Research Article | Volume 10, Issue 4, July, 2022

Model for metabolism of arachidonic acid by 5-lipoxygenase as 5, 6-LTA4 synthase in the sheep uterus: Evidence from in vitro studies

A. Sai Padma K. Anil Kumar P. Reddanna   

Open Access   

Published:  Jun 01, 2022

DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2022.100419
Abstract

Sheep uterine tissue is rich in the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) that generates 5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HPETE) on incubation with arachidonic acid (AA). The present study focuses on the ability of the enzyme 5-LOX to further act as 5, 6 leukotriene A4 (LTA4 ) synthase using 5-HPETE as a substrate. On incubation of 5-LOX with 5-HPETE and analysis of products on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, a prominent peak with a characteristic conjugated triene peak having absorption maxima of 261, 271, and 281 nm appeared. Based on cochromatography, the peak was identified as 5(S), 6(S)-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5[S], 6[S]-diHETE), the non-enzymatic product of 5, 6 LTA4 . As the synthesis of 5,6-LTA4 from 5-HPETE requires 8-LOX activity, the present study demonstrates the dual LOX, 5- and 8-LOX activity for uterine 5-LOX, that is, 5-,6- LTA4 synthase in sheep uterus. In addition, endogenous 5,6-LTC4, the glutathione conjugate of 5,6-LTA4, was also observed in the sheep uterine homogenate, further demonstrating the synthesis of 5,6-LTA4 in the sheep uterine tissue.


Keyword:     Uterine 5-lipoxygenase 5-Lipoxygenase 5 6-Leukotriene A4 5(S) 6(S)-Dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid 56-Leukotriene C4.


Citation:

Padma AS, Kumar KA, Reddanna P. Model for metabolism of arachidonic acid by 5-lipoxygenase as 5, 6-LTA4 synthase in the sheep uterus: Evidence from in vitro studies. J App Biol Biotech. 2022;10(4):141-146. DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2022.100419

Copyright: Author(s). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license.

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1. INTRODUCTION

Fatty acids like arachidonic acid (AA) undergo oxygenation to their hydroperoxy derivatives by enzymes lipoxygenases (LOX) [1]. The bioactive compounds such as leukotrienes (LT), lipoxins, and others are generated from the primary products of the LOX pathway [2,3]. The LTs consist of LTB4 which is pro-inflammatory and the cysteinyl-LTs C4, D4, and E4 which are spasmogenic [4]. The LTs are formed by the oxygenation of AA to hydroperoxy eicosatetraenoic acid (HPETE), which, in turn, gets converted to LTA4. LTA4 gets converted to LTB4 by selective hydrolysis or to LTC4 by conjugation with reduced glutathione (GSH). These LTs perform different functions in various organs and cells.

The cysteinyl LTs (CysLTs) interact through G-protein coupled specific cell surface receptors CysLT1 and CysLT2, which mediate the responses during inflammation reactions [5-7]. In general, the CysLTs have potency in smooth muscle contraction higher than that of histamine and have shown potent muscle contractions [8]. LTC4 and D4 exhibit greater contractile action in human bronchial or parenchymal strips, compared to prostaglandin F2α or histamine, and are the major mediators of asthma [9]. The LT receptor antagonists, montelukast and zafirlukast, are in fact are the anti-asthmatic drugs in the market. LTB4 stimulates innate immune response being a major bioactive peptide-free LT and involves in various immunological functions including chemotaxis, adherence of neutrophils, and increased vascular permeability [10-12]. LTB4 activates inflammatory cells by binding to surface receptors of cells of type BLT1 and BLT2 and activates G-protein coupled intracellular signaling cascades [13].

There are a number of studies showing the involvement of 5-LOX and LTs in uterine function and during labor. During labor, the 5-LOX gene gets expressed higher in human choriodecidua [14], levels of 5-LOX products are increased in the amniotic fluid [15], and myometrial contractility was stimulated by LTs [16]. LOX gene expression was shown to vary in baboon intrauterine tissues at different stages of late pregnancy and parturition [17]. In cattle, during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy, LTs were shown to influence the secretion of progesterone and prostaglandins [18] and a recent report indicates that 12-LO and 5-LO pathways complement the production of LTs in the bovine uterus [19]. All the reported studies strongly indicate the importance of 5-LOX as well LTs in uterine function and metabolism.

The mechanism of action of 5-LOX involves stereospecific abstraction of hydrogen at C-7 of AA to yield 5-HPETE. In the following reaction, 5-HPETE is known to get converted to LTA4 (LTA4, 5S-trans-5,6-oxido-7,9-trans-11,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid), which is highly unstable. There are reports to demonstrate that a single enzyme possesses dual LOX activities of 5- and 8- LOX and thereby 5-LOX and LTA4 synthase activities [20-22]. Even though there are several studies indicating the presence of LOX enzymes and the existence of LTs in the uterine tissues, comprehensive studies are lacking in connecting LOX enzymes and LT in the uterus. In this study, we provide evidence that a single enzyme 5-LOX from sheep uterus metabolizes AA to 5-HPETE and further to 5,6-LTA4 by its 5-, 8-dual LOX activity. Apart from having 5,6-LTA4 synthesis in the sheep uterus, the present work also provides evidence for the existence of 5,6-LTC4 in the sheep uterus, a product formed from 5,6-LTA4 by the conjugation of GSH. This finding is in addition to the formation of 14, 15-LTC4 from 14, 15-LTA4by the action of its synthase activity as reported by the earlier studies [23,24].


2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1. Chemicals

Phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) was procured from Sigma Chemicals Co., St. Louis, USA, standard 5(S),6(S) diHETEs, 5(S),6(R) diHETEs, and 5,6-LTC4 are from Cayman Chemicals, Ann Arbor, USA. AA was from Nu Chek Prep, USA, Polyclonal rabbit anti-5-LOX antibodies were from Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA, DE-52 was from Whatman. All other chemicals were purchased from Qualigens, India, and are of analytical grade.

2.2. Tissue Collection

Mature and non-pregnant sheep uterine tissue was collected from a local slaughterhouse, followed by removal of ovaries, cervix, and fat tissue and immediately used in the experiments.

2.3. Extraction of Sheep Uterine 5-LOX

The extraction procedure was followed as described earlier [25]. A 20% homogenate was prepared from the non-pregnant sheep uterine tissue in 150 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.4 buffer containing 2 mM MgCl2, 1 mM KCl, 1 mM ascorbic acid, 2 mM CaCl2, 10 mM sodium metabisulfite, 1 mM PMSF and 250 mM sucrose. The homogenate was filtered through a cheese cloth and subjected to centrifugation at 12,000 rpm for 20 min. The supernatant was further subjected to high-speed centrifugation at 33,000 rpm for 1 h and the resulting cytosol was loaded onto DE-52 in a batch-wise fashion. Since flow-through contained most of the activity, washing of DE-52 with homogenization buffer and elution with 0.5 M NaCl was discontinued in the later extraction procedures. Precipitation of proteins in the flow-through was achieved by ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 fractionation at 50–70% saturation and the fractionated protein was assayed for enzyme activity. Protein concentration was estimated by the method of Lowry [26].

2.4. Immunoblot of 5-LOX

100 μg protein of 50–70% ammonium sulfate fraction of sheep uterine cytosol was separated on a 10% SDS-PAGE by the method of Laemmli [27]. The proteins were subjected to Western blot analysis by the method of Towbin et al. [28]. The polyclonal 5-LOX specific antibodies were used to bind to the fractionated proteins and blots were developed with goat anti-rabbit IgG-horseradish peroxidase.

2.5. LOX Enzymatic Activity

Enzyme activity was measured by the spectrophotometric method developed by Ben-Aziz et al. [29]. Sheep uterine 5-LOX (30–100 μg) was dissolved in 150 mM citrate phosphate buffer, pH 5.5 and the reaction was followed after the addition of 250 μM AA for 1 min at 235 nm. The enzyme activity was expressed as μmoles of hydroperoxides formed per min per mg protein.

2.6. 5-LOX Products of AA

The extracted 5-LOX enzyme was used to generate products by incubating with AA (250 μM) in 150 mM citrate phosphate buffer and pH 5.5 as 100 ml reactions. The incubation time was 2 min and after that, the reaction mixture was acidified to pH 3.0 using 6N HCl. The generated 5-HPETEs were extracted into equal volumes of hexane: ether mixture. The HPETEs in the organic phase were dried completely and the residue was dissolved in ethanol or solvent of hexane: propane-2-ol: acetic acid in 1000:15:1 ratio.

The 5-LOX products were initially analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) using a solvent system of diethyl ether: hexane:acetic acid (60:40:1) and further subjected to straight-phase HPLC using CLC-SIL (25 × 0.4 cm) column (Shimadzu model equipped with SPD 6AV detector and CR4A chromatopac). The mobile phase used was hexane: propane-2-ol: acetic acid in 1000: 15:1 ratio and the column flow rate was adjusted to 1 ml/min. The products from the column eluent were monitored at 235 nm and spectral analysis was performed for visible peaks. The identification of 5-HPETE from the peaks was confirmed by cochromatography with the standard. The standard 5-HPETE was generated in the laboratory using potato 5-LOX by the method of Reddanna et al. [30].

2.7. 5,6-LTA4 Synthase (LTA4) Activity

Assay of LT synthase activity and extraction of products were followed as described by Sailesh et al. [23]. Active sheep uterine 5-LOX enzyme (100 μg) was incubated with 150 μM of 5-HPETE in 150 mM citrate-phosphate buffer, pH 5.5 for 10 min in a total reaction mixture of 10 ml. Solvent system of hexane: ether (1:1) was used to extract the products and is evaporated under nitrogen. The residue was dissolved in methanol and TLC analysis was performed with a mobile phase of diethyl ether: hexane:acetic acid (60:40:1). Otherwise, the residue was dissolved in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) solvent system and on RP-HPLC using Waters C-18 column (25 × 0.4 cm). The solvent employed for RP-HPLC was methanol: water:acetic acid (65:35:0.1) adjusted to pH 6.8 with ammonium hydroxide. The flow rate of the column was adjusted to 1 ml/min and the products were monitored at 268 nm for 30 min. The individual peaks were further subjected to spectral analysis by ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometer.

Figure 1: Western blot analysis of sheep uterine 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX). Lane 1 and 2, 5-LOX was separated on 10% SDS-PAGE and cross-reacted with commercial antibodies against 5-LOX] and Lane 3, pre-stained protein markers]

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Figure 2: Thin layer chromatography separation of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites generated by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX). [Lane 1 AA, Lane 2 standard 5-hydroperoxy eicosatetraenoic acid (5-HPETE), Lane 3 and 4 sheep uterine 5-HPETE, Lane 5 5-HPETE after 5-LOX treatment]

[Click here to view]

The 5,6-LTA4 non-enzymatic hydrolyzed products, 5(S),6(S)-diHETEs, and 5(S), 6(R)-diHETEs were identified based on the triene spectra and cochromatography with standards.

2.8. Extraction of Endogenous LTs

The sheep uterine endogenous LTs were extracted based on the procedure described by Huwyler and Gut [31]. The extraction procedure involved mixing sheep uterine cytosol with iso-propanol in three volumes and the addition of 5N formic acid to acidify the reaction mixture to pH 3.0. Stirring was followed for 30 min after the addition of three volumes of methylene chloride solution. The reaction components were centrifuged at 10,000 × g for 10 min to separate the aqueous and organic phases. To the organic phase, 100 μl of distilled water was added after careful removal of the aqueous and interphase layers. After recentrifugation of the sample, the supernatant was concentrated to 50 μl and the compounds in the sample were analyzed on reverse phase HPLC using a C-18 CLC-ODS column (25 × 0.46 cm) with a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The eluent used was methanol: water:acetic acid that was used in the ratio of 72:28:0.1, with 50 μM EDTA and pH 6.0. The effluent was monitored for peaks at an absorbance of 280 nm and the prominent peaks were further subjected to UV spectral analysis.

Figure 3: (a) Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) of standard 5(S), 6(S) dihydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid (5[S], 6[S]-diHETE), (a.1) Spectral analysis of peak with RT 35.46 (b) RP-HPLC analysis of 5-hydroperoxy eicosatetraenoic acid product profile with uterine 5-lipoxygenase: Assay of 5,6 leukotriene A4 synthase activity, (b.1) Spectral analysis of peak with RT 35.63

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Figure 4: (a) Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis and coelution of standard 5,6 LTC4 and sheep uterine 5,6 LTC4, (a.1) Spectral analysis of peak with RT 11.96, (b) RP-HPLC analysis of endogenous 5,6 leukotriene (LT) C4 from sheep uterus, (b.1) Spectral analysis of peak with RT 12.22

[Click here to view]


3. RESULTS

3.1. Isolation and Western Blot Analysis of 5-LOX

High activity of the 5-LOX was found in 50-70% (NH4)2SO4 precipitate of the DE-52 flow-through fraction. The identity of the enzyme was also confirmed by Western blot analysis using 5-LOX-specific antibodies. The molecular mass of the protein was found near 66 kDa [Figure 1].

3.2. LTA4 Synthase Activity of 5-LOX

The role of sheep uterine 5-LOX in the biosynthesis of LTs was analyzed by reacting the enzyme with sheep uterine 5-LOX generated 5-HPETE. The 5-HPETE of sheep 5-LOX so generated [Figure 2, Lane 3 and 4] was compared with the standard 5-HPETE [Figure 2, Lane 2]. The extraction of LT products was done in a hexane: ether (1:1) solvent system and further analyzed on TLC and HPLC. The amount of 5-HPETE after incubation with 5-LOX was drastically decreased on TLC, confirming that it might have been used up as the substrate for the formation of LTs and further to diHETEs [Figure 2, Lane 5]. The diHETEs were unable to be detected on TLC, though different solvent systems were employed.

HPLC monitoring of the column eluent at 268 nm, prominent peak with RT 35.63 min was observed [Figure 3b], which coeluted with the standard 5(S),6(S)-diHETE. The peak has shown the characteristic 5(S),6(S)-diHETE spectrum with absorption maxima of 261, 271, and 281 nm [Figure 3b.1]. A standard 5(S),6(S)-diHETE, when run separately showed a peak with RT of 35.46 min and characteristic spectra [Figure 3a and a.1], further confirming the formation of diHETEs in the sample.

3.3. Extraction of Endogenous LTs

From the sheep uterine homogenate, the LTC4 peptideo LTs are extracted and analyzed on RP-HPLC where the products have shown a peak with a retention time of 12.2 min [Figure 4b]. A characteristic conjugated triene spectrum with absorption maxima at 270, 280, and 290 nm was observed for the peak fraction [Figure 4b.1]. The retention time of this product coincided with standard 5,6 LTC4 [Figure 4a and 4a.1] and both of them coeluted as a single homogeneous peak having RT of 11.9 min.


4. DISCUSSION

The structural and inflammatory cells’ outer plasma membrane contains a specific rhodopsin class of heptahelical receptors and LTs act by binding to them [32,33]. Increased levels of intracellular calcium and decreased levels of intracellular cyclic AMP are the effects of LTs through cytoplasmic G proteins. The downstream kinase cascades get in turn activated and result in the alteration of various cellular activities which include the basic act of motility to higher-order transcriptional activation. Alternatively, LTA4 gets hydrolyzed non-enzymatically into 5,6-di HETE (having absorption maxima at 272 nm) and 5,12-di-HETEs (having absorption maxima at 268.5 nm).

Figure 5: Metabolism of arachidonic acid through 5-lipoxygenase pathway in sheep uterus, 5-LOX: 5-lipoxygenase, 5-HPETE: 5-hydroperoxy eicosatetraenoic acid, LT: Leukotriene, diHETEs: Dihydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid

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Our earlier studies in the sheep uterus under in vitro conditions have shown the presence of 12- and 15-dual LOX as well as an abundant presence of 5-LOX [23,25]. The identity of 5-LOX was confirmed by immunoblot analysis and the molecular weight of the protein was found at near 66 kDa, which could be a slightly degraded compound of original protein and it was reported as 72 kDa in porcine leukocytesaa [34] and 80 kDa in human leukocytes [35].

Formation of 5, 6-LTs in the sheep uterine system was not reported so far, though the presence of 14, 15-series of LTs was mentioned earlier [23]. When the sheep uterine 5-LOX was incubated with 5-HPETE, the formation of 5(S), 6(S)-di HETEs with their characteristic spectra with maximum absorption at 271 nm suggests the formation of 5,6-LTA4 and its non-enzymatic hydrolysis to diHETEs. The formation of 5,6-diHETEs from 5-HPETE in the presence of 5-LOX attributes to the 5- and 8-dual LOX activity for uterine 5-LOX. Similar reports of LTA4 synthase activity of 5-LOX were mentioned earlier in other species [20-23] and these reports strongly support our understanding of the ability of the 5-LOX as dual LOX.

Another finding in the present study was the presence of endogenous 5,6-LTC4, which strongly provides information for the formation of total series of 5, 6-LTs in the sheep uterus. Our findings are further augmented by the studies on purification and characterization of LTC4 synthase from the sheep uterus by earlier studies [24]. The preference of the substrate 14, 15-LTA4 over 5, 6-LTA4 by LTC4 synthase isolated from sheep uterus [24] indicates the possibility of the existence of another 5,6-LTA4 specific LTC4 synthase, which needs further investigation. The LTs formed in the sheep uterus probably play a very important roles in reproductive functions as evidenced by the earlier studies showing elevated mRNA expression of 5-LOX and LTB4R (receptor for LTB4) and CysLTR2 (receptor for LTC4) [19]. It is well established that LTB4 is luteotrophic and LTC4 is luteolytic, regulating the formation of progesterone and thus maintenance of pregnancy [36,37]. In addition, LTs are known to regulate the production of prostaglandins, which play a key role in the regulation of parturition [38] and thus in the physiology of the uterus.


5. CONCLUSION

Based on the finding of this study, a model has been proposed for the metabolism of AA by 5-LOX in the sheep uterus [Figure 5] AA gets converted into 5-HPETE by 5-LOX and 5-HPETE in turn majorly gets converted into 5,6-LTA4 by the dual action of 5-LOX. The 5,6-LTA4 so formed gets modified into LTB4 or into LTC4 by the hydrolase or synthase activities, respectively. As 5,6-LTA4 is highly unstable, if it has not got transformed into potential LTs, it may undergo non-enzymatic hydrolysis into 5,6- or 5,12-diHETEs (mostly under in vitro conditions). There are other fates for 5-HPETE as getting converted enzymatically into 5, 12-diHETE by 12-LOX or into 5,15-diHETE by 15-LOX activities.


6. AUTHORS’ CONTRIBUTIONS

All authors made substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; took part in drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; agreed to submit to the present journal; gave final approval of the version to be published; and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work. All the authors are eligible to be an author as per the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) requirements/guidelines.


7. FUNDING

Financial support from University Grants Commission, Govt. of India, New Delhi through post-doctoral research award to ASP is thankfully acknowledged. Infra structural facilities provided by BVB management to ASP are highly acknowledged. Senior Research Associate fellowship for KAK (CSIR-SRA (13(8956-A)/2017 Pool from CSIR is highly acknowledged.


8. CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

The authors report no financial or any other conflicts of interest in this work.


9. ETHICAL APPROVALS

Ethical approval is not applicable as the study was conducted on the remains of the already slaughtered animal.


10. DATA AVAILABILITY

All data generated through experiments is included within this research article.


11. PUBLISHER’S NOTE

This journal remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published institutional affiliation.


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Shruti Dixit, Tilak Gasti, Ankith Sherapura, B. T. Prabhakar, Shyam Kumar Vootla

Impacts of multi-walled carbon-nanotubes on the growth of pearl millet

Akash Sharma, S. L. Kothari, Sumita Kachhwaha

Utilization of agro-industrial wastes as raw materials for the biosynthesis of polyhydroxy butyrate biopolymer from Bacillus paramycoides strain KUMBNGBT-33

G. Nandish, S. Akarsh, D. Manjunatha, H. V. Sowmya, B. Thippeswamy

Dietary Supplementation of Synbiotic Formulation with Phytoactives on Broiler Performance, Relative Ready-to-Cook Weight, Health, Nutrient Digestibility, Gut Health, and Litter Characteristics

Vishwanath G Bhagwat, Santoshkumar V G Tattimani, Mirza Rizwan Baig

Beneficial microorganisms for healthy soils, healthy plants and healthy humans

Ajar Nath Yadav, Divjot Kour, Neelam Yadav

In vitro antioxidant and antibacterial potential of biosynthesized yttrium oxide nanoparticles using floral extract of Illicium verum

Karthikeyan Kandasamy, Premkumar Kumpati

Sustainable biodegradation of textile dye reactive blue 222 by the novel strain Enterobacter CU2004, isolated from the industrial waste: A design of experiment based optimization study and characterisation of metabolites

Vasantha Veerappa Lakshmaiah, Anish Nag, Suresh Gotekar, Sunil More, Shobha K. Jayanna

In vitro antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase activities of catechin-loaded green fabricated zinc oxide nanoparticles

Nandhini Baskaran, Anitha Subash

Isolation and characterization of bacteria possessing Osmotolerance activity from phylloplane of Centella asiatica

Sonal Gupta, Ashwini A. Waoo

Co-application of Neem-based biochar with poultry manure and its implications for sustainable production of cucumber (Cucumis sativus Linn.) in humid tropical soil

Emmanuel Bassey Effa, David Adie Alawa, Eucharia Agom Ajah, Isong Abraham Isong, Aniefiok Effiong Uko, Inyang Columbus Etimita, Precious Tammy Edet

Random amplified polymorphic DNA marker molecular and physiological characteristics in tomato plants induced by chemical mutagen

Slameto Slameto, Sigit Soeparjono, Raden Soedrajad, Ketut Anom Wijaya, Usmadi Usmadi, Distiana Wulanjari, Danil Eka Fahrudin

Performance of mung bean as influenced by different levels of fertilizers and cropping systems in the semi-arid region of India

Jayanti Yomso, Sandeep Menon, Mustapha Na-Allah Sale, Johnson Yumnam

Screening and isolation of potential nitrogen-fixing Enterobacter sp. GG1 from mangrove soil with its accelerated impact on green chili plant (Capsicum frutescens L.) growth amelioration

Palash Ghorai, Dipankar Ghosh

Microbes as a gift from God

Ajar Nath Yadav,, Divjot Kour, Neelam Yadav

Sensing oxy anodic microbial fuel cell potential of halotolerant protease producer Priestia megaterium BorS17B13 belonging to mangrove biota

Priyanka S. Sawant, Jignasha T. Thumar

Evaluating the anti-inflammatory potential of Mesua ferrea linn. stem bark through network pharmacology approach

Jyothsna Kalyana Sundaram, Manjunatha Hanumanthappa, Shivananada Kandagalla, Sharath Belenahalli Shekarappa, Pavan Gollapalli, Umme Hani

A metagenomic analysis of gut microbiome phylogeny among four economically important carp species from wild and aquaculture farms

Shrihari Ashok Pingle, Abhay John Khandagle

Isolation and Characterization of Cellulase-Producing Myxobacterial Strain from the Unique Niche of Mirgund Wetland from the North-Western Himalayas

Daljeet Singh Dhanjal, Simranjeet Singh, Vijay Kumar, Praveen C. Ramamurthy, Chirag Chopra, Atif Khurshid Wani, Reena Singh, Joginder Singh

Indigenous Lakadong turmeric of Meghalaya and its future prospects

Manjit Kumar Ray, Dipak Kumar Santra, Piyush Kumar Mishra, Saurav Das

Characterization of Bean common mosaic virus strain blackeye cowpea mosaic infecting cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) in Egypt

Naglaa A.R. EL-Sayed, Amro A. Farrag, Noura H. Mohamed, Om-Hashim M. EL-Banna, Moustafa A.S. EL-Kady

3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase of Vietnamese ginseng: Structure, promoter identification, and expression analysis

Nguyen Quang Duc Tien, , Hoang Kha,, Tran Linh Anh, Le Quang Man, Duong Tan Nhut , Nguyen Hoang Loc,

Ascorbic acid and calcium chloride modulate protein profile and metabolites to adapt Indian almond seedlings to heat stress

Neven A. Abdullah, Haider S. Sh. AL-Jabir, Hussein J. Shareef

Efficacy of mineral nutrients and nanomaterials on the productivity of capsicum (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Rani) under polyhouse

Himanshi Dwivedi, Shailesh Kumar Singh, Shraddha Mahajan, Sachin Kishor, Deepak Maurya, Vineet Kumar

A novel trypsin inhibitor peptide MoCh I with antimicrobial activity derived from Momordica charantia

Samriti Dogra, Rajesh Biswas, Rupinderjeet Kaur, Sangeeta Sharma, Kakoli Biswas

Quality by design approach implementation in media development for the production of therapeutic enzyme

Tharaka Rama Velisetty, Sathish Thadikamala, Chiranjeevi Potu, Sudhakar Poda, Krishna Satya Alapati

Potential of some phages against Pseudomonas solanacearum causing bacterial wilt in tomato

Ai Nhi Nguyen,, Ngoc Quynh Anh Pham,, Hue Ngoc To,, Nam Vo,, Quang Vinh Tu,, Minh Thien Nguyen,, Duc Hoang Nguyen,, Thi Thuy Tien Le,, Thi Phuong Trang Phan,, Do Tra My Pham,, Anh Hoang Hoang,

DNA barcoding for species identification and phylogenetic investigation employing five genetic markers of Withania coagulans

Neelam Balkrishna Bare, Pratima Sharad Jadhav, Manivel Ponnuchamy

Optimization of stirring-assisted extraction of anthocyanins from purple roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) calyces as pharmaceutical and food colorants

Kartika Nurul Yulianda Setyawan, Kartini Kartini

Application of the PCR and allele-specific PCR-nucleic acid lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of the SRY gene and the G1138A mutation in the FGFR3 gene for the human DNA

Anupong Sukjai, Theerapong Puangmali, Khunton Wichajarn, Monthira Monthatong

Nano-biofertilizers for Agricultural Sustainability

Ajar Nath Yadav,, Divjot Kour, Neelam Yadav

Review and outlook of weed management in millets

Ashirbachan Mahapatra, Rajesh Shriram Kalasare, Jnana Bharati Palai, Swarnali Duary, Chandrasekhar Sahu, Dwity Sundar Rout

Biotechnological potential of secondary metabolites: Current status and future challenges

Sofia Sharief Khan, Divjot Kour, Seema Ramniwas, Shaveta Singh, Sanjeev Kumar, Satvinder Kour, Roshi Sharma, Harpreet Kour, Shafaq Rasool, Sarvesh Rustagi, Sangram Singh, Kundan Kumar Chaubey, Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Ajar Nath Yadav

Biofertilizer science and practice for agriculture and forestry: A review

Sudipta Saha, Debasish Paul, Tika Ram Poudel, Nafis Mahadi Basunia, Tasnimul Hasan, Mahadi Hasan, Bei Li, Rubel Reza, Ahmed Redwan Haque, Md. Abu Hanif, Manobendro Sarker, Nathan James Roberts, Muneer Ahmad Khoso, Haibo Wu, Hai-long Shen

Effect of pre emergence herbicides on weed dynamics and production potential of rice (Oryza sativa) under SRI

G. Bhargavi, A. Sundari, S. Kalaisudarson, G. Usharani

Immune cells at the maternal-fetal interphase: Role in implantation and establishment of tolerance

Anju Kaicker

miR-122 and miR-21 as clinical biomarkers in hepatocellular carcinoma: A review

Nishant Kumar, Priyvart Choudhary, Narotam Sharma, Alok Tripathi, Nishesh Sharma

Isolation of toxic gas-producing bacteria (Desulfovibrio spp.) from shrimp ponds and potential of bacteriophages as biocontrol

Truong Thi Bich Van, Tran Vo Minh Thu

Effect of combined NPK fertilizer on polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity in methanol extract of Curcuma xanthorhiza

Minarni Minarni, Rayandra Asyhar, Amira Amandanisa, Sintya Ainun, Yoshua Shandy Yudha, I Made Artika,, Waras Nurcholis,

Synthesis of bio-nanofiber from pectin/polyvinyl alcohol for therapeutic application

Nagula Harshith, Palleti Sai Yogesh, Kuttikattu Narayanan Kutty Bibin, Ramachandran Rabin, Ganesan Anusiya, Rengarajan Jai Ganesh

Comparison of distinct approaches for screening the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase in Klebsiella pneumoniae and its biofilm formation on various catheter surfaces, antibiotic resistance profile before and after biofilm formation

Sugantha Bharathy Lakshmanan, Anu Monisha Baskaran, Premkumar Kumpati, Sathiyamurthy Karuppanan

Dehydration kinetics of green banana slices, characterization of optimized product based on physicochemical, nutritional, optical, and sensory attributes

Ram Kaduji Gadhave, Ravneet Kaur, Rahul Das, Kamlesh Prasad

Assessment of morpho-agronomic and yield attributes in gamma-irradiated mutants of Kalanamak rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Tanmai Mishra, Anjali Singh, Virendra Kumar Madhukar, Ashutosh Kumar Verma, Shambhavi Mishra, Rajveer Singh Chauhan

Isolation of yeast endophytes from healthy seeds of Capsicum annuum L. and assessment of their antimicrobial activity

Barbi Bhuyan, Purthimi Kungri Hansepi, Suraiya Akhtar, Raja Ahmed, Rafiul Amin Laskar, Kumanand Tayung

Effect of substitution wheat with Fagopyrum esculentum flour and Moringa oleifera leaf powder on the nutritional and sensory characteristics of cookies

Rekha Kaushik, Shiv Kumar, Swarnim Thussu, Poonam Khanna, Rahul Mehra

The effect of salinity and tofu whey wastewater on the growth kinetics, biomass, and primary metabolites in Euglena sp.

Ahmad Saifun Naser, Angga Puja Asiandu, Brilian Ryan Sadewo, Nila Tsurayya, Agusta Samodra Putra, Koko Iwan Agus Kurniawan, Eko Agus Suyono

Effect of thermal and sonication processing on the naringin and ascorbic acid content of grapefruit juice

Darshana Sihmar, Aradhita B. Ray

Metabolic profile, bioactivities, and variations in chemical constituents of essential oils of twenty mango ginger (Curcuma amada) accessions

Jyotirmayee Lenka, Snehalata Khuntia, Basudeba Kar, Suprava Sahoo

Phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant activity of spray-dried and freeze-dried aqueous extracts of sea cucumber (Holothuria tubulosa)

Fadna Aatab, Fatima Bellali, Fatima Zahra Aboudamia, Ahmed Errhif, Mariem Kharroubi

Isolation and biochemical characterization of natural algal isolates from Kangsabati River, West Bengal toward single-cell proteins production

Kamalendu De, Dipankar Ghosh

Chemical and antibacterial properties of chitosan derived from Mucor spp., Rhizopus. Oryzae and Hermetia illucens

Muhammad Yusuf Abduh,, Tri Ramadianti Shafitri,, Maryam Jamilah, Mochamad Firmansyah,, Robert Manurung

Novel use of probiotic as acetylcholine esterase inhibitor and a new strategy for activity optimization as a biotherapeutic agent

Abdulrahman M. Qadah, Amr A. El-Waseif, Heba Yehia

Evaluation and comparison of 15 short tandem repeat loci of south and west Indian population for use in personal identification applications

Prabakaran Mathiyazhagan, Thangaraju Palanimuthu, Agasthi Padmanathan

Effect of phenolic disinfectant on sporulation inhibition of Eimeria tenella for prevention of coccidiosis

Rajendra Moorthy Rajendran, Nabila Fatima S

Bacillus paralicheniformis (OQ202112) - Mediated biodiesel production using groundnut husk: A sustainable approach for bioenergy generation

Roshani Kantibhai Chaudhary, Priti Hemant Patel, Nikita Rajendrasinh Chavda, Vaidehi Kamlesh Patel, Kaushal Kantilal Chaudhary

Beneficial fungal communities for sustainable development: Present scenario and future challenges

Divjot Kour, Sofia Sharief Khan, Seema Ramniwas, Sanjeev Kumar, Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Sarvesh Rustagi, Kundan Kumar Chaubey, Sangram Singh, Ajar Nath Yadav,, Amrik Singh Ahluwalia

Review on selected essential oils from America as applied resources to control Bemisia tabaci, an important agronomical pest

Ricardo Diego Duarte Galhardo De Albuquerque, Edmundo Arturo Venegas-Casanova, José Gilberto Gavídia-Valencia, Felipe Rúben Rubio-López, Roger A. Rengifo-Penadillos, Judith Enit Roldán-Rodriguez, Aníbal Quintana-Díaz

Iron nutrition management in calcisol soils as a tool to mitigate chlorosis and promote crop quality – An overview

Mari Carmen López-Pérez, José Luis Espinoza-Acosta, Fabián Pérez-Labrada

The development of multiplication conditions in vitro of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni in Morocco

Bouaaza Ghizlane,, Chetto Ouiam, Beniken Lhou, Dziri Laila, Benkirane Rachid, Hamid Benyahia

Phytomolecules against inflammation and fibrosis in immunoglobulin A nephropathy

Rajiv Jash,, Kousik Maparu, Sanket Seksaria, Sujan Banerjee, D. S. N. B. K. Prasanth, Himangshu Sekhar Maji

Activity of antioxidants on various crops by the inoculation of Mycorrhiza under drought stress: A review

Shailja Sharma, Suhail Fayaz, Rajesh Kumar, Navjot Rana, Rajeev Kashyap, Sourabh Kumar, Dipti Bisarya, Tauseef A . Bhat, Aijaz Nazir

Applications of seaweed biopolymers and its composites in dental applications

M. P. Sudhakar,, V. Deepak Nallasamy, G. Dharani, Alejandro H. Buschmann

In silico screening and analysis of candidate microRNA-target interaction involved in progression of prediabetes to Type II Diabetes Mellitus

Angel Mendonca, Prabu Thandapani, Priya Swaminathan, Sujatha Sundaresan

Optimization of pasteurization process of the ready-to-drink beverage from Hong Quan (Flacourtia jangomas) fruit by response surface methodology

Tan Duy Nguyen,, Tuyen Thi Xuan Vo,, Khang Nghia Tran,

Optimizing flow cytometry analysis for determining ploidy level and genome size of colchicine-induced polyploids of Neolamarckia cadamba

Wei-Seng Ho, Wee-Hiang Eng, Kwong-Hung Ling

Soil properties characterization and constraints for rice cultivation in Vinh Long Province, Vietnam

Vo Quang Minh, Pham Thanh Vu, Nguyen Thanh Giao

Evaluation of the vanillin treatment on migration and anchorage-independent growth of glioblastoma cell line

Megha Gautam, Reema Gabrani

Increasing polyphenol antioxidant in Orthosiphon stamineus Benth leaves with fermentation extraction by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC-9763

Muhammad Aria Chandra, Khaswar Syamsu, Laksmi Ambarsari, Nurul Fatimah, Waras Nurcholis,

Phytochemical composition and antiproliferative activity of Opuntia elatior Mill.: In vitro and in silico studies on breast cancer cell line MCF-7

Foram Patel, Khushali Upadhyay, Denni Mammen, Elizabeth Robin, A.V. Ramachandran, Darshee Baxi

Surveillance of upper aerodigestive candidiasis and their antifungal susceptibility study at tertiary care hospital: A prospective study

Priyanka Debta, Santosh Kumar Swain, Debasmita Dubey, Smrutipragnya Samal, Fakir Mohan Debta, Smarita Lenka

Population and genetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA variation in Gujarat

Mohammed H. M. Alqaisi, Molina Madhulika Ekka, M. Anushree, Harshit A. Ganatra, Bhargav C. Patel

Investigating plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance in gut microbes: A focus on Prevotella and Bifidobacterium

Jayavigneshwar Natarajan, Sorna Lakshmi S, Ishaan Ramachandran, Devika Sharma, Bhuvaneshwaran Rajaguru, Priya Swaminathan

Assessment of oxidative stress, genotoxicity, and histopathological alterations in freshwater food fish Channa punctatus exposed to fungicide, Mancozeb

Manoj Kumar, Anjali Mishra, Akash Verma, Anamika Jain, Adeel Ahmad Khan, Shikha Dwivedi, Sunil P. Trivedi

Computational analysis of differential gene expression in rice during abiotic stress

Shivani Devi, Yogeeta Goyal, Mansi Malik, Navjot Kaur, Yamini Sangar, Kashmir Singh, Ruchi Sachdeva

Bioactive properties of the extracts of peels, pomace, seeds, and essential oils of Citrus limon and Citrus aurantifolia

Folasade Oluwatobi, Olakunle Afolabi, Pius Okiki, Funmilayo Adeniyi, Oghenerobor Akpor

Use of enterocin MSW5 in combination with antibiotics to increase the antimicrobial and antibiofilm efficacy against foodborne pathogens

Mansi Umeshbhai Shukla, Dhruv Valand, Shilpa Akshaya Gupte

Epidemiology and antibiotic resistance assessment of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from respiratory specimens collected at Can Tho General Hospital

Linh Son Tran, Ngoc Nga Pham Thi, Bich Van Truong Thi, Minh Hoang Phan

Assessment of bioactivity of the novel exopolysaccharide secreted by Bacillus subtilis isolated from the gut of marine anchovies

Thejaswi Bhandary, Paari Kuppusamy Alagesan

Production of antibacterial substance by immobilized cells of Geobacillus subterraneus Tm6Sp1 isolate of Mount Kamojang Crater, west java, against pathogenic bacteria

Candra Arumimaniyah, Ratu Safitri, Emma Rachmawati, Ani Melani Maskoen, Akeyla Tabina Tawangalun, Shinta Asarina

Molecular docking and simulation studies of medicinal plant phytochemicals with Leishmania donovani adenosylmethionine decarboxylase

Praffulla Kumar Arya, Krishnendu Barik, Ajay Kumar Singh, Anil Kumar

Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in different captive wild animals

Swarup Sadashiv Lingayat, Tawheed Ahmad Shafi, Bhagwat Sopanrao Naikwade, Meera Pundlikrao Sakhare, Md. Ferozoddin Siddiqui, Prashant Ramchandra Suryawanshi, Abdul Mujeeb Syed, Abdul Qayoom Mir, Kunda Kumar Chaubey,, Saurabh Gupta, Manthena Navabharath, Mohd Abdullah, Pranchal Rajput, Shoor Vir Singh

Assessment of biodegradation potential of lead-resistant bacteria isolated from polluted sites of Gomati River in Lucknow

Afreen Shahid, Farhan Ahmad, Chitranshu Pandey, Sunil Kumar, Aisha Kamal

High resolution-liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer characterization of bioactive compounds in pineapple wastes: Valorization of antioxidant and enzymatic activity

Suman Polaki, Sourav Nayak, K. Sampad Kumar, Rabi Prasad B

Toxicity and safety profiling of Flacourtia jangomas (Lour.) Raeusch fruit and leaf methanolic extract in Sprague Dawley rats

Akshaya Pai, K. Chandrakala Shenoy

Antagonistic activities of Trichoderma spp. isolates against Neoscytalidium dimidiatum causing brown spot disease on dragon fruit Hylocereus undatus

Thanh Diem Nguyen, Quang Khai Phan, Anh Duy Do

Optimization of enzyme-assisted extraction conditions for gamma-aminobutyric acid and polyphenols in germinated mung beans (Vigna radiata L.)

Anh Thuy Vu, Tuyen Chan Kha, Huan Tai Phan

Sugarcane yield prediction using NOA-based swin transformer model in IoT smart agriculture

V. Gokula Krishnan, B. V. Subba Rao, J. Rajendra Prasad, P. Pushpa, S. Kumari

Role of DREB genes in the regulation of salt stress-mediated defense responses in plants

Ashokkumar Ramakrishnan Yadav, Vaishnavi Ashokkumar, Suganthi Muthusamy, Senthilkumar Palanisamy

Cotton (Gossypium spp.) pest management in the era of next-generation sequencing: A review

Julie Rebecca Joseph Mathari, Habeeb Shaik Mohideen

Characterisation of actin depolymerising factor promoter (pTZPaADF) from Plectranthus amboinicus Lour (Spreng) using Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh as an internal control

S. M. Evangelene Christy, K. Aravind, V. Deepika, E. Steffi Selvarani, V. Arun

Isolation and cloning of the Pseudomonas fluorescens chitinase gene – An ecofriendly approach for its use as a specific biopesticide

Suganthi M, Abirami G, Jayanthi M, Ashok Kumar K, Deepan S, Senthilkumar P

Development of real-time polymerase spiral reaction assay for rapid and visual detection of Treponema pallidum

Krishnamoorthy Priya, Aysika Das, Ramya Mohandass

Preparation of zinc oxide-carboxymethyl cellulose blended with cyclophosphamide for targeted drug delivery to lung adenocarcinoma cells

K. Harsha Prabha, Mahalakshmi Nannan, Sivaramakrishnan Venkatabalasubramanian

Rapid and visual detection of leptospira interrogans using polymerase spiral reaction assay

Archana Vishwakarma, Punith Chowdary, Mohandass Ramya

Environment and climate change: Influence on biodiversity, present scenario, and future prospect

Divjot Kour, Kanwaljit Kaur Ahluwalia, Seema Ramniwas, Sanjeev Kumar, Sarvesh Rustagi, Sangram Singh, Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Ajar Nath Yadav,, Amrik Singh Ahluwalia

Plant growth regulator-mediated response under abiotic stress: A review

Shahreen Khan, Ravinder Singh, Harpreet Kaur, Ajay Kumar, Amit Vashishth, Moyad Shahwan,, Hardeep Singh Tuli

Bacillus species for sustainable management of heavy metals in soil: Current research and future challenges

Diyashree Karmakar, Shanu Magotra, Rajeshwari Negi, Sanjeev Kumar, Sarvesh Rustagi, Sangram Singh, Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Divjot Kour, Ajar Nath Yadav,

Recent important insight into nutraceuticals potential of pigmented rice cultivars: A promising ingredient for future food

Le Thi Kim Loan, Bui The Vinh, Ngo Van Tai

A comprehensive review on threats and conservation status of orchids

Jitender Kumar, Diksha Katoch, Ambika Thakur, Arpit Pathania, Apurav Anand, Kajal Choudhary, Shelja

A bibliometric landscape of polyhydroxyalkanoates production from low-cost substrates by Cupriavidus necator and its perspectives for the Latin American bioeconomy

Martha L. Ascencio-Galván, Víctor A. López-Agudelo, David Gómez-Ríos, Howard Ramirez-Malule

Effect of foaming agents and dilution ratio on the foaming properties of Artemia franciscana biomass puree

Nguyen Ngoc Huong Anh, Nguyen Thi Kim Xuyen, Nguyen Hoang Thuy Quyen, Nguyen Hoang Yen Vi, Nguyen Huynh Anh, Nguyen Minh Thuy, Nguyen Van Hoa

Biodiesel production of oleaginous yeast isolated from the Mount Makiling Forest Reserve

Irene G. Pajares, Princess J. Requiso, Lorenzo M. Fabro Jr, Kristine Rose M. Ramos, Asuncion K. Raymundo

Effect of rice husk biochar, sugarcane sludge fertilizers, and Enterobacter asburiae bacteria on soil nitrogen and phosphorus availability to improve hybrid maize yield

Tat Anh Thu, Tran Van Dung, Vo Quang Minh

Traditional cereal-based cuisines from Himachal Pradesh Palampur region and their nutritional profile

Rekha Sharma,, Kalpna Thakur, Monika Kalia, Sonika Kalia,, Divyesh Suvedi

The de novo genome assembly of lemon grass to identify the genes in essential oil production

Navajeet Chakravartty, Nageswara Rao Reddy Neelapu

Characterization of an alkaline endo-α-1-4-amylase from alkaliphilic Bacillus halodurans LBW 5117 and demonstration of its desizing potential

Kevin Raymond Oluoch, Edward Kirwa Muge, Yvonne Wanjiku Mwangi, Francis Jakim Mulaa

Purification and structural characterization of Chojalactone C, a promising anticancer compound from a marine bacterium, Paenibacillus lentimorbus SAGM 3

Nagamuthu Vinothkumar, Pachaiappan Pugalendhi

Genoprotective potentials of two traditional medicinal plants Scoparia dulcis L. and Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less.

Jimsy Johnson, Leyon Varghese

Green synthesis of nano iron oxide using Emblica officinalis L. fruit extract and its impact on growth, chlorophyll content, and metabolic activity of Solanum lycopersicum L.

Nishant Singh, Manish Kumar Singh, Jyotsna Raghuvansi, Ravi Kumar Yadav, Zeba Azim

A novel fibrinolytic enzyme producer from mangrove soil sediments: Screening, isolation, strain improvement, and fermentation

Bhavana Sompalli, Alok Malaviya,,

Thermal treatment and inhibition study with non-toxic product of polyphenol oxidase from Mediterranean Palm heart (Chamaerops humilis L.)

Abdelaziz Bouchaib, Abdellatif Ben Abdellah, Tarik Chafik, Amine Laglaoui, Abdelhay Arakrak, Mohamed Bakkali, Abdelaziz Benjouad, Amal Maurady

Crop water management using machine learning-based evapotranspiration estimation

R. Meenal, Prakash Kumar Jala, R. Samundeswari, E. Rajasekaran

Assessing the role of temperature as an elicitor for indole-3-acetic acid production in cyanobacterial species

Priyanka Behera, Dhanesh Kumar,, Shubhashree Mahalik

Risk factors and antibiogram of human uropathogens in the northern part of Bangladesh: A cross-sectional study

Md. Faridul Islam, Dipak Kumar Das, Baharul Islam, Md. Bazlar Rashid, Subir Sarker, Md. Hakimul Haque

Performance of polymer-coated cotton seeds under various moisture stress conditions

V. Manonmani, S. Ambika, R. Paramasivam, K. Mohanraj, S. Laksmi, S. Kavitha, V. Vijaya Geetha, S. Deepika

β-lactamases-dependent antimicrobial resistance in enterobacteria isolated from commercial poultry farms in the Makkah province, Saudi Arabia

Tariq Alpakistany, Taher M. Taha,, Khaled S. Gazi, Mohammed A. Thabet, Ali A Hroobi, Mohammad Melebari

Combinatorial network of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Rupesh Kumar, Pammi Gauba, Shazia Haider

Efficacy of bacteriophage L522 against bacterial leaf blight of rice in Vietnam

Pham D.T. My,, Le T.T. Tien,, Le P. Nga,, To H. Ngoc,, Vo T. Phuc,, Hoang A. Hoang,

Solid-state fermentation of pigment producing endophytic fungus Fusarium solani from Madiwala lake and its toxicity studies

Bhoomika Prakash Poornamath, Suma Sarojini, Saranya Jayaram, Soma Biswas, Anand Kaloor, Mridul Umesh

Phytochemicals of Nardostachys jatamansi as potential inhibitors of HCV E2 receptor: An in silico study

Lalrintluanga Hnamte, Praveen Nagella, Aatika Nizam, Vasantha Veerappa Lakshmaiah

Isolation and characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoate producing halotolerant Bacillus subtilis SG1 using marine water samples collected from Calicut coast, Kerala

Sneha Grigary, Mridul Umesh, Vellingiri Manon Mani

Evaluation of pancreatic lipase and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors from ethanolic extract of butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.) flowers

Ratna Djamil, Diah Kartika Pratami, Tia Novia Wilantika, Qurrata A’yun, Abdul Mun’im, Asep Bayu, Masteria Yunovilsa Putra

Enhancing resistance to blast disease through CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology in OsHDT701 gene in RPBio-226 rice cv. (Oryza sativa L.)

Shravya Mathsyaraja, Saida Lavudi, Prathap Reddy Vutukuri

Performance of mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) accessions under intermittent water deficit stress in a tropical environment

Uchenna Noble Ukwu, Blessing Ngozika Oburu, Delight Promise Udochukwu,, Solomon Oluwaseyi Adewuyi, Stella Ogochukwu Muojiama, Vivian Ogechi Osadebe, Ifesinachi Nelson Ezeh, Patience Ukamaka Ishieze, Nathaniel Dauda

Gibberellic acid treatment improves seed germination and seedling establishment in Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook. F. and Thoms

Moitri Bhadra, Sumita Mondal,, Adwaita Das, Abhijit Bandyopadhyay

Microbial diversity of river Ganga at Haridwar (Uttarakhand) through metagenomic approaches

Annapurna Katara, Sumit Chand, Harshvardhan Chaudhary, Harish Chandra, Ramesh Chand Dubey

In silico analysis of garlic phytochemicals binding affinities to skeletal muscle atrophy receptors through molecular docking

Monika Monika, Sanjeev Gupta, Anita Dua, Ashwani Mittal