-s-triazine), demethylated atrazine, HA [37], Hydroxy-dehydrogenated atrazine, and 2-OH-isopropyl-IPU [38]. Moreover, a yeast species called Cryptococcus laurentii was isolated from atrazine-contaminated agricultural soil and GC-MS analysis showed several metabolites such as HA, deethylatrazine, deisopropylatrazine, and deethyldeisopropylatrazin during atrazine degradation when conducting an in vitro experiment [39]. The role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in atrazine degradation was also reported by Zhu et al. [40]. However, in recent times, most of the research is focused on bacteria and filamentous fungi while little information is available on the role of yeast in atrazine degradation.

2.3. Genes Involved in Atrazine-degradation

Atrazine a commonly known herbicide is used as a carbon and nitrogen source by different soil microflora by breaking it into CO2 and NH4+ [41]. The degradation and utilization of atrazine by microflora are possible because of the complex catabolic pathway mediated by a diverse array of enzymes encode by a series of genes [16]. Different genes are involved in different steps throughout the degradation pathways that lead to the transformation of atrazine to its intermediate cyanuric acid [42]. To the best of our knowledge, the total number of eight genes involved in the atrazine metabolic pathway has been reported such as atzA, atzB, atzC, atzD, atzE, atzF, trzN, and trzD. The genes atzABC identified from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP that homology to five atrazine-degrading microbial isolates which gives a piece of strong evidence for the genes are widespread. Some other bacteria such as Arthrobacter agilis and Nocardioides nanhaiensis are harbored atzA/trzN genes that code for atrazine chlorohydrolase that catalyze the dechlorination of atrazine into HA [42]. The same authors stated that atzD/trzD was involved in the conversion of cyanuric acid into biuret through ring cleavage by encoding an enzyme called cyanuric acid amidohydrolase. The other genes like atzB/atzC are associated with the dealkylation catabolic step while atzE and atzF/trzF are involved in biuret deamination and hydrolysis of allophanate, respectively. Different genes and their encoded enzymes involved in different steps in atrazine degradation are shown in Table 3.

Table 3: Microbial genes involved in atrazine-degradation.

GeneEnzyme encodedStep catalyzedReferences
atzAAtrazine chlorohydrolaseAtrazine → Hydroxyatrazine (HA)[63]
atzBHydroxydechloroatrazine ethylaminohydrolaseHydroxyatrazine (HA) → N-isopropylammelide[64]
atzCN-isopropylammelide isopropylamido hydrolaseN-isopropylammelide → Cyanuric acid+isopropylamine[16]
atzDCyanuric acid amidohydrolaseCyanuric acid → Biuret[42]
atzE1-Carboxybiuret hydrolaseBiuret → Allophanic acid[42]
atzFAllophanate hydrolaseAllophanic acid → CO2+NH4+[42]
trzDCyanuric acid amidohydrolaseCyanuric acid → Biuret[42]
trzNAtrazine chlorohydrolaseAtrazine → Hydroxyatrazine (HA)[65]

2.4. Factors Affecting Microbial Degradation of Atrazine

Several factors influence the microbial degradation of atrazine. The microbial population is influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors in the soil and they directly or indirectly affect the rate of degradation of atrazine.

2.4.1. Abiotic factors

Temperature, pH, depth from the soil surface, and oxygen content of the surrounding matrix are the main abiotic factors that can influence atrazine degradation [43]. The mineralization rate of atrazine is slower in anaerobic or denitrifying conditions than in aerobic environments [44]. The water content of soil and temperature has a significant impact on atrazine degradation. The atrazine degradation is directly proportional to the temperature of its surrounding [45]. A study on the half-life of atrazine in clay soil was carried out and the results showed that the average half-life of atrazine degradation was 62 days when the water content of the soil was 20–40%. Nevertheless, when the water content of the soil was decreased by 8%, the half-life was increased up to 338 days [46]. Moreover, the half-life was increased from 44 days to 206 days while the soil temperature was decreased from 30°C to 5°C. In addition, soil layers also have a great significance in a variation of atrazine degradation rate. The occurrence of atrazine in different soil layers also influences the rate of degradation. The rate of atrazine degradation is slower on the subsurface horizon while increasing in soil depth in silty clay loam [47].

2.4.2. Biotic factors

Crops and soil management systems have a significant impact on the rate of herbicide degradation [48]. An experiment was carried out and found that in a site where corn is cultivated for several years and treated with atrazine, the adaptation of atrazine degrading microorganisms was colonized more than where alfalfa was cultivated for 4 years with no application of atrazine [49]. In addition, the role of earthworms is also not the least in atrazine degradation. Two earthworm species such as Eisenia foetida and Amynthas robust have been reported to enhance the degradation rate of atrazine [50]. However, our literature survey revealed that the effect of biotic factors on the degradation of atrazine has not been extensively studied yet.


3. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE PROSPECTS

The environment is constantly being harmed by the extended use of toxic chemicals. Several hundreds of herbicides including atrazine have been used by farmers and non-farmers to kill weeds in crop fields or resident campuses. Such type of practice has been done for many couples of the year all over the world. However, bioremediation is the soundest and default method to rehabilitate polluted sites with cost efficiency and environmental friendliness by applying microorganisms. Through the discovery of atrazine-degrading soil microorganisms, the disposing of hazardous chemicals has gained credence. In this regard, microbes can tolerate a high range of toxic chemicals and transform them into non-toxic forms by biochemical reactions, more often contaminants serve as a source of energy. Removal of persistent herbicides using microorganisms has received attention as an outstanding option. Microorganisms could be applied in different strategies. Some of the recommendations are cited below:

  • The gene editing and application of system biology on different microbial metabolic pathways are very important. The gene-editing tools such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR-Cas), transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and zinc-finger nucleases can make it possible to design microbe with a functional gene of interest for degradation of atrazine for improved bioremediation. This will lead to optimizing the existing metabolic pathways toward the increased and efficient microbial remediation of herbicides. Genetic engineering can also open a new door for the degradation of herbicides by enhancing the capability of microorganisms. In this regard, the genetic transfer of degrading potential from one to another microbe can be a tremendous approach toward bioremediation.

  • Both bacteria and fungi are the main dominant degraders of atrazine. However, there are not many influential studies that have been carried out on the application of the organisms as consortia. By screening their biocompatibility, consortia can be designed that could be more effective towards bioremediation. More research on the biochemical pathways related to the catabolism of consortia could allocate for more efficient remediation and narrative applications.

  • Enzymes are always a major talking point in bioremediation research due to their inherent capability to degrade complex metabolites present in the pollutants. Enzyme technology could be one of the excellent techniques for the improvement of bioremediation practices. Microorganisms harbor a wide range of catalytic enzymes including chromium reductase, alkane hydroxylases, laccase, carboxylesterases, peroxidases, phytase, haloalkane dehalogenases, phosphotriesterases, and horseradish peroxidase. Using biotechnological approaches enzymes can be formulated from microorganisms for direct application in the rehabilitation of the polluted site. Moreover, with the help of enzyme engineering, the enzyme can be modified to improve its properties such as activity, stress tolerance, temperature, and pH for bioremediation.


4. AUTHORS’ CONTRIBUTIONS

All authors made substantial contributions to the conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; took part in drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; agreed to submit to the current journal; gave final approval of the version to be published; and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work. All the authors are eligible to be an author as per the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) requirements/guidelines.


5. FUNDING

This research did not receive any grant from funding agencies in government and non-governmental organizations.


6. CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


7. ETHICAL APPROVALS

This study does not require any ethical approval.


8. DATA AVAILABILITY

Data will be made available as per the journal policy.


9. PUBLISHER’S NOTE

This journal remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published institutional affiliation.

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30.  Rubilar O, Tortella GR, Cuevas R, Cea M, Rodríguez-Couto S, Diez MC. Adsorptive removal of pentachlorophenol by Anthracophyllum discolor in a fixed-bed column reactor. Water Air Soil Pollut 2012;223:2463-72. [CrossRef]

31.  Deshmukh R, Khardenavis AA, Purohit HJ. Diverse Metabolic capacities of fungi for bioremediation. Indian J Microbiol 2016;56:247-64. [CrossRef]

32.  Bastos AC, Magan N. Trametes versicolor:Potential for atrazine bioremediation in calcareous clay soil, under low water availability conditions. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 2009;63:389-94. [CrossRef]

33.  Meharg AA, Cairney JW. Ectomycorrhizas extending the capabilities of rhizosphere remediation?Soil Biol Biochem 2000;32:1475-84. [CrossRef]

34.  Donnelly PK, Entry JA, Crawford DL. Degradation of atrazine and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by mycorrhizal fungi at three nitrogen concentrations in vitro. Appl Environ Microbiol 1993;59:2642-7. [CrossRef]

35.  Huang H, Zhang S, Shan XQ, Chen BD, Zhu YG, Bell JN. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus caledonium) on the accumulation and metabolism of atrazine in maize (Zea mays L.) and atrazine dissipation in soil. Environ Pollut 2007;146:452-7. [CrossRef]

36.  Abigail EA, Salam JA, Das N. Atrazine degradation in liquid culture and soil by a novel yeast Pichia kudriavzevii strain Atz-EN-01 and its potential application for bioremediation. J Appl Pharm Sci 2013;3:35.

37.  Huang MT, Lu YC, Zhang S, Luo F, Yang H. Rice (Oryza sativa) laccases involved in modification and detoxification of herbicides atrazine and isoproturon residues in plants. J Agric Food Chem 2016;64:6397-406. [CrossRef]

38.  Lu YC, Luo F, Pu ZJ, Zhang S, Huang MT, Yang H. Enhanced detoxification and degradation of herbicide atrazine by a group of O-methyltransferases in rice. Chemosphere 2016;165:487-96. [CrossRef]

39.  Evy AA, Lakshmi V, Nilanjana D. Biodegradation of atrazine by Cryptococcus laurentii isolated from contaminated agricultural soil. J Microbiol Biotechnol Res 2012;2:450-7.

40.  Zhu C, Yang WL, He H, Yang C, Yu J, Wu X, et al. Preparation, performances and mechanisms of magnetic Saccharomyces cerevisiae bionanocomposites for atrazine removal. Chemosphere 2018;200:380-7. [CrossRef]

41.  Shapir N, Sadowsky MJ, Wackett LP. Purification and characterization of allophanate hydrolase (AtzF) from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP. J Bacteriol 2005;187:3731-8. [CrossRef]

42.  Espín Y, Aranzulla G, Álvarez-OrtíM, Gómez-Alday JJ. Microbial community and atrazine-degrading genetic potential in deep zones of a hypersaline lake-aquifer system. Appl Sci 2020;10:7111. [CrossRef]

43.  Zhu J, Fu L, Meng Z, Jin C. Characteristics of an atrazine degrading bacterium and the construction of a microbial agent for effective atrazine degradation. Water Environ J 2021;35:7-17. [CrossRef]

44.  Sims GK, Kanissery RG. Factors controlling herbicide transformation under anaerobic conditions. Environ Res J 2012;6:355-73.

45.  Andleeb S, Jiang Z, Ur Rehman K, Olajide EK, Ying Z. Influence of soil pH and temperature on atrazine bioremediation. J Northeast Agric Univ (Engl Ed) 2016;23:12-9. [CrossRef]

46.  Smith AE, Walker A. Prediction of the persistence of the triazine herbicides atrazine, cyanazine, and metribuzin in Regina heavy clay. Can J Soil Sci 1989;69:587-95. [CrossRef]

47.  Lavy TL, Roeth FW, Fenster CR. Degradation of 2,4-0 and atrazine at three soil depths in the field. J Environ Qual 1973;2:132-7. [CrossRef]

48.  Bokszczanin K?, Wrona D, Przyby?ko S. Influence of an alternative soil management system to herbicide use on tree vigor, yield, and quality of apple fruit. Agronomy 2021;11:58. [CrossRef]

49.  Stolpe NB, Shea PI. Alachlor and atrazine degradation in a Nebraska soil and underlying sediment. Soil Sci 1995;160:359-370. [CrossRef]

50.  Lin Z, Zhen Z, Chen C, Li Y, Luo C, Zhong L, et al. Rhizospheric effects on atrazine speciation and degradation in laterite soils of Pennisetum alopecuroides (L.) Spreng. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018;25:12407-18. [CrossRef]

51.  Topp E. A comparison of three atrazine-degrading bacteria for soil bioremediation. Biol Fertil Soils 2001;33:529-34. [CrossRef]

52.  Chen S, Li Y, Fan Z, Liu F, Liu H, Wang L, et al. Soil bacterial community dynamics following bioaugmentation with Paenarthrobacter sp. W11 in atrazine-contaminated soil. Chemosphere 2021;282:130976. [CrossRef]

53.  Zhang J, Wu X, Zhang X, Pan H, Shearer JE, Zhang H, et al. Zn2+-dependent enhancement of Atrazine biodegradation by Klebsiella variicola FH-1. J Hazard Mater 2021;411:125112. [CrossRef]

54.  Ma L, Chen S, Yuan J, Yang P, Liu Y, Stewart K. Rapid biodegradation of atrazine by Ensifer sp. strain and its degradation genes. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 2017;116:133-40. [CrossRef]

55.  Fang H, Lian J, Wang H, Cai L, Yu Y. Exploring bacterial community structure and function associated with atrazine biodegradation in repeatedly treated soils. J Hazard Mater 2015;286:457-65. [CrossRef]

56.  Fazlurrahman, Batra M, Pandey J, Suri CR, Jain RK. Isolation and characterization of an atrazine-degrading Rhodococcus sp. strain MB-P1 from contaminated soil. Lett Appl Microbiol 2009;49:721-9. [CrossRef]

57.  Yang X, Wei H, Zhu C, Geng B. Biodegradation of atrazine by the novel Citricoccus sp. strain TT3. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018;147:144-50. [CrossRef]

58.  Zhang J, Liang S, Wang X, Lu Z, Sun P, Zhang H, et al. Biodegradation of atrazine by the novel Klebsiella variicola strain FH-1. Biomed Res Int 2019;2019:4756579. [CrossRef]

59.  Elgueta S, Santos C, Lima N, Diez MC. Immobilization of the white-rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor to degrade the herbicide atrazine. AMB Express 2016;6:104. [CrossRef]

60.  Herrera-Gallardo BE, Guzmán-Gil R, Colín-Luna JA, García-Martínez JC, León-Santiesteban HH, González-Brambila OM, et al. Atrazine biodegradation in soil by Aspergillus niger. Can J Chem Eng 2021;99:932-46. [CrossRef]

61.  Henn C, Monteiro DA, Boscolo M, da Silva R, Gomes E. Biodegradation of atrazine and ligninolytic enzyme production by basidiomycete strains. BMC Microbiol 2020;20:266. [CrossRef]

62.  Dhiman N, Jasrotia T, Sharma P, Negi S, Chaudhary S, Kumar R, et al. Immobilization interaction between xenobiotic and Bjerkandera adusta for the biodegradation of atrazine. Chemosphere 2020;257:127060. [CrossRef]

63.  Szewczyk R, Ró?alska S, Mironenka J, Bernat P. Atrazine biodegradation by mycoinsecticide Metarhizium robertsii:Insights into its amino acids and lipids profile. J Environ Manage 2020;262:110304. [CrossRef]

64.  Marinho G, Barbosa BC, Rodrigues K, Aquino M, Pereira L. Potential of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger AN 400 to degrade Atrazine in wastewaters. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol 2017;9:162-7. [CrossRef]

65.  Udikovi?-Koli?N, Scott C, Martin-Laurent F. Evolution of atrazine-degrading capabilities in the environment. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2012;96:1175-89. [CrossRef]

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19. Bravim NP, Alves AF, Orlanda JF. Biodegradation of atrazine, glyphosate and pendimetaline employing fungal consortia. Res Soc Dev 2020;9:e1549119679.https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v9i11.9679

20. Zhao F, Li Y, Huang L, Gu Y, Zhang H, Zeng D, et al. Individual and combined toxicity of atrazine, butachlor, halosulfuron-methyl and mesotrione on the microalga Selenastrum capricornutum. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018;148:969-75.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.11.069

21. Sun C, Xu Y, Hu N, Ma J, Sun S, Cao W, et al. To evaluate the toxicity of atrazine on the freshwater microalgae Chlorella sp. using sensitive indices indicated by photosynthetic parameters. Chemosphere 2020;244:125514.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.125514

22. Wu X, He H, Yang WL, Yu J, Yang C. Efficient removal of atrazine from aqueous solutions using magnetic Saccharomyces cerevisiae bionanomaterial. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018;102:7597-610.https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-018-9143-x

23. Gao J, Song P, Wang G, Wang J, Zhu L, Wang J. Responses of atrazinedegradation and native bacterial community in soil to Arthrobacter sp. strain HB-5. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018;159:317-23.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.05.017

24. Delcau MA, Henry VA, Pattee ER, Peeples TL. Mode of growth and temperature dependence on expression of atrazine-degrading genes in Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP Biofilms bioRxiv 2018;1:302877.https://doi.org/10.1101/302877

25. Popov VH, Cornish PS, Sultana K, Morris EC. Atrazine degradation in soils: The role of microbial communities, atrazine application history, and soil carbon. Soil Res 2005;43:861-71.https://doi.org/10.1071/SR04048

26. Cao D, He S, Li X, Shi L, Wang F, Yu S, et al. Characterization, genome functional analysis, and detoxification of atrazine by Arthrobacter sp. C2. Chemosphere 2021;264:128514.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128514

27. Siripattanakul S, Wirojanagud W, McEvoy JM, Casey FX, Khan E. A feasibility study of immobilized and free mixed culture bioaugmentation for treating atrazine in infiltrate. J Hazard Mater 2009;168:1373-9.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.03.025

28. Fan X, Song F. Bioremediation of atrazine: Recent advances and promises. J Soils Sediments 2014;14:1727-37.https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-014-0921-5

29. Kanagaraj J, Senthilvelan T, Panda RC. Degradation of azo dyes by laccase: Biological method to reduce pollution load in dye wastewater. Clean Technol Environ Policy 2015;17:1443-56.https://doi.org/10.1007/s10098-014-0869-6

30. Rubilar O, Tortella GR, Cuevas R, Cea M, Rodríguez-Couto S, Diez MC. Adsorptive removal of pentachlorophenol by Anthracophyllum discolor in a fixed-bed column reactor. Water Air Soil Pollut 2012;223:2463-72.https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-011-1039-7

31. Deshmukh R, Khardenavis AA, Purohit HJ. Diverse Metabolic capacities of fungi for bioremediation. Indian J Microbiol 2016;56:247-64.https://doi.org/10.1007/s12088-016-0584-6

32. Bastos AC, Magan N. Trametes versi Potential for atrazine bioremediation in calcareous clay soil, under low water availability conditions. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 2009;63:389-94.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2008.09.010

33. Meharg AA, Cairney JW. Ectomycorrhizas extending the capabilities of rhizosphere remediation? Soil Biol Biochem 2000;32:1475-84.https://doi.org/10.1016/S0038-0717(00)00076-6

34. Donnelly PK, Entry JA, Crawford DL. Degradation of atrazine and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by mycorrhizal fungi at three nitrogen concentrations in vitro. Appl Environ Microbiol 1993;59:2642-7.https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.59.8.2642-2647.1993

35. Huang H, Zhang S, Shan XQ, Chen BD, Zhu YG, Bell JN. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus caledonium) on the accumulation and metabolism of atrazine in maize (Zea mays L.) and atrazine dissipation in soil. Environ Pollut 2007;146:452-7.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2006.07.001

36. Abigail EA, Salam JA, Das N. Atrazine degradation in liquid culture and soil by a novel yeast Pichia kudriavzevii strain Atz-EN-01 and its potential application for bioremediation. J Appl Pharm Sci 2013;3:35.

37. Huang MT, Lu YC, Zhang S, Luo F, Yang H. Rice (Oryza sativa) laccases involved in modification and detoxification of herbicides atrazine and isoproturon residues in plants. J Agric Food Chem 2016;64:6397-406.https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.6b02187

38. Lu YC, Luo F, Pu ZJ, Zhang S, Huang MT, Yang H. Enhanced detoxification and degradation of herbicide atrazine by a group of O-methyltransferases in rice. Chemosphere 2016;165:487-96.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.09.025

39. Evy AA, Lakshmi V, Nilanjana D. Biodegradation of atrazine by Cryptococcus laurentii isolated from contaminated agricultural soil. J Microbiol Biotechnol Res 2012;2:450-7.

40. Zhu C, Yang WL, He H, Yang C, Yu J, Wu X, et al. Preparation, performances and mechanisms of magnetic Saccharomyces cerevisiae bionanocomposites for atrazine removal. Chemosphere 2018;200:380-7.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.02.020

41. Shapir N, Sadowsky MJ, Wackett LP. Purification and characterization of allophanate hydrolase (AtzF) from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP. J Bacteriol 2005;187:3731-8.https://doi.org/10.1128/JB.187.11.3731-3738.2005

42. Espín Y, Aranzulla G, Álvarez-Ortí M, Gómez-Alday JJ. Microbial community and atrazine-degrading genetic potential in deep zones of a hypersaline lake-aquifer system. Appl Sci 2020;10:7111.https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207111

43. Zhu J, Fu L, Meng Z, Jin C. Characteristics of an atrazine degrading bacterium and the construction of a microbial agent for effective atrazine degradation. Water Environ J 2021;35:7-17.https://doi.org/10.1111/wej.12491

44. Sims GK, Kanissery RG. Factors controlling herbicide transformation under anaerobic conditions. Environ Res J 2012;6:355-73.

45. Andleeb S, Jiang Z, Ur Rehman K, Olajide EK, Ying Z. Influence of soil pH and temperature on atrazine bioremediation. J Northeast Agric Univ (Engl Ed) 2016;23:12-9.https://doi.org/10.1016/S1006-8104(16)30043-5

46. Smith AE, Walker A. Prediction of the persistence of the triazine herbicides atrazine, cyanazine, and metribuzin in Regina heavy clay. Can J Soil Sci 1989;69:587-95.https://doi.org/10.4141/cjss89-059

47. Lavy TL, Roeth FW, Fenster CR. Degradation of 2,4-0 and atrazine at three soil depths in the field. J Environ Qual 1973;2:132-7.https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq1973.00472425000200010024x

48. Bokszczanin K?, Wrona D, Przyby?ko S. Influence of an alternative soil management system to herbicide use on tree vigor, yield, and quality of apple fruit. Agronomy 2021;11:58.https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11010058

49. Stolpe NB, Shea PI. Alachlor and atrazine degradation in a Nebraska soil and underlying sediment. Soil Sci 1995; 160:359-370.https://doi.org/10.1097/00010694-199511000-00005

50. Lin Z, Zhen Z, Chen C, Li Y, Luo C, Zhong L, et al. Rhizospheric effects on atrazine speciation and degradation in laterite soils of Pennisetum alopecuroides (L.) Spreng. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018;25:12407-18.https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-1468-6

51. Topp E. A comparison of three atrazine-degrading bacteria for soil bioremediation. Biol Fertil Soils 2001;33:529-34.https://doi.org/10.1007/s003740100371

52. Chen S, Li Y, Fan Z, Liu F, Liu H, Wang L, et al. Soil bacterial community dynamics following bioaugmentation with Paenarthrobacter sp. W11 in atrazine-contaminated soil. Chemosphere 2021;282:130976.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130976

53. Zhang J, Wu X, Zhang X, Pan H, Shearer JE, Zhang H, et al. Zn2+- dependent enhancement of Atrazine biodegradation by Klebsiella variicola FH-1. J Hazard Mater 2021; 411:125112.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125112

54. Ma L, Chen S, Yuan J, Yang P, Liu Y, Stewart K. Rapid biodegradation of atrazine by Ensifer sp. strain and its degradation genes. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 2017;116:133-40.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2016.10.022

55. Fang H, Lian J, Wang H, Cai L, Yu Y. Exploring bacterial community structure and function associated with atrazine biodegradation in repeatedly treated soils. J Hazard Mater 2015;286:457-65.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.01.006

56. Fazlurrahman, Batra M, Pandey J, Suri CR, Jain RK. Isolation and characterization of an atrazine-degrading Rhodococcus sp. strain MB-P1 from contaminated soil. Lett Appl Microbiol 2009;49:721-9.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.2009.02724.x

57. Yang X, Wei H, Zhu C, Geng B. Biodegradation of atrazine by the novel Citricoccus sp. strain TT3. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018;147:144-50.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.08.046

58. Zhang J, Liang S, Wang X, Lu Z, Sun P, Zhang H, et al. Biodegradation of atrazine by the novel Klebsiella variicola strain FH-1. Biomed Res Int 2019;2019:4756579.https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/4756579

59. Elgueta S, Santos C, Lima N, Diez MC. Immobilization of the white-rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor to degrade the herbicide atrazine. AMB Express 2016;6:104.https://doi.org/10.1186/s13568-016-0275-z

60. Herrera-Gallardo BE, Guzmán-Gil R, Colín-Luna JA, García- Martínez JC, León-Santiesteban HH, González-Brambila OM, et al. Atrazine biodegradation in soil by Aspergillus niger. Can J Chem Eng 2021;99:932-46.https://doi.org/10.1002/cjce.23924

61. Henn C, Monteiro DA, Boscolo M, da Silva R, Gomes E. Biodegradation of atrazine and ligninolytic enzyme production by basidiomycete strains. BMC Microbiol 2020;20:266.https://doi.org/10.1186/s12866-020-01950-0

62. Dhiman N, Jasrotia T, Sharma P, Negi S, Chaudhary S, Kumar R, et al. Immobilization interaction between xenobiotic and Bjerkandera adusta for the biodegradation of atrazine. Chemosphere 2020;257:127060.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127060

63. Szewczyk R, Ró?alska S, Mironenka J, Bernat P. Atrazine biodegradation by mycoinsecticide Metarhizium robertsii: Insights into its amino acids and lipids profile. J Environ Manage 2020;262:110304.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110304

64. Marinho G, Barbosa BC, Rodrigues K, Aquino M, Pereira L. Potential of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger AN 400to degrade Atrazine in wastewaters. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol 2017;9:162-7.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcab.2016.12.013

65. Udikovi?-Koli? N, Scott C, Martin-Laurent F. Evolution of atrazine-degrading capabilities in the environment. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2012;96:1175-89.https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-012-4495-0

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Bioremediation of heavy metals from aquatic environment through microbial processes: A potential role for probiotics?

Marie Andrea Laetitia Huët, Daneshwar Puchooa

Microbial synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles for arsenic removal

Gopal Samy Balakrishnan, Karthik Rajendran, Jegatheesan Kalirajan

Characterization of Calotropis procera root peroxidase and its potential to mediate remediation of phenolic pollutant from petroleum refinery effluent

Enoch Banbilbwa Joel, Simon Gabriel Mafulul, Ezra Adams Jeremiah, Adepeju Aberuagba, Raphael Idowu Adeoye, Lazarus Joseph Goje, Adedoyin Igunnu, Sylvia Omonirume Malomo

Bioremediation of hazardous azo dye methyl red by a newly isolated Enterobacter asburiae strain JCM6051 from industrial effluent of Uttarakhand regions

Swati, Padma Singh

Microplastics accumulation in agricultural soil: Evidence for the presence, potential effects, extraction, and current bioremediation approaches

Varsha Yadav, Saveena Dhanger, Jaigopal Sharma

Seasonal effect on the diversity of soil fungi and screening for arsenic tolerance and their remediation

Dheeraj Pandey, Harbans Kaur Kehri, Ifra Zoomi, Shweta Chaturvedi, Kanhaiya Lal Chaudhary

Nanotechnology for the bioremediation of heavy metals and metalloids

Urja Sharma, Jai Gopal Sharma

Bioremediation and Waste Management for Environmental Sustainability

Ajar Nath Yadav, Deep Chandra Suyal, Divjot Kour, Vishnu D. Rajput, Ali Asghar Rastegari, Joginder Singh

Microbe-mediated bioremediation: Current research and future challenges

Divjot Kour, Sofia Shareif Khan, Harpreet Kour, Tanvir Kaur, Rubee Devi, Pankaj Kumar Rai, Christina Judy, Chloe McQuestion, Ava Bianchi, Sara Spells, Rajinikanth Mohan, Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Ajar Nath Yadav

Bioremediation— sustainable tool for diverse contaminants management: Current scenario and future aspects

Manali Singh, Kuldeep Jayant, Shivani Bhutani, Anshi Mehra, Tanvir Kaur, Divjot Kour, Deep Chandra Suyal, Sangram Singh, Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Ajar Nath Yadav

Ex-situ biofilm mediated approach for bioremediation of selected heavy metals in wastewater of textile industry

Anu Kumar, Shivani, Bhanu Krishan, Mrinal Samtiya, Tejpal Dhewa

Industrial biotechnology: An Indian perspective

Kumud Tiwari, Garima Singh, Gajender Singh, Sonika Kumari Sharma, Samarendra Kumar Singh

Nanotechnology for the bioremediation of organic and inorganic compounds in aquatic ecosystem/marine ecosystem

Ishta Kaul, Jai Gopal Sharma

Microbe-mediated remediation of dyes: Current status and future challenges

Kriti Akansha, Tanvir Kaur, Ashok Yadav, Divjot Kour, Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Sangram Singh, Shashank Mishra, Lalit Kumar, Kanika Miglani, Karan Singh, Ajar Nath Yadav

Sustainable biodegradation of textile dye reactive blue 222 by the novel strain Enterobacter CU2004, isolated from the industrial waste: A design of experiment based optimization study and characterisation of metabolites

Vasantha Veerappa Lakshmaiah, Anish Nag, Suresh Gotekar, Sunil More, Shobha K. Jayanna

Beneficial fungal communities for sustainable development: Present scenario and future challenges

Divjot Kour, Sofia Sharief Khan, Seema Ramniwas, Sanjeev Kumar, Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Sarvesh Rustagi, Kundan Kumar Chaubey, Sangram Singh, Ajar Nath Yadav,, Amrik Singh Ahluwalia

Bacillus species for sustainable management of heavy metals in soil: Current research and future challenges

Diyashree Karmakar, Shanu Magotra, Rajeshwari Negi, Sanjeev Kumar, Sarvesh Rustagi, Sangram Singh, Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Divjot Kour, Ajar Nath Yadav,

Identification of Lactic Bacteria of Milk Quail in Chad

Doutoum AA. , Tidjani A. , Balde M., Tidjani.S.M.T, Abdelaziz Arada I, Sylla K.S.B, Seydi MG, Toguebaye B.S

Nanocomposites based on bacterial cellulose in combination with osteogenic growth peptide for bone repair: cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic evaluations

Raquel Mantuaneli Scarel-Caminagaa, Sybele Saskab, Leonardo Pereira Franchic, Raquel A. Santose, Ana Maria Minarelli Gaspara, Ticiana S.O. Capotea, Sidney José Lima Ribeirob, Younés Messaddeqb, Reinaldo Marchetto b, Catarina S. Takahashic d

Enumeration of halophilic forms in parangipettai saltpan and its antagonistic activities against Vibrio sp.

P. Mayavu,S. Sugesh,M. Suriya and Shanmugam Sundaram

Assessment of chlorine resistant bacteria and their susceptibility to antibiotic from water distribution system in Duhok province

Mohammad I. Al-Berfkani¹, Anies I. Zubair¹, Husham Bayazed²

Morphological, genetic and symbiotic characterization of root nodule bacteria isolated from Bambara groundnuts (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) from soils of Lake Victoria basin, western Kenya

Onyango Benson , Anyango Beatrice, Nyunja Regina, P. K. Koech, Robert A. Skilton , Stomeo Francesca

In vitro Antimicrobial Comparison of Taif and Egyptian Pomegranate Peels and Seeds Extracts

Ahmed Gaber , Mohamed M. Hassan , El-Dessoky S. Dessoky , Attia O. Attia

Effect of external pH on cyanobacterial phycobiliproteins production and ammonium excretion

Ojit Singh Keithellakpam, Tiwari Onkar Nath, Avijeet Singh Oinam, Indrama Thingujam, Gunapati Oinam, Sharma Gauri Dutt

Screening and evaluation of non-heterocystous filamentous cyanobacteria for lipid and commercially viable fatty acids

Indrama Thingujam, Tiwari Onkar Nath, Ojit Singh Keithellakpam, Gunapati Oinam, Avijeet Singh Oinam, Sarabati Kangjam, Bidyababy Thiyam, Indira Wangkhem, Silvia Chungkham, Subhalaxmi Aribam, Romi Khangembam, Thadoi Angom, Sharma Gauri Dutt

Production and Characterization of Alkaline Phosphatase Produced by Bacillus Species

Suganya Kannaiyram, Ravikumar Vedhachalam, Murugan Thanigaimalai

Identification of diazotrophic nostocalean cyanobacteria of north eastern region of India and evaluation for nitrogenase activity and extracellular ammonium excretion

Gunapati Oinam, Wangkhem Indira, O. Avijeet Singh, Th. Indrama, K. Ojit Singh, Laxmipriya Koijam, Chungkham Silvia, A. Subhalaxmi Sharma, Romi Khangembam, Minerva Shamjetshabam, A. Thadoi, K. Sarabati, Th. Bidyababy, O.N. Tiwari

Production of exopolysaccharides by the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. BTA992 and application as bioflocculants

Romi Khangembam, Onkar Nath Tiwari, Mohan Chandra Kalita

Potential use as a bio-preservative from lupin protein hydrolysate generated by alcalase in food system

Ali Osman, Ghada M. El-Araby, Hefnawy Taha

Antimicrobial Activity Screening of Marine Bacteria Isolated from the Machilipatnam Sea Coast of Andhra Pradesh, India

K. Bala Chandra, V. Umamaheswara Rao, Subhaswaraj Pattnaik, Siddhardha Busi

Influence of growth conditions on production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) by Bacillus cereus HAL 03 endophytic to Helianthus annuus L.

Rituparna Das, Agnijita Dey, Arundhati Pal, A. K. Paul

Antimicrobial effect of nanofluid including Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and Mentha pulegium essential oil

Mona Jahanpanahi, Ali Mohamadi Sani

Inducible Antimicrobial Compounds (Halal) Production in Honey Bee Larvae (Apis mellifera) from Rumaida, Taif by injecting of various dead Microorganisms extracts

Abd-ElAziem Farouk, N. Thoufeek Ahamed, Othman AlZahrani, Akram Alghamdi, AbdulAziz Bahobail

Phenotypic and genotypic diversity of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis causing bacterial blight disease of cassava in Kenya

Mary N. Chege , Fred Wamunyokoli, Joseph Kamau, Evans N. Nyaboga

Mild Acid Hydrolysis-related Release of Water-soluble Sunscreen Pigments from the Exopolysaccharide Matrix of Edible Terrestrial Cyanobacteria

Wen Liu, Haiyan Xu, Xiang Gao

Bioactive potential of Diadema sp. from the South East Coast of Mauritius

Lisa Karen Yee Chin Youne Ah Shee Tee, Daneshwar Puchooa, Vishwakalyan Bhoyroo

Application of Mentha suaveolens essential oil as an antimicrobial agent in fresh turkey sausages

Abdelaziz Ed-Dra, Fouzia Rhazi Filai, Mohamed Bou-Idra, Badr Zekkori, Aziz Bouymajane, Najia Moukrad, Faouzia Benhallam, Amar Bentayeb

Effect of growth hormones in induction of callus, antioxidants, and antibacterial activity in Nerium odorum

Avinash Prakasha, S Umesha

Biosynthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles from Aspergillus awamori

Vishwanatha T, Keshavamurthy M, Mallappa M, Murugendrappa MV , Nadaf YF, Siddalingeshwara KG, Dhulappa A

Bioconversion of sugarcane molasses to poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3- hydroxyvalerate) by endophytic Bacillus cereus RCL 02

Rituparna Das, Arundhati Pal, Amal Kanti Paul

A study of endophytic fungi Neofusicoccum ribis from Gandaria (Bouea macrophylla Griffith) as enzyme inhibitor, antibacterial, and antioxidant

Trisanti Anindyawati, Praptiwi

Determination of phytochemical, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and protein binding qualities of hydroethanolic extract of Celastrus paniculatus

Vijay Kumar¥, Simranjeet Singh¥, Arjun Singh¥, Amit Kumar Dixit¥, Bhavana Shrivastava, Sapna Avinash Kondalkar, Joginder Singh, Ravindra Singh, Gurpreet Kaur Sidhu, Rajesh Partap Singh, Varanasi Subhose, Om Prakash

Antibacterial activity of an endophytic fungus Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae IBRL OS-64 residing in leaves of a medicinal herb, Ocimum sanctum Linn.

Taufiq M.M.J., Darah I.

Antibacterial activity of leaf extract of Chromolaena odorata and the effect of its combination with some conventional antibiotics on Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from wounds

P. Odinakachukwu Omeke, J. Okechukwu Obi, N. A. Ibuchukwu Orabueze , Anthony Chibuogwu Ike

Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Aidia borneensis leaf extracts

Zulhamizan Awang-Jamil, Aida Maryam Basri, Norhayati Ahmad, Hussein Taha

Response of green synthesized drug blended silver nanoparticles against periodontal disease triggering pathogenic microbiota

Neeraj Kumar Fuloria, Shivkanya Fuloria, Kok Yik Chia, Sundram Karupiah, Kathiresan Sathasivam

Characterization of extracellular polymeric substance producing isolates from wastewaters and their antibacterial prospective

Anita Rani Santal,Nater Pal Singh,Tapan Kumar Singha

Anti-quorum sensing, antibacterial, antioxidant activities, and phytoconstituents analysis of medicinal plants used in Benin: Acacia macrostachya (Rchb. ex DC.)

Mounirou Tchatchedre, Abdou Madjid O. Amoussa, Ménonvè Atindehou, Aminata P. Nacoulma, Ambaliou Sanni, Martin kiendrebeogo, Latifou Lagnika

Cymbopogon giganteus Chiov. essential oil: Direct effects or activity in combination with antibiotics against multi-drug resistant bacteria

Habib Toukourou , Hope Sounouvou, Lucy Catteau, Fatiou Toukourou, Françoise Van Bambeke, Fernand Gbaguidi, Joëlle Quetin-Leclercq

Enterobacteria responsible for urinary infections: a review about pathogenicity, virulence factors and epidemiology

Victorien Dougnon, Phénix Assogba, Eugénie Anago, Esther Déguénon, Christina Dapuliga, Jerrold Agbankpè, Septuce Zin, Remi Akotègnon, Lamine Baba Moussa, Honoré Bankolé

Screening and evaluation of PGPR strains having multiple PGP traits from hilly terrain

Teg Bahadur Singh, Vikram Sahai, Akbar Ali, Mrinalini Prasad, Arti Yadav, Preksha Shrivastav, Deepika Goyal, Prem Kumar Dantu

Evaluation of thermogravimetric analysis as a rapid tool for the detection of rhizobacteria biostimulants used in precision agriculture

Eugene Carmichael, Juluri R. Rao

Diversity and susceptibility pattern of medically important bacteria isolated from intestinal tract of Hemidactylus frenatus in Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State

Ogheneochuko Favour Ogbodogbo, Cajethan Onyebuchi Ezeamagu, Joy Ndidiamaka Barns

Detection of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria from the hospital and non-hospital wastewater sources of a small town in Noakhali, Bangladesh

Md. Mijanur Rahman, Popy Devnath, Rafshan Jahan, Asma Talukder

Molecular detection and characterization of disease resistance genes for bacterial blight in selected Indian soybean varieties

Gaurav Singh

Toxicological effect of pendimethalin on some physiological parameters of the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Desmonostoc muscorum PUPCCC 405.10

Manzoor Ahmad Bhat, Davinder Pal Singh, Jasvirinder Singh Khattar, Ram Sarup Singh

Application of guava leaves extract on jelly candy to inhibit Streptococcus mutans

Yuniwaty Halim, Raphael Dimas Tri Nugroho, Hardoko,, Ratna Handayani

Identification and bioactivities of endophytic fungi from Lagenandra toxicaria Dalz. and Kaempferia rotunda L.

Praveen Krishnakumar, Mable Varghese, Maria Grace Joe, Asha Rajagopal, Leyon Varghese

Applications of bacterial endophytes and their advanced identification methodologies

R. Renugadevi, M. P. Ayyappadas, V. Subha Priya, M. Flory Shobana, K. Vivekanandhan

Production of bioactive compounds by Streptomyces sp. and their antimicrobial potential against selected MDR uropathogens

Archana Singh, Padma Singh

Rice crop loss due to major pathogens and the potential of endophytic microbes for their control and management

Shubhransu Nayak, Soma Samanta, Chandan Sengupta, Soumya Sephalika Swain

Bacterial bioremediation: Strategies adopted by microbial-community to remediate lead from the environment

Afreen Shahid, Chitranshu Pandey, Farhan Ahmad, Aisha Kamal

Biodiversity of cyanobacteria in fresh water ponds of Pudukkottai district, Tamil Nadu, India

Dhanalakshmi Jayakumar, Jeevan Pandiyan

Bacterial endophytes from halophyte black saxaul (Haloxylon aphyllum Minkw.) and their plant growth-promoting properties

Vyacheslav Shurigin,, Begali Alikulov, Kakhramon Davranov, Zafar Ismailov

Pseudomonas gessardii—A novel pathogenic bacterium associated with the cases of corneal ulcers and producing virulent pyoverdine pigment

Deepika Jain

Ultrasound-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis of broken Riceberry rice for sugar syrup production as a substrate for bacterial cellulose facial mask development

Thanasak Lomthong, Sirirat Siripornvisal, Pannida Khunnamwong,

Antibacterial activity and hormetic response of silver nanoparticles synthesized using leaflet extract of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rice (Oryza sativa) crop plants

Vikas Pahal, Pankaj Kumar, Parveen Kumar, Vinod Kumar

Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. (Pandanaceae) prop roots and its application for a novel bacterial cellulose (Nata) fermentation by enzymatic hydrolysis

Thanasak Lomthong, Manida Chorum, Srisuda Samaimai, Panarat Thongpoem

A review of the emerging role of cyanobacteria-based nanoformulations for skin care: Opportunities and challenges

Sonam Dwivedi, Iffat Zareen Ahmad

Statistical optimization of asparaginase production by a novel isolated bacterium Brevibacillus borstelensis ML12 using Plackett–Burman design and response surface methodology

Rupkatha Mukherjee, Debabrata Bera

In-vitro investigation of cholesterol removal, ß-galactosidase synthesis, antioxidant, and antidiabetic potential of probiotic organisms

Jahanvee Chanpura, Shilpa Gupte

Evaluation of plant growth-promoting activities of endophytic bacteria of Musa acuminata and their characterization

Shilpi Singh, Kamlesh Choure, Piyush Kant Rai, Sourabh Singh Gour, Vivek Kumar Agnihotri

Production and characterization of bacterial cellulose scaffold from Acetobacter sp. for tissue engineering

R. Jenet Saranya, C. Vani, S. Gobikrishnan

Endophytic bacterial metagenomics and phosphate solubilization activities in an endemic legume Humboldtia brunonis Wall.

Ganesh V. Shendye, N. Thamizhseran

In vitro evaluation of the antibacterial potential of flavonoid glycosides from Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC.

K. Suresh Kannan, D. Kandavel, P. Rajalakshmi, P. Maheswari

Silver nanoparticles decorated natural products doped polyaniline hybrid materials for biomedical applications

K. Satish, K. Sumangala Bhat, Y. S. Ravikumar, M. N. K. Harish

Isolation and characterization of robust plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria from lignite mines, Gujarat

Ravi Patel, Dilip N. Borada, Amisha Patel, Neil J. Shah

Endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria: Untapped treasurer for agricultural sustainability

Kusam Lata Rana, Divjot Kour, Tanvir Kaur, Rajeshwari Negi, Rubee Devi, Neelam Yadav, Pankaj Kumar Rai, Sangram Singh, Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Ashok Yadav, R. Z. Sayyed, Ajar Nath Yadav

Antimicrobial peptide coding gene of thermophilic bacteria isolated from crater hot spring in mountains around West Java

Emma Rachmawati, Sinta Asarina, Gabriel Bagus Kennardi, Ratu Safitri, Toto Subroto, Ani Melani Maskoen

Effects of gut bacteria and their amyloids on mental health and neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease

Kush K Mehta, Radhika Bhat, Anoop R Markande

Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin a proinflammatory polypeptide necessary for host cell survival in bacterial infection

Nichita Yadav Aare, Pawan Kumar Anoor, Swathi Raju M, N. Srinivas Naik, Sandeepta Burgula

Characterization of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis and stability from Micrococcus luteus

Patcha Boonmahome, Wiyada Mongkolthanaruk

Extraction of a novel bacteriocin from Lacticaseibacillus casei VITCM05 and its antibacterial activity against major food-borne pathogens

Jannatul Firdous Siddique, Mohanasrinivasan Vaithilingam

Isolation, characterization and optimization of keratinolytic bacteria from chicken feather waste dumping site

Thiyagarajan Amuthavalli, Cyril Ravi

Isolation and characterization of keratinolytic bacteria from poultry waste soils of Himachal Pradesh

Richa Vema, Vijay Kumar

Chemical profiling, in vitro antibacterial, and cytotoxic properties of Elytranthe parasitica (L.) Danser – A hemiparasitic Indian mistletoe

Keragodu Paramesh Sharath, Raja Naika

The physicochemical and biological properties of novel silver nanoparticles synthesized by the extract of Holigarna ferruginea

Kumbar Mudakappa Manjunath, Y. L. Krishnamurthy

Antimicrobial and anticancer potential of soil bacterial metabolites - a comprehensive and updated review

A. Ram Kumar,, S. Kumaresan

In vitro antioxidant and antibacterial potential of biosynthesized yttrium oxide nanoparticles using floral extract of Illicium verum

Karthikeyan Kandasamy, Premkumar Kumpati

Screening and isolation of potential nitrogen-fixing Enterobacter sp. GG1 from mangrove soil with its accelerated impact on green chili plant (Capsicum frutescens L.) growth amelioration

Palash Ghorai, Dipankar Ghosh

Isolation and Characterization of Cellulase-Producing Myxobacterial Strain from the Unique Niche of Mirgund Wetland from the North-Western Himalayas

Daljeet Singh Dhanjal, Simranjeet Singh, Vijay Kumar, Praveen C. Ramamurthy, Chirag Chopra, Atif Khurshid Wani, Reena Singh, Joginder Singh

A novel trypsin inhibitor peptide MoCh I with antimicrobial activity derived from Momordica charantia

Samriti Dogra, Rajesh Biswas, Rupinderjeet Kaur, Sangeeta Sharma, Kakoli Biswas

Isolation of toxic gas-producing bacteria (Desulfovibrio spp.) from shrimp ponds and potential of bacteriophages as biocontrol

Truong Thi Bich Van, Tran Vo Minh Thu

Chemical and antibacterial properties of chitosan derived from Mucor spp., Rhizopus. Oryzae and Hermetia illucens

Muhammad Yusuf Abduh,, Tri Ramadianti Shafitri,, Maryam Jamilah, Mochamad Firmansyah,, Robert Manurung

Assessment of bioactivity of the novel exopolysaccharide secreted by Bacillus subtilis isolated from the gut of marine anchovies

Thejaswi Bhandary, Paari Kuppusamy Alagesan

Production of antibacterial substance by immobilized cells of Geobacillus subterraneus Tm6Sp1 isolate of Mount Kamojang Crater, west java, against pathogenic bacteria

Candra Arumimaniyah, Ratu Safitri, Emma Rachmawati, Ani Melani Maskoen, Akeyla Tabina Tawangalun, Shinta Asarina

Assessment of biodegradation potential of lead-resistant bacteria isolated from polluted sites of Gomati River in Lucknow

Afreen Shahid, Farhan Ahmad, Chitranshu Pandey, Sunil Kumar, Aisha Kamal

Risk factors and antibiogram of human uropathogens in the northern part of Bangladesh: A cross-sectional study

Md. Faridul Islam, Dipak Kumar Das, Baharul Islam, Md. Bazlar Rashid, Subir Sarker, Md. Hakimul Haque

β-lactamases-dependent antimicrobial resistance in enterobacteria isolated from commercial poultry farms in the Makkah province, Saudi Arabia

Tariq Alpakistany, Taher M. Taha,, Khaled S. Gazi, Mohammed A. Thabet, Ali A Hroobi, Mohammad Melebari

Efficacy of bacteriophage L522 against bacterial leaf blight of rice in Vietnam

Pham D.T. My,, Le T.T. Tien,, Le P. Nga,, To H. Ngoc,, Vo T. Phuc,, Hoang A. Hoang,

Isolation and characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoate producing halotolerant Bacillus subtilis SG1 using marine water samples collected from Calicut coast, Kerala

Sneha Grigary, Mridul Umesh, Vellingiri Manon Mani

Green synthetic photo-irradiated chitin-silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications

Navya Kumari Tenkayala,, Laxman Vamshi Krishna Kandala, Roopkumar Sangubotla, Rambabu Gundla, Subramani Devaraju

Impact of Jeevamrut formulations and biofertilizers on soil microbial and chemical attributes during potato cultivation

Rudra Pratap Singh Gurjar, Dashrath Bhati, Shailesh Kumar Singh

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria: Influence to abiotic stress tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Trinayana Sonowal, Namrata Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar, Sarvesh Rustagi, Sangram Singh, Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Sheikh Shreaz, Rajeshwari Negi, Ajar Nath Yadav,

Bioactivity assessment of endophytic fungi associated with Centella asiatica and Murraya koengii

Archana Nath, Jyoti Pathak and SR Joshi

Enzymes and qualitative phytochemical screening of endophytic fungi isolated from Lantana camara Linn. Leaves

Mbouobda Hermann Desire , Fotso Bernard , Muyang Rosaline Forsah , Chiatoh Thaddeus Assang, Omokolo Ndoumou Denis

Biodiversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of pumpkins (Cucurbita spp.) under the influence of fertilizers in ferralitic soils of Cameroon and Benin

Judith Taboula Mbogne , Carine Nono Temegne , Pascal Hougnandan, Emmanuel Youmbi , Libert Brice Tonfack , Godswill Ntsomboh-Ntsefong

Production and Characterization of Collagenase by Penicillium sp. UCP 1286 Isolated From Caatinga Soil

Maria Carolina de Albuquerque Wanderley , Jose Manoel Wanderley Duarte Neto, Carolina de Albuquerque Lima, Sara Isabel da Cruz Silverio, Jose Luiz de Lima Filho, Jose Antonio Couto Teixeira, Ana Lucia Figueiredo Porto

Screening, Selection and Optimization of the Culture Conditions for Tannase Production by Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Caatinga

Rayza Morganna Farias Cavalcanti, Pedro Henrique de Oliveira Ornela, João Atílio Jorge, Luís Henrique Souza Guimarães

Studies on the Optimization of Lipase Production by Rhizopus sp. ZAC3 Isolated from the Contaminated Soil of a Palm Oil Processing Shed

Zainab Adenike Ayinla, Adedeji Nelson Ademakinwa, Femi Kayode Agboola

In vitro antagonistic activity of a root endophytic fungus towards plant pathogenic fungi

K. Talapatra, A. Roy Das, A. K. Saha, P. Das

Biocatalysis of agro-processing waste by marine Streptomyces fungicidicus strain RPBS-A4 for cellulase production

Rajanikanth Akurathi, Damodharam Thoti

Purification and characterization of tannase from the local isolate of Aspergillus niger

Saja Taha Yaseen Al-Mraai, Dhia Falih Al-Fekaiki, Alaa Jabbar Abd Al-Manhel

Root-fungal associations in plants from home gardens of Tripura, Northeast India

Kripamoy Chakraborty, Atithi Debnath, Aparajita Roy Das, Ajay Krishna Saha, Panna Das

Isolation, identification, and optimization of laccase from Alternaria alternata

Asha T. Thakkar, Shreyas A. Bhatt

Impact of chemical properties of soil on spore density, colonization, and distribution of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Capsicum annuum L.

Komal Chandrakant Dhumal, Bharat Pandharinath Shinde

Distribution and species listing of wild macrofungi in Sitio Canding, Barangay Maasin, San Clemente, Tarlac Province, Philippines

Rich Milton Dulay, Jose Santos Carandang VI, Sofronio Kalaw, Renato Reyes

Distribution and diversity of endophytic fungi associated with three medicinal tree species from Eturnagaram Wildlife Sanctuary, TS, India

Bhavani Vemireddy, Abhinesh Madasi, Aruna Ajmeera, Krishna Reddy Vanteru

An effective and eco-friendly technique for control of post-harvest fungal pathogens of orange (Citrus sinensis) isolated from the distribution chain of Delhi NCR

Gayatri Krishna, Geethu Gopinath, Anupama Sharma Avasthi

Statistical optimization of fermentation media for beta lactamase inhibitor kalafungin production from marine Streptomyces sp. SBRK1

Thankaraj Rajam Jabila Mary, Rajaretinam Rajesh Kannan, Appadurai Muthamil Iniyan, Samuel Gnana Prakash Vincent

Diversity and antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi from aromatic plants of Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary, Western Ghats, Karnataka

Rajeshwari Jagadish, Srinivas Chowdappa

Molecular identification of endophytic fungi associated with Coleus forskohlii (Willd.) Briq.

Grace Leena Crasta,, Koteshwar Anandrao Raveesha,

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as a potential biofertilizers for agricultural sustainability

Kumar Anand, Gaurav Kumar Pandey, Tanvir Kaur, Olivia Pericak, Collin Olson, Rajinikanth Mohan, Kriti Akansha, Ashok Yadav, Rubee Devi, Divjot Kour, Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Manish Kumar, Ajar Nath Yadav

Antimicrobial, anticancer, and antioxidant potential of two dominant macro-lichen Dirinaria aegialita and Parmotrema praesorediosum collected from Similipal Biosphere Reserve of Odisha, India

Srimay Pradhan, Dalip Kumar Upreti, Rajesh Kumar Meher, Kunja Bihari Satapathy

Implications of abiotic stress tolerance in arbuscular mycorrhiza colonized plants: Importance in plant growth and regulation

Madhulika Singh,, Sanskriti Bisht, Shatrupa Singh, Jai Gopal Sharma

Endophytic Fungi as Emerging Bioresources for Bioactive Compounds for Sustainable Development

Divjot Kour, Neelam Yadav, Ajar Nath Yadav

A review on the biological properties of Trichoderma spp. as a prospective biocontrol agent and biofertilizer

Abdul Muizz Al-Azim Abdul-Halim, Pooja Shivanand, Sarayu Krishnamoorthy, Hussein Taha

Isolation of yeast endophytes from healthy seeds of Capsicum annuum L. and assessment of their antimicrobial activity

Barbi Bhuyan, Purthimi Kungri Hansepi, Suraiya Akhtar, Raja Ahmed, Rafiul Amin Laskar, Kumanand Tayung

Activity of antioxidants on various crops by the inoculation of Mycorrhiza under drought stress: A review

Shailja Sharma, Suhail Fayaz, Rajesh Kumar, Navjot Rana, Rajeev Kashyap, Sourabh Kumar, Dipti Bisarya, Tauseef A . Bhat, Aijaz Nazir

The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation affects plant growth and flavonoid content in tomato plant (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.)

Rusdi Hasan, Tia Setiawati, Dede Sukirman, Mohamad Nurzaman

Study of morphology and orchid mycorrhizal associations in Malaxis rheedei

B. S. Jyothsna, Radha Mahendran, Manish Raj Mishra, Sanjay Dey, Deepti Srivastava

Agronomic and disease responses of three watermelon (citrilus lanatus l.) varieties to fungicide spraying regimes in a tropical environment

Nathaniel Dauda , Sandra Nneamaka Ugwuagu, Patience Ukamaka Ishieze, Kevin Ugwuoke, Vivian Ogechi Osadebe, Solomon Oluwaseyi Adewuyi, Uchenna Noble Ukwu

Genome mining and AntiSMASH analysis of an Endophytic Talaromyces sp. reveal biosynthetic pathway gene clusters for novel bioactive compounds

Priyanka N. Shenoy, Sneha Bhaskar, M. Manu, M. P. Likitha, N. Geetha, Shailasree Sekhar, K Ramachandra Kini

In vitro anti-cancer potency of Mortierella elongata lipids against MCF 7 cells through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest

S. Ida Poornima, V. Judia Harriet Sumathy