Review Articles | Volume 11, Issue 1, January, 2023

Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.: An overview of its botany, uses, reproductive biology, pharmacological properties, and industrial potentials

Eric Wei Chiang Chan Siew Wei Yeong Chen Wai Wong Oi Yoon Michelle Soo Alice Choon Yen Phua Ying Ki Ng   

Open Access   

Published:  Nov 22, 2022

DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2023.110101
Abstract

In this review, the botany, uses, reproductive biology, pharmacological properties, and industrial potentials of Ceiba pentandra (kapok) are updated. Reproductive biology entailed phenology, floral and fruiting biology, pollination ecology, and breeding system. Among the pharmacological properties of extracts, anti-hyperglycemia or antidiabetes dominated, mostly from the stem bark of C. pentandra. Industrial potentials of C. pentandra were focused on biodiesel, bioethanol, absorbents, and adsorbents production from different plant parts. Sources of information were from Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, and J-Stage. The selection of articles in the literature was based on topics rather than on the period of coverage, although higher priority was accorded to more recent references. Some areas for further research of C. pentandra were suggested.


Keyword:     Kapok Hypoglycemic Biodiesel Bioethanol Absorbents


Citation:

Chan EWC, Yeong SW, Wong CW, Soo OYM, Phua ACY, Ng YK. Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.: An overview of its botany, uses, reproductive biology, pharmacological properties, and industrial potentials. J App Biol Biotech. 2023; 11(1):1-7. https://doi.org/10.7324/JABB.2023.110101

Copyright: Author(s). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license.

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1. INTRODUCTION

Ceiba species (family Malvaceae and subfamily Bombacoideae) are trees that are endemic to the seasonally dry tropical forests of the Neotropics comprising Central America, Caribbean, and South America [1,2]. A total of 18 species are naturally distributed in the Neotropics. Most of the trees are 5–20 m in height. Exceptions are Ceiba pentandra (30–50 m in height) which is the tallest and the most widespread while Ceiba jasminodora (1.5–2.0 m in height) is the shortest. Most Ceiba species produce digitate leaves and flowering occurs when trees are in the leafless condition [1]. Flowers open (anthesis) during sunset or at night. Flowers have five petals with corolla colors ranging from white, cream, pink, to red [3]. Pollinators of Ceiba species include bats, bees, butterflies, and moths.

The species C. pentandra spread from the Neotropics to West Africa, where populations grow wild along the coast from Senegal to Angola [4]. In Côte d'Ivoire, C. pentandra was planted along with cash crops such as cocoa and coffee. From Africa, the species was introduced to tropical Asia. Known as kapok, C. pentandra was first depicted in Java, Indonesia, and later in neighboring counties such as Thailand and Malaysia [5]. In Java, kapok was planted as a community-based forestry species together with other tree species such as sengon, teak, and mahogany [6].

Because of its myriad of uses, kapok has been frequently prescribed for agroforestry projects in rural communities in Gujarat, India [7]. The potential source of sustainable production of natural fibers of Ceiba species has been recently reviewed [3]. Fibers of Ceiba are light and hollow tubular structures of 1–2 cm in length. The fibers comprised microtubes with a mean diameter of 10 μm and a wall thickness of 0.1 μm. Compared to cotton fibers, which have a mean external diameter of 16.8 μm and a wall thickness of 3.9 μm, kapok fibers are short and light, and not as strong as cotton. Ceiba fibers are hydrophobic, porous, and buoyant, lack biodegradability, and contain a high content (69%) of cellulose. They are an excellent oil absorbent due to their hydrophobic nature.

In this review, the information on the botany, uses, reproductive biology, pharmacological properties, and industrial potentials of Ceiba pentandra (kapok) is updated. Previous reviews of C. pentandra are on the botany, uses, and pharmacological properties of the species [8,9]. The present review is unique in that it covers a wider scope, incorporating reproductive biology and industrial potentials of C. pentandra. Reproductive biology entailed phenology, floral and fruiting biology, pollination ecology, and breeding system. Among the pharmacological properties, anti-hyperglycemia or antidiabetes dominated, mostly from the stem bark. Industrial potentials were focused on the production of biodiesel, bioethanol, absorbents, and adsorbents.


2. BOTANY AND USES

Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. is commonly known as cotton silk tree or kapok tree [5,10]. Belonging to the family Malvaceae, the species is a deciduous tree that grows up to 15 m in height. The bark of the tree is grayish in color with or without large spines. The trunk produces buttress roots in older trees [8]. Branches are in horizontal tiers, mostly in threes, forming a crown with a pagoda shape. Leaves are palmately compound or digitate and have a long petiole, each bearing 5–8 leaflets that are lanceolate, acuminate, and having a slightly serrated margin [Figure 1]. Flowers are bisexual, creamy white, 5-merous, clustered on the branchlets, and have a milky fragrance [8,10]. Fruits are elongated capsules that are borne in clusters, pendulous, green when young [Figure 1], and brown when mature. Ripe capsules dehisce exposing numerous black seeds that are embedded in fibers consisting of fine, woolly hairs. The fibers aid in wind dispersal of the seeds.

Figure 1: Line drawing (P. Verheij-Hayes) showing flowering branch, flower parts, and mature fruit (left), and photograph of young compound leaves and cluster of capsules (right) of Ceiba pentandra.



[Click here to view]

In the Neotropics, C. pentandra trees are a keystone species of cultural and spiritual significance [11]. The Mayan and Aztec people in Central and South America regarded the kapok tree as sacred [5]. Nine trees of C. pentandra have been designated as heritage trees in Singapore [10]. In India, C. pentandra trees are planted in agro-forestry systems and as afforestation trials for rehabilitation of degraded coastal farmland [12]. The species is also a multipurpose tree that provides pollen for local beekeepers, as well as wood, fibers, oils, and fodder that sustain local livelihood.

The various parts of the kapok tree have medicinal and non-medicinal uses. In Southeast Asian countries, leaves are used to treat fever, cough, hoarseness, and venereal diseases. The bark is used for treatment of fever, asthma, gonorrhea, and diarrhea, and as aphrodisiac, while the root has diuretic and febrifuge properties [5,8,9]. Kapok fibers are used for stuffing pillows, cushions, mattresses, and life jackets. The light wood is used to make boats, canoes, wood carvings, musical instruments, and household utensils. It is also used as fuelwood and fence posts. The seed oil is used as fuel and lubricant, and for making soap. Leaves are used as fodder for livestock and as hair shampoo. Young leaves, flowers, and fruits are edible in Southeast Asian countries [5,8].


3. REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

The phenology, floral biology, pollination ecology, and breeding system of C. pentandra were studied in the Brazilian Amazon [13]. Out of 21 trees studied, 17 trees flowered once or twice over a 6-year study period. In Singapore, flowers of C. pentandra open during dusk and fall off by noon the following day [10].

In the Brazilian Amazon, flowers of C. pentandra are visited by a wide range of nocturnal animals (bats and hawk moths) and diurnal animals (bees, wasps, and hummingbirds) [13]. Only these floral visitors, the nocturnal phyllostomid bats (Phyllostomus hastatus and P. discolor) are effective pollinators that promote cross-pollination. Pollination by diurnal floral visitors is ineffective as pollen tubes did not penetrate the style to reach the ovary. In Samoa, a remote island nation of the Pacific, C. pentandra is pollinated by one species of flying fox Pteropus tonganus [14]. In India, pteropodid bats Cynopterus sphinx and Pteropus giganteus have been reported to be pollinators of C. pentandra [15,16]. Pollen was dusted on the abdomen, wing, and head in 40% of C. sphinx caught in mist nets. Pollen loads on the abdomen were greater on males than on females. Bats were more efficient in pollinating flowers of C. pentandra than other pollinators such as insects.

In the Brazilian Central Amazon, controlled pollination carried out on one tree revealed no fruit set by selfing and 17% fruit set by outcrossing [13]. The fruit set of two neighboring trees was estimated to be 91% and 71%. Two isolated flowering trees did not set any fruits whereas another two isolated flowering trees set large quantities of seed, suggesting that variable degrees of self-incompatibility may occur in this species. Self-incompatibility was also reported in C. pentandra trees of Southeastern Costa Rica where self-pollination resulted in fruit set that is very low or absent whereas cross-pollination resulted in 25% fruit set [17].

A study was conducted on the nucleotides of 12 Neotropical and five West African populations of C. pentandra [18]. Results showed low levels of nucleotide divergence, falsifying vicariance biogeography for trans-Atlantic range disjunctions. The study suggests that long-distance dispersal might have created taxonomic similarities in C. pentandra plant communities in Africa and the Neotropics. The species originated from the Neotropics, and seeds probably dispersed to Africa by floating over the Atlantic Ocean [18]. A study on the genetic diversity of C. pentandra in the seasonally dry tropical forests of Colombia showed that most of the 12 locations studied had heterozygous scores [19]. Only two locations had positive inbreeding coefficients that require conservation measures.


4. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

Extracts of C. pentandra have been reported to possess pharmacological properties including hypoglycemic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-ulcerogenic, anti-obesity, anti-angiogenic, hepatoprotective, anti-Alzheimer, renal protective, antivenom, and antipyretic activities [Table 1]. Plant parts included the stem bark, root bark, leaves, aerial parts, and roots of C. pentandra. Among the pharmacological properties, anti-hyperglycemia or antidiabetes dominated with nine studies, mostly from the stem bark. The antioxidant [20,21] and anti-inflammatory [22] properties of the seed oil of kapok have also been reported.

Table 1: Pharmacological activities of Ceiba pentandra.

No.BioactivityPlant partDescriptionReference
1HypoglycemicStem barkAqueous extract caused significant reduction in plasma glucose level in STZ-induced diabetic rats.[23]
2Root barkCH2Cl2/MeOH extract had hypoglycemic effect on normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats by lowering blood and urine glucose.[24,25]
3LeafFeed containing 20% powder exerted hypoglycemic effect on alloxan-induced diabetic rats through significant decrease in LDL, VLDL, and TG.[26]
4Root barkMethanol extract had hypoglycemic effect in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats by significantly reducing blood glucose level.[27]
5Stem barkEthanol extract improved glucose tolerance in normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats by significantly decreasing blood glucose level, total cholesterol, and TG level.[28]
6Stem barkMethanol extract exerted antidiabetic effect by increasing glucose uptake and reducing glucose release in rats.[29]
7Stem barkMethanol extract significantly reduced the blood glucose level of normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats.[30]
8Stem barkAqueous extract pellets had insulin sensitive effects on DEX-induced insulin resistant rats by improving glucose tolerance, oxidative status, and plasma lipid profile.[31]
9Trunk barkTwice daily administration of aqueous and methanol extracts significantly reduced glycemic and lipid profiles in diabetic rats.[32]
10Anti-cancerStem barkThe acetone extract showed the strongest cytotoxicity against B16F10 melanoma and MCF-7 breast cancer cells.[33]
11Stem barkThe in vivo antitumor effect of extracts in mice was stronger in the solid tumor model than in the liquid tumor model.[33]
12Anti-inflammatoryStem barkAqueous extract inhibits inflammation of edema and granulation tissue in rats induced by carrageenan.[34]
13AnalgesicStem barkAqueous extract reduced pain in rats caused by analgesimeter and hot plate.[34]
14Anti-ulcerogenicRootMethanol extract significantly decreased the index of gastric lesion in EtOH-induced ulcer and PL-induced ulcer in rats.[35]
15LeafMethanol extract exerted significant anti-ulcer effect on IND-induced and EtOH-induced gastric ulcers in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.[36]
16Anti-obesityLeafFeeding of ethanol extract significantly decreased the body, liver, and fat pad weight of CD obese rats.[37]
17HepatoprotectiveStem barkEthyl acetate fraction of the methanol extract possessed protected against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.[38]
18Anti-angiogenicStemMethanol extract exhibited the strongest activity with inhibition of 87.5% at 100 mg/mL using the angiogenesis assay.[39]
19Anti-AlzheimerAerial partFour new flavanolignans isolated from the ethyl acetate extract possessed potent inhibitory effects on amyloid b42 aggregation, comparable to or higher than curcumin.[40]
20Renal protectiveAerial partEtOAc extract reduced MTX-induced renal damage in rats through antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and anti-apoptosis.[41]
21AntivenomLeafHemolysis in mice due to the venom of Echis ocellatus (carpet viper) was significantly reduced from 66 to 27% by methanol extract.[42]
22AntipyreticLeafThe antipyretic activity of the ethanol extract was 189 mg/kg, 6 times stronger than that of Gossypium arboreum.[43]

CD: Cafeteria diet, CH2Cl2: Dichloromethane, CTC50: Concentration at which 50% of the cancer cells die, DEX: Dexamethasone, EtOAc: Ethyl acetate, EtOH: Ethanol, IND: Indomethacin, LDL: Low-density lipoprotein, MeOH: Methanol, MTX: Methotrexate, PCM: Paracetamol, PL: Pylorus ligated, RBCs: Red blood cells, STZ: Streptozotocin, TG: Triglyceride, VLDL: Very low-density lipoprotein.


5. INDUSTRIAL POTENTIALS

5.1. Biodiesel and Bioethanol

Biodiesel can be produced from fat or oil by transesterification using an alcohol to form esters and glycerol [44]. Although methanol and ethanol are most frequently used, ethanol is preferred as it can be derived from agricultural products, and it is renewable and less objectionable to the environment. The transesterification reaction can also be catalyzed by alkali, acid, and enzyme. The search for more efficient feedstocks and catalysts for transesterification into biodiesel is an area of active research [45].

A group of scientists from the Faculty of Engineering in University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, conducted research on biodiesel production from C. pentandra seed oil [46,47]. The presence of cyclopropene fatty acids in kapok seed oil makes it less attractive as a cooking oil, and consequently, the oil is more suited as a resource for biodiesel. Transesterification of the seed oil was carried out using sulfuric acid as catalyst, applied at 1% v/v to a mixture of methanol and oil (10:1) for 3 h [47]. Transesterification of the seed oil yielded 98% of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) that met the recommended biodiesel standards of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 [47,48]. The performance of kapok biodiesel with 10%, 20%, 30%, and 50% of FAME which reduced CO2 and CO emissions was studied [49,50]. The 10% biodiesel was found to have the best engine performance in terms of engine torque, engine power, fuel consumption, and brake thermal efficiency.

The performance of biodiesel from C. pentandra seed oil blended with other seed oils has been investigated. The biodiesel blend prepared from C. pentandra and Nigella sativa seed oils yielded better fuel properties than their individual biodiesel [51]. The fuel properties of C. pentandra biodiesel exhibited better calorific value, viscosity, and flash point, while that of N. sativa exhibited excellent cold flow properties and oxidation stability. When blended with Jatropha curcas seed oil, the optimum parameters for transesterification were 50:50 oil mixture at 60oC over a period of 2 h [52]. The physicochemical properties fulfill the ASTM D6751 and EN14214 standards. Biodiesel from C. pentandra seed oil and Calophyllum inophyllum seed oil was blended in a 60:40 ratio to improve its physicochemical properties [53]. The biodiesel blend had a lower kinematic viscosity and acid value, higher heating value, and superior cold flow properties than biodiesel from the unblended feedstock. The blend also had a higher cetane number than that of regular diesel. Cetane is a widely used standard used to benchmark ignition quality. Recently, that irradiation can be used to improve the efficiency of transesterification to reduce energy cost and improve the viability of C. pentandra as a biodiesel [54].

Elsewhere, the seed oil of C. pentandra in Benin, Nigeria, has been reported to be a suitable source of biodiesel based on its quality indices and fatty acid composition [55]. Several studies were conducted in India. The efficient production and optimization of biodiesel from kapok seed oil by lipase transesterification [56], and by two-step acid base transesterification [57] was developed. The performance of C. pentandra biodiesel blended with diesel in a single cylinder diesel engine [58] and blended with biogas fuels in a dual-fuel engine and the effect of injection timing [59] has been reported. In the diesel engine, the thermal efficiency for B25 blend was found to be superior than conventional diesel by 4% [58]. In the dual-fuel engine using B20 blend and injection timing, engine performance improved with emissions of smoke, CO, and NO reduced [59].

Another group of scientists from the School of Industrial Technology and the School of Chemical Engineering of the Science University of Malaysia in Penang assessed the feasibility of using C. pentandra fibers as feedstock for producing bioethanol. A study showed that the cellulose and glucose contents of kapok fibers were 51% and 60%, respectively [60,61]. The high glucose content indicated that kapok fibers may be a potential lignocellulosic resource for bioethanol production. However, the kapok fibers yielded only 0.8% of reducing sugar by enzymatic hydrolysis. Results showed that water, acid, and alkaline pre-treatments of the fibers before hydrolysis enhanced the yield of reducing sugar were increased to 39%, 85%, and >100%, respectively. The alkaline pre-treatment (120oC for 60 min in 2.0% NaOH) may serve as cue in producing bioethanol from kapok fibers by removing hemicellulose and lignin effectively.

5.2. Absorbents and Adsorbents

Briefly, sorption by sorbents is the process that involves absorption by absorbents or adsorption by adsorbents. Absorption is as endothermic process whereby one substance enters the volume or bulk of another substance. In this condition, substances such as atoms, ions, or molecules are taken up or absorbed by another substance usually a solid or liquid material. Adsorption is an exothermic process whereby substances such as gas, liquids, or dissolved solids loosely adhere or stick to the surface of another substrate which can be solid or liquid.

Kapok fibers are typical cellulosic fibers with thin cell walls, large lumens, low density, and hydrophobic-oleophilic properties, and are fluffy and resistant to rot, but have limited use as fabric due to their lack of elasticity to spinning [62,63]. These fibers have been considered as an absorbent material for oils, metal ions, dyes, and sound, with special attention to its oil-absorbing properties. An earlier study has reported that C. pentandra fibers are excellent oil absorbents [64]. They selectively absorbed significant amounts of oil (40 g/g of fibers) from an oil suspension in freshwater and seawater. It was suggested that these fibers could be used to remove oil from spilled in seawater.

In their unmodified state, kapok fibers have been shown to be a superior oil absorbent compared to polypropylene [62]. Kapok fibers can absorb diesel more than 40 times their weight compared to polypropylene that absorbs <10 times its weight. The superior absorption of kapok fibers can be explained by their high affinity to oil and low affinity to water. The affinity of materials towards liquids is generally measured based on their contact angle [62]. A high contact angle indicates that a round droplet is formed on contact and the liquid is being excluded by the material. A low contact angle indicates that the droplet is absorbed by the surface. Having a low contact angle of 13° when tested with diesel, kapok fibers have high water exclusion that allows more oil to be absorbed from a mixture of oil and water.

Kapok fibers can be modified by chemical or physical treatments to enhance their intrinsic properties or to alter their surface characteristics [63]. The former involves the use of alkali/acid, solvent, oxidation, and acetylation, while the latter involves the use of ultrasonic and radiation. Oxidation treatments with NaClO2 and ultrasound have been shown to increase the porosity of kapok fibers and increase their sorption capacity [63]. Overall, pre-treatment of kapok fibers with polymers has led to an improvement in their adsorption capacity [65]. Kapok fibers modified with pentetic acid exhibited excellent adsorption capacity in the removal of Cu, Cd, and Pb [66], while fibers treated with Fenton reaction or NaOH showed a significant increase in Pb adsorption [67]. A study on the sorption characteristics of kapok fibers as a natural oil sorbent showed that the fibers are reusable for more than 15 cycles of sorption and desorption with sorption capacity reduction of only 30% using diesel [68]. When coated with polyaniline, kapok fibers were found to adsorb methyl orange dye and copper (II) ions from aqueous solution [69]. Isotherm studies showed that the adsorption followed the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum sorption at 76 and 81 mg/g, respectively.

Besides fibers, the kapok hull can also be converted to activated carbon at 200°C using a furnace [70]. When used to adsorb copper and cadmium ions from wastewater, the activated carbon follows a multilayer adsorption mechanism. Like the fibers, the activated carbon from kapok hull can be reused after desorption by immersion in HCl. The adsorption of dyes using other plant parts of C. pentandra has also been tested. Studies included the adsorption of methyl violet dye using kapok sawdust [71] or activated carbon prepared from kapok sawdust [72], and the adsorption of methylene blue dye using physically/chemically modified kapok seeds [73].

While kapok fibers are naturally hydrophobic, they can be modified to be a super-hydrophilic gel serving as a super-absorbent polymer (SAP) that can hold large quantities of water. This can be achieved by reacting kapok fibers with monochloroacetic acid which converts cellulose into carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) [74]. CMC is a highly viscous, non-toxic, non-allergenic, and biodegradable anionic linear polysaccharide polymer that is derived from cellulose [75]. There are many ways; CMC can be converted into a hydrogel to serve as SAP including electron-beam irradiation and the use of chemical cross-linkers [76].

It was reported that kapok fibers cross-linked by grafting acrylic acid and butyl acrylate resulted in SAP with stronger gel strength than that produced from commercial CMC, probably due its higher grafting efficiency [74]. SAP from kapok exhibited maximum absorbency of 554 g/g in distilled water and 96 g/g in saline solution. Similar studies have also shown that kapok cellulose chemically cross-linked with citric acid and loaded with chlorhexidine diacetate is a feasible material for drug release applications [77,78]. Cross-linking cellulose with citric acid adds carboxyl groups which makes it chemically similar to CMC.


6. CONCLUSION

Endemic to the seasonally dry tropical forests of the Neotropics, C. pentandra (kapok) is a keystone species of cultural and spiritual significance, and a sacred and heritage tree. In most countries, the species is a multipurpose tree that is planted in agroforestry and afforestation projects. The species is non-invasive and naturalized in many areas around the globe. The tree provides pollen for local beekeepers, as well as wood, fibers, oils, and fodder that sustain local livelihood. There are prospects for developing useful products from C. pentandra that have commercial potential. They include biodiesel and absorbents from kapok fibers. The seed oil of C. pentandra has the potential to yield both medicinal and non-medicinal products. Research in this field should be accorded high priority. Other areas that warrant further research include identifying the mechanisms and molecular targets of bioactive compounds from the stem bark of C. pentandra that are responsible for the anti-hyperglycemic or antidiabetic properties; determining the feasibility of biodiesel production and absorption properties of other Ceiba species; enhancing the properties of biodiesel from C. pentandra by blending with other plant species; and developing super-absorbents from CMC modified from cellulose of C. pentandra.


7. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors are thankful to Professor Emeritus Tan Sri Dr. Omar Abdul Rahman from the UCSI University Council for his encouragement in writing the review on C. pentandra. The guidance in finalizing the reproductive biology of C. pentandra by Dr. Chan HT from the Secretariat of the International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems (ISME), University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0129, Japan, is much appreciated.


8. AUTHORS’ CONTRIBUTIONS

All authors made substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; took part in drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; agreed to submit to the current journal; gave final approval of the version to be published; and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work. All the authors are eligible to be an author as per the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) requirements/guidelines.


9. FUNDING

The authors are grateful for the financial support provided by UCSI University (REIG-FAS-2020/027 and PSIF-PROJ-2019-In-FAS-063) and by the Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education (FRGS/1/2019/STG05/ UCSI/03/1) in conducting the research on C. pentandra.


10. CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

The authors report no financial or any other conflicts of interest in this work.


11. ETHICAL APPROVALS

This overview does not involve experiments on animals or human subjects.


12. DATA AVAILABILITY

In this overview of C. pentandra, information and data used are listed in the References, and are available for public access if so desired.


13. PUBLISHER’S NOTE

This journal remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published institutional affiliation.

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28.  Satyaprakash RJ, Rajesh MS, Bhanumathy M, Harish MS, Shivananda TN, Shivaprasad HN, et al. Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effect of Ceiba pentandra L. Gaertn in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Ghana Med J 2013;47:121-7.

29.  FofiéCK, Wansi SL, Nguelefack-Mbuyo EP, Atsamo AD, Watcho P, Kamanyi A, et al. In vitro anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant properties of extracts from the stem bark of Ceiba pentandra. J Complement Integr Med 2014;11:185-93. [CrossRef]

30.  Odoh UE, Onugha VO, Chukwube VO. Evaluation of antidiabetic effect and hematotological profile of methanol extract of Ceiba pentandra (Malvaceae) stem bark on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 2016;10:584-90. [CrossRef]

31.  FofiéCK, Nguelefack-Mbuyo EP, Tsabang N, Kamanyi A, Nguelefack TB. Hypoglycemic properties of the aqueous extract from the stem bark of Ceiba pentandra in dexamethasone-induced insulin resistant rats. Evid Based Complement Altern Med 2018;2018:4234981. [CrossRef]

32.  Fofie CK, Katekhaye S, Borse S, Sharma V, Nivsarkar M, Nguelefack?Mbuyo EP, et al. Antidiabetic properties of aqueous and methanol extracts from the trunk bark of Ceiba pentandra in type 2 diabetic rat. J Cell Biochem 2019;120:11573-81. [CrossRef]

33.  Kumar R, Kumar N, Ramalingayya GV, Setty MM, Pai KS. Evaluation of Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertner bark extracts for in vitro cytotoxicity on cancer cells and in vivo antitumor activity in solid and liquid tumor models. Cytotechnology 2016;68:1909-23. [CrossRef]

34.  Elion Itou RD, Sanogo R, Ossibi AW, Ntandou FG, OndeléR, PéneméBM, et al. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of aqueous extract of stem bark of Ceiba pentandra Gaertn. Pharmacol Pharm 2014;5:1113-8. [CrossRef]

35.  Gandhare B, Kavimani S, Rajkapoor B. Antiulcer activity of methanolic extract of Ceiba pentandra Linn Gaertn on rats. J Pharm Res 2011;4:4132-4.

36.  Anosike CA, Ugwu JC, Ojeli PC, Abugu SC. Anti-ulcerogenic effects and anti-oxidative properties of Ceiba pentandra leaves on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Eur J Med Plants 2014;4:458-72. [CrossRef]

37.  Patil A, Thakurdesai PA, Pawar S, Soni K. Evaluation of ethanolic leaf extract of Ceiba pentandra for anti-obesity and hypolipidemic activity in cafeteria diet (CD)-treated Wistar albino rats. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2012;3:2664-8.

38.  Bairwa NK, Sethiya NK, Mishra SH. Protective effect of stem bark of Ceiba pentandra Linn. against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Pharmacogn Res 2010;2:26-30. [CrossRef]

39.  Nam NH, Kim HM, Bae KH, Ahn BZ. Inhibitory effects of Vietnamese medicinal plants on tube?like formation of human umbilical venous cells. Phytother Res 2003;17:107-11. [CrossRef]

40.  Abouelela ME, Orabi MA, Abdelhamid RA, Abdelkader MS, Darwish FM, Hotsumi M, et al. Anti-Alzheimer's flavanolignans from Ceiba pentandra aerial parts. Fitoterapia 2020;143:104541. [CrossRef]

41.  Abouelela ME, Orabi MA, Abdelhamid RA, Abdelkader MS, Madkor HR, Darwish FM, et al. Ethyl acetate extract of Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. reduces methotrexate-induced renal damage in rats via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic actions. J Tradit Complement Med 2020;10:478-86. [CrossRef]

42.  Sarkiyayi S, Ibrahim S, Abubakar MS, Shehu S. Studies on antivenom activity of Ceiba pentandra leaves aqueous methanol extract against Echis ocellatus snake venom. Res J Appl Sci Eng Technol 2010;2:687-94.

43.  Saptarini NM, Deswati DA. The antipyretic activity of leaf extract of Ceiba pentandra better than Gossypium arboreum. J Appl Pharm Sci 2015;5:118-21. [CrossRef]

44.  Aransiola EF, Ojumu TV, Oyekola OO, Madzimbamuto TF, Ikhu-Omoregbe DI. A review of current technology for biodiesel production:State of the art. Biomass Bioenerg 2014;61:276-97. [CrossRef]

45.  Saputra E, Sugesti H, Prawiranegara BA, Aziz Y, Fadli A, Muraza O. Waste materials from palm oil plant as exploratory catalysts for FAME biodiesel production. Appl Nanosci 2022;12:2185. [CrossRef]

46.  Silitonga AS, Mahliaa TM, Ong HM. Ceiba pentandra:A feasible non-edible oil source for biodiesel production. Seeds 2012;17:1-9.

47.  Ong HC, Silitonga AS, Masjuki HH, Mahlia TM, Chong WT, Boosroh MH. Production and comparative fuel properties of biodiesel from non-edible oils:Jatropha curcas, Sterculia foetida and Ceiba pentandra. Energy Convers Manag 2013;73:245-55. [CrossRef]

48.  Silitonga AS, Ong HC, Mahlia TM, Masjuki HH, Chong WT. Characterization and production of Ceiba pentandra biodiesel and its blends. Fuel 2013;108:855-8. [CrossRef]

49.  Ong HC, Masjuki HH, Mahlia TI, Silitonga AS, Chong WT, Yusaf T. Engine performance and emissions using Jatropha curcas, Ceiba pentandra and Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel in a CI diesel engine. Energy 2014;69:427-45. [CrossRef]

50.  Silitonga AS, Ong HC, Mahlia TM, Masjuki HH, Chong WT. Biodiesel conversion from high FFA crude Jatropha curcas, Calophyllum inophyllum and Ceiba pentandra oil. Energy Procedia 2014;61:480-3. [CrossRef]

51.  Khan TY, Atabani AE, Badruddin IA, Ankalgi RF, Khan TM, Badarudin A. Ceiba pentandra, Nigella sativa and their blend as prospective feedstocks for biodiesel. Ind Crops Prod 2015;65:367-73. [CrossRef]

52.  Dharma SM, Masjuki HH, Ong HC, Sebayang AH, Silitonga AS, Kusumo F, et al. Optimization of biodiesel production process for mixed Jatropha curcas-Ceiba pentandra biodiesel using response surface methodology. Energy Convers Manag 2016;115:178-90. [CrossRef]

53.  Ong HC, Milano J, Silitonga AS, Hassan MH, Wang CT, Mahlia TM, et al. Biodiesel production from Calophyllum inophyllum-Ceiba pentandra oil mixture:Optimization and characterization. J Clean Prod 2019;219:183-98. [CrossRef]

54.  Silitonga AS, Shamsuddin AH, Mahlia TM, Milano J, Kusumo F, Siswantoro J, et al. Biodiesel synthesis from Ceiba pentandra oil by microwave irradiation-assisted transesterification:ELM modeling and optimization. Renew Energ 2020;146:1278-91. [CrossRef]

55.  Montcho PS, Tchiakpe L, Nonviho G, Bothon FT, Sidohounde A, Dossa CP, et al. Fatty acid profile and quality parameters of Ceiba pentandra (L.) seed oil:A potential source of biodiesel. J Petrol Technol Altern Fuels 2018;9:14-9.

56.  Pooja S, Anbarasan B, Ponnusami V, Arumugam A. Efficient production and optimization of biodiesel from kapok (Ceiba pentandra) oil by lipase transesterification process:Addressing positive environmental impact. Renew Energ 2021;165:619-31. [CrossRef]

57.  Sivakumar P, Sindhanaiselvan S, Gandhi NN, Devi SS, Renganathan S. Optimization and kinetic studies on biodiesel production from underutilized Ceiba pentandra oil. Fuel 2013;103:693-8. [CrossRef]

58.  Vedharaj S, Vallinayagam R, Yang WM, Chou SK, Chua KJ, Lee PS. Experimental investigation of kapok (Ceiba pentandra) oil biodiesel as an alternate fuel for diesel engine. Energy Convers Manag 2013;75:773-9. [CrossRef]

59.  Gaddigoudar PS, Banapurmath NR, Basavarajappa YH, Yaliwal VS, Harari PA, Nataraja KM. Effect of injection timing on the performance of Ceiba pentandra biodiesel powered dual fuel engine. Mater Today Proc 2021;49:1756-61. [CrossRef]

60.  Tye YY, Lee KT, Abdullah WN, Leh CP. Potential of Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. (kapok fiber) as a resource for second generation bioethanol:Effect of various simple pre-treatment methods on sugar production. Bioresour Technol 2012;116:536-9. [CrossRef]

61.  Tye YY, Lee KT, Abdullah WN, Leh CP. Potential of Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. (kapok) fiber as a resource for second generation bioethanol:Parametric optimization and comparative study of various pre-treatments prior enzymatic saccharification for sugar production. Bioresour Technol 2013;140:10-4. [CrossRef]

62.  Lim TT, Huang X. Evaluation of kapok (Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.) as a natural hollow hydrophobic-oleophilic fibrous sorbent for oil spill cleanup. Chemosphere 2007;66:955-63. [CrossRef]

63.  Zheng Y, Wang J, Zhu Y, Wang A. Research and application of kapok fiber as an absorbing material:A mini-review. J Environ Sci 2015;27:21-32. [CrossRef]

64.  Hori K, Flavier ME, Kuga S, Lam TB, Iiyama K. Excellent oil absorbent kapok [Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.] fiber:Fiber structure, chemical characteristics, and application. J Wood Sci 2000;46:401-4. [CrossRef]

65.  Futalan CM, Choi AE, Soriano HG, Cabacungan MK, Millare JC. Modification strategies of kapok fiber composites and its application in the adsorption of heavy metal ions and dyes from aqueous solutions:A systematic review. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022;19:2703. [CrossRef]

66.  Duan C, Zhao N, Yu X, Zhang X, Xu J. Chemically modified kapok fiber for fast adsorption of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Cu2+ from aqueous solution. Cellulose 2013;20:849-60. [CrossRef]

67.  Wang D, Kim D, Shin CH, Zhao Y, Park JS, Ryu M. Removal of lead (II) from aqueous stream by hydrophilic modified kapok fiber using the Fenton reaction. Environ Earth Sci 2018;77:653. [CrossRef]

68.  Abdullah MA, Rahmah AU, Man Z. Physicochemical and sorption characteristics of Malaysian Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. as a natural oil sorbent. J Hazard Mater 2010;177:683-91. [CrossRef]

69.  Herrera MU, Futalan CM, Gapusan R, Balela MD. Removal of methyl orange dye and copper (II) ions from aqueous solution using polyaniline-coated kapok (Ceiba pentandra) fibers. Water Sci Technol 2018;78:1137-47. [CrossRef]

70.  Rao MM, Ramesh A, Rao GP, Seshaiah K. Removal of copper and cadmium from the aqueous solutions by activated carbon derived from Ceiba pentandra hulls. J Hazard Mater 2006;129:123-9. [CrossRef]

71.  Astuti W, Sulistyaningsih T, Maksiola M. Equilibrium and kinetics of adsorption of methyl violet from aqueous solutions using modified Ceiba pentandra sawdust. Asian J Chem 2017;29:133-8. [CrossRef]

72.  Chafidz A, Astuti W, Augustia V, Novira DT, Rofiah N. Removal of methyl violet dye via adsorption using activated carbon prepared from Randu sawdust (Ceiba pentandra). IOP Conf Ser Earth Environ Sci 2018;167:12013. [CrossRef]

73.  Manikandan G, Saravanan A. Modelling and analysis on the removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution using physically/chemically modified Ceiba pentandra seeds. J Ind Eng Chem 2018;62:446-61. [CrossRef]

74.  Khoo JM, Chee SY, Lee CL, Nagalingam S. Superabsorbent polymer prepared using carboxymethyl cellulose derived from Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. (kapok) cotton. J Appl Polym Sci 2014;2014:40808. [CrossRef]

75.  Huang CMY, Chia PX, Lim CS, Nai JQ, Ding DY, Seow PB, et al. Synthesis and characterization of carboxymethyl cellulose from various agricultural wastes. Cellul Chem Technol 2017;51:665-72.

76.  Chan EWC, Huang CMY, Chia PX, Lim, CS, Loong, ZJ, Talib M, et al. Swelling behavior and methylene blue absorption of carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogels prepared from Malaysian agricultural wastes by electron beam irradiation. Cell Chem Technol 2020;54:421-8. [CrossRef]

77.  Peraza-Ku SA, Cervantes-Uc JM, Escobar-Morales B, Uribe-Calderon JA. Modification of Ceiba pentandra cellulose for drug release applications. E Polym 2020;20:194-202. [CrossRef]

78.  Peraza-Ku SA, Escobar-Morales B, Rodríguez-Fuentes N, Cervantes-Uc JM, Uribe-Calderon JA. Ceiba pentandra cellulose crosslinked with citric acid for drug release systems. Carbohydr Res 2021;504:108334. [CrossRef]

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36. Anosike CA, Ugwu JC, Ojeli PC, Abugu SC. Anti-ulcerogenic effects and anti-oxidative properties of Ceiba pentandra leaves on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Eur J Med Plants 2014;4:458-72.https://doi.org/10.9734/EJMP/2014/6479

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38. Bairwa NK, Sethiya NK, Mishra SH. Protective effect of stem bark of Ceiba pentandra Linn. against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Pharmacogn Res 2010;2:26-30.https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-8490.60584

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40. Abouelela ME, Orabi MA, Abdelhamid RA, Abdelkader MS, Darwish FM, Hotsumi M, et al. Anti-Alzheimer's flavanolignans from Ceiba pentandra aerial parts. Fitoterapia 2020;143:104541.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2020.104541

41. Abouelela ME, Orabi MA, Abdelhamid RA, Abdelkader MS, Madkor HR, Darwish FM, et al. Ethyl acetate extract of Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. reduces methotrexate-induced renal damage in rats via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic actions. J Tradit Complement Med 2020;10:478-86.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcme.2019.08.006

42. Sarkiyayi S, Ibrahim S, Abubakar MS, Shehu S. Studies on antivenom activity of Ceiba pentandra leaves aqueous methanol extract against Echis ocellatus snake venom. Res J Appl Sci Eng Technol 2010;2:687-94.

43. Saptarini NM, Deswati DA. The antipyretic activity of leaf extract of Ceiba pentandra better than Gossypium arboreum. J Appl Pharm Sci 2015;5:118-21.https://doi.org/10.7324/JAPS.2015.50718

44. Aransiola EF, Ojumu TV, Oyekola OO, Madzimbamuto TF, Ikhu-Omoregbe DI. A review of current technology for biodiesel production: State of the art. Biomass Bioenerg 2014;61:276-97.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2013.11.014

45. Saputra E, Sugesti H, Prawiranegara BA, Aziz Y, Fadli A, Muraza O. Waste materials from palm oil plant as exploratory catalysts for FAME biodiesel production. Appl Nanosci 2022;12:2185.https://doi.org/10.1007/s13204-021-02185-9

46. Silitonga AS, Mahliaa TM, Ong HM. Ceiba pentandra: A feasible non-edible oil source for biodiesel production. Seeds 2012;17:1-9.

47. Ong HC, Silitonga AS, Masjuki HH, Mahlia TM, Chong WT, Boosroh MH. Production and comparative fuel properties of biodiesel from non-edible oils: Jatropha curcas, Sterculia foetida and Ceiba pentandra. Energy Convers Manag 2013;73:245-55.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2013.04.011

48. Silitonga AS, Ong HC, Mahlia TM, Masjuki HH, Chong WT. Characterization and production of Ceiba pentandra biodiesel and its blends. Fuel 2013;108:855-8.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2013.02.014

49. Ong HC, Masjuki HH, Mahlia TI, Silitonga AS, Chong WT, Yusaf T. Engine performance and emissions using Jatropha curcas, Ceiba pentandra and Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel in a CI diesel engine. Energy 2014;69:427-45.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2014.03.035

50. Silitonga AS, Ong HC, Mahlia TM, Masjuki HH, Chong WT. Biodiesel conversion from high FFA crude Jatropha curcas, Calophyllum inophyllum and Ceiba pentandra oil. Energy Procedia 2014;61:480-3.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.1153

51. Khan TY, Atabani AE, Badruddin IA, Ankalgi RF, Khan TM, Badarudin A. Ceiba pentandra, Nigella sativa and their blend as prospective feedstocks for biodiesel. Ind Crops Prod 2015;65:367-73.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2014.11.013

52. Dharma SM, Masjuki HH, Ong HC, Sebayang AH, Silitonga AS, Kusumo F, et al. Optimization of biodiesel production process for mixed Jatropha curcas-Ceiba pentandra biodiesel using response surface methodology. Energy Convers Manag 2016;115:178-90.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2016.02.034

53. Ong HC, Milano J, Silitonga AS, Hassan MH, Wang CT, Mahlia TM, et al. Biodiesel production from Calophyllum inophyllum-Ceiba pentandra oil mixture: Optimization and characterization. J Clean Prod 2019;219:183-98.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.02.048

54. Silitonga AS, Shamsuddin AH, Mahlia TM, Milano J, Kusumo F, Siswantoro J, et al. Biodiesel synthesis from Ceiba pentandra oil by microwave irradiation-assisted transesterification: ELM modeling and optimization. Renew Energ 2020;146:1278-91.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2019.07.065

55. Montcho PS, Tchiakpe L, Nonviho G, Bothon FT, Sidohounde A, Dossa CP, et al. Fatty acid profile and quality parameters of Ceiba pentandra (L.) seed oil: A potential source of biodiesel. J Petrol Technol Altern Fuels 2018;9:14-9.

56. Pooja S, Anbarasan B, Ponnusami V, Arumugam A. Efficient production and optimization of biodiesel from kapok (Ceiba pentandra) oil by lipase transesterification process: Addressing positive environmental impact. Renew Energ 2021;165:619-31.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2020.11.053

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