Research Article | Volume 10, Issue 4, July, 2022

Inducing the growth and flowering of caraway (Carum carvi L.) plant

Hanan M. H. Ali Dalia Abdel Halim M. Sallam   

Open Access   

Published:  Jun 01, 2022

DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2022.100412
Abstract

This study was conducted during the 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 seasons at the Farm of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Department in El-Kanater El-Khairia to evaluate the effect of glycine and tryptophan, each of them alone, at concentrations of 50, 100, and 150 ppm on vegetative growth, fruit yield, oil production, and plant hormones of caraway plants (Carum carvi L.). The results are summarized as follows: caraway plants showed a positive response to the foliar application by glycine and tryptophan. The plant that received tryptophan at 150 ppm has the highest vegetative growth, denoted as plant height and the number of branches/ plant, and produced the highest number of umbels per plant and fruit yield compared with other treatments in the two seasons. The high concentration of glycine or tryptophan (150 ppm) significantly increased the essential oil percentage compared to the control in both seasons. The application of tryptophan at a concentration of 150 ppm recorded the highest percentage of the main constituent of the essential oil (carvone). Moreover, it also affected some plant hormones such as gibberellin, indole acetic acid, and abscisic acid.


Keyword:     Caraway plants glycine tryptophan growth fruit yield essential oil


Citation:

Ali HMH, Sallam DAM. Inducing the growth and flowering of caraway (Carum carvi L.) plant. J Appl Biol Biotech, 2022;10(04):86-91.

Copyright: Author(s). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license.

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1. INTRODUCTION

Caraway (Carum carvi L.), a member of the Apiaceae family, is considered as one of the main medicinal plants and is an annual herbaceous plant. The main active components of caraway essential oil, which give the odor and flavor characteristics, are carvone from 47% to 81.17% and limonene from 9.4% to 48.7% [1]. The essential oil of caraway fruits has several medicinal uses as carminative, stomachic, and antispasmodic [2].

Amino acids are essential for promoting plant cell growth by building protein units as the major components of living cells [3]. Amino acids play an important role in inducing amines, purines, pyrimidines, alkaloids, vitamins, enzymes, terpenoids, and others [4]. Also, it plays a vital role in eliminating ammonia from the cell and protecting the plant from ammonia toxicity [5]. Moreover, previous studies have investigated the apparent positive effects of amino acids on plant growth and yield under abiotic stress [6]. Other studies have reported that the external application of amino acids induces stimulation influences of growth on several crops observed by using the exogenous implementation of amino acids [7,8]. The use of amino acids as a foliar application significantly increased the essential oil percentage and yield of the lemongrass plant [9]. Similar results were obtained from [10,11] on some medicinal plants.

Glycine acid acts as a necessary function in plant growth and the building of chlorophyll. It also can simplify the Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu absorption for the plant [12]. The molar mass of glycine is 75 g mol−1, which is considered a minor biological amino acid and proteinogenic amino acid in cells [13].

Tryptophan is the precursor of indole acetic acid (IAA), a phytohormone present in the root of plants [14]. It organizes osmosis and prevents the detrimental influence of heavy metals [15]. Foliar application of L-tryptophan enhanced the essential oil and its main constituents of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) aerial part [16] and geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) [17].

The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of exogenous application of two amino acids (glycine and tryptophan) individually on growth, flowering, fruit yield, production of essential oil, and some phytohormone content of caraway (C. carvi L) plants.


2. Materials and Methods

This study was conducted at the Experimental Farm of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research in El-Kanater El-Khairia, Egypt, during two seasons (2019/2020 and 2020/2021).

The fruits (seeds) of caraway (C. carvi L.) were obtained from the Experimental Farm of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in El-Kanater El-Khairia. The fruits were sown on October 17 into plots 2.4 × 2 m consisting of 4 rows and containing 32 plants (8 plant/row) at a distance of 25 cm between hills and a distance of 60 cm between rows in the two seasons. The experiment was designed in complete randomized blocks. The experiment consists of seven treatments, with three replicates.

Caraway plants were fertilized with the recommended dose of chemical fertilizers (NPK) as follow: calcium superphosphate (15% P2O5) was added during soil preparation, whereas ammonium sulfate (20.5% N) and potassium sulfate (48% K2O) doses per feddan were applied at two equal splits, after 45 and 75 days from sowing. The irrigation system used in the experiment is flood irrigation.

Tryptophan (99%) and glycine (98%) were obtained from EL-Gomhoriya Company for Trading Chemicals and Medical Appliances. Treatments were applied as foliar at concentrations of 50, 100, and 150 ppm for tryptophan and glycine alone; the control plants were only sprayed with tap water. Plants were sprayed twice; the first dose was sprayed at age 45 days after sowing, and the second was done after 2 weeks from the first one using a hand atomizer.


THE EXPERIMENT DATA RECORDED WERE

2.1. Vegetative growth parameters

Plant samples were taken in both seasons randomly. Data recorded were plant height (cm) and the number of branches/plant.

2.2. Flowering

The number of umbels/plants was obtained at the flowering stage in both seasons.

2.3. Yield

At the harvest stage, fruit yield (g)/plant was recorded in both seasons.

2.4. Essential oil analysis

Essential oil percentage was determined according to [18]. The main composition of caraway fruits essential oil (carvone and limonene) was determined by subjecting oil samples of the second season to gas liquid chromatography analysis according to [19,20].

2.5. Plant hormones

Gibberellin (GA3), IAA, and abscisic acid (ABA) in young leaves of caraway plant were determined at 80 days after planting in the second season of 2020/2021. The extraction method was essentially the same as that used in [21] and described in [22], while the determination was carried out according to [23].

2.6. Statistical Analysis

The reported data were statistically analyzed according to [24] using LSD at 5%.


3. RESULTS

3.1. Vegetative Growth

Data presented in Table 1 show that, in the general foliar application of tryptophan and glycine at 50, 100, and 150 ppm, each of them significantly improved (the plant height and the number of branches/plant) compared with untreated plants in the first and second seasons. Furthermore, the application of tryptophan at 150 ppm gave the highest values recorded of plant growth characters compared to other treatments and the control in the two seasons.

3.2. Flowering

All concentrations of tryptophan and glycine (50, 100, and 150 ppm) increased the number of umbels per plant significantly compared with the control in both seasons, as shown in Table 2. Results showed that glycine at the concentration of 150 ppm recorded a high number of umbels/plant (48 and 54) compared to untreated plants and two levels of glycine (50 and 100 ppm). Overall, the highest values were obtained from the plants that received tryptophan at 150 ppm giving the number of umbels per plant (73 and 78) in the two seasons compared to other treatments.

Table 1: Effect of tryptophan and glycine on vegetative growth of caraway plants during 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 seasons.

[Click here to view]

3.3. Fruit yield

It was observed that all spraying treatments of tryptophan or glycine at concentrations of 100 and 150 ppm had a significant effect on the fruit yield of the caraway plant compared to the control in the two seasons (Table 3). The application of tryptophan at a high dose (150 ppm) gave the heaviest fruit yield per plant compared to untreated plants and two rates of tryptophan in both seasons. Moreover, glycine at the concentration of 150 ppm occupied the second rank in this concern.

3.4. Essential Oil Production

3.4.1. Essential oil percentage

The effect of foliar spray caraway plants with glycine or tryptophan on the essential oil content in caraway fruits is presented in Table 4. In both seasons, data showed that the high concentration of glycine or tryptophan (150 ppm) significantly increased the essential oil percentage compared to the control. The best results were obtainable by using glycine at 150 ppm, which recorded 3.62% and 3.75% in the first and second seasons, respectively. Furthermore, foliar application of tryptophan at the concentration of 150 ppm gave the highest values (4.24% and 4.46%).

Table 2: Effect of tryptophan and glycine on a number of umbels/plants of caraway plants during 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 seasons.

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Table 3: Effect of tryptophan and glycine on fruit yield/plant of caraway plants during 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 seasons.

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Table 4: Effect of tryptophan and glycine on essential oil percentage of caraway plants during 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 seasons.

[Click here to view]

It is worth noticing that the aforementioned parameters of caraway plants showed a positive response to tryptophan compared to glycine during the two seasons.

3.4.2. Essential oil constituents

Data presented in Table 5 show that the main constituents of the essential oil of caraway were carvone and limonene, which accounted for 90.19% to 96.78% of the total oil composition. The highest value was 96.78%, obtained by foliar spray plants with tryptophan at a concentration of 150 ppm; however, the lowest was 90.19% obtained by untreated plants.

The highest value of limonene was 46.39% using tryptophan at 100 ppm, whereas the lowest value of limonene was 31.04% obtained by untreated plants.

Also, the obtained results revealed that the highest value of carvone was 61.68%, obtained by foliar application of tryptophan at the concentration of 150 ppm; on the other hand, the lowest value of carvone was 49.86% obtained by foliar application of tryptophan at the concentration of 50 ppm.

3.5. Phytohormones

Concerning the effect of treatments on phytohormones, the results showed that all treatments led to increasing the phytohormones content of plants. Also, data presented in Table 6 show that foliar spray plants with tryptophan at the concentration of 150 ppm gave the highest concentration of GA3, IAA, and ABA, which is 1062.24, 26.89, and 610.81 μg/100 g FW, respectively. On the other hand, the untreated plants have the minimum concentration of phytohormones.


4. DISCUSSION

Amino acids are necessary for cell growth because they act as coenzymes and precursors of plant hormones and enhance the photosynthesis process rate [25]. This study investigated the effects of foliar spray with amino acids (tryptophan and glycine) at concentrations of 50, 100, and 150 ppm. This study proved that foliar spray with amino acids increased growth characters, flowering, fruit yield, and essential oil production of caraway plants. These findings are consistent with a previous study that demonstrated the positive effect of amino acids on growth [4]. It showed that amino acids could be the main source of carbon and energy in plants when carbohydrates become limited, releasing the ammonia and organic acid structure from which the amino acid was originally formed. The organic acids then enter the Krebs cycle to release energy during respiration.

Likewise, other studies [26,27] reported that amino acids are of particular importance to plant producers because of their ultimate roles in plant metabolism. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins synthesis and precursors for many other molecules that perform an important function in plants. Amino acids participate in other organic compounds’ synthesis, like protein, amines, alkaloids, vitamins, enzymes, terpenoids, and plant hormones that control diverse plant processes.

Glycine is one of the main amino acids vital for the biosynthesis of protein in plant cells [28–30]. In our study, it is worth noticing that foliar spray of glycine at different concentrations, mostly at 150 ppm, leads to a significant increase in growth parameters. The potential effect of glycine, especially at high concentrations, may be ascribed to its incorporation with nutrient elements to produce chelates and then facilitate nutrient absorption in plants. Foliar spray of glycine can increase its endogenous content in plant tissues and improve growth and quality [13]. Likewise, a subsequent study has also reported that foliar application of glycine was the best treatment for achieving the highest flower yield and essential oil and the most prolonged flowering [31].

Table 5: Effect of tryptophan and glycine on limonene and carvone of essential oil in fruits of caraway plants during 2020/2021 season.

[Click here to view]

Table 6: Effect of tryptophan and glycine on phytohormones (μg/100 g FW) of caraway plant leaves during 2020/2021 season.

[Click here to view]

On the other hand, it was observed that spraying caraway plants with tryptophan at a high concentration of 150 ppm was the most effective treatment in this study. Spraying tryptophan increased growth parameters, most likely due to the amino acid tryptophan’s role in plants as a precursor for IAA biosynthesis. IAA can regulate and stimulate various aspects of plant growth related to cell division and elongation; thus, the plant height could be increased [32]. In addition, it plays a role in the decomposition of dead cells into proteins, thereby stimulating plant growth and flowering of the plant [33]. According to [34], foliar-applied tryptophan at higher concentrations increased GA3, IAA, cytokinin, and ABA contents in leaves.


5. CONCLUSION

It could be concluded that the application of tryptophan at 150 ppm recorded the highest growth characters, fruit yield, essential oil production, and main component of the essential oil in this respect. Thus, treating caraway plants with tryptophan at 150 ppm twice during the growing season is recommended.


AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS

All authors made substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; took part in drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; agreed to submit to the current journal; gave final approval of the version to be published; and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work. All the authors are eligible to be an author as per the international committee of medical journal editors (ICMJE) requirements/guidelines.


FUNDING

There is no funding to report.


CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

The authors report no financial or any other conflicts of interest in this work.


ETHICAL APPROVALS

This study does not involve experiments on animals or human subjects.


DATA AVAILABILITY

All data generated and analyzed are included within this research article.


PUBLISHER’S NOTE

This journal remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published institutional affiliation.


REFERENCES

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2. Mohamed SF. The effect of growth regulators and partial replacement of mineral fertilizers by biofertilizers on botanical characters of caraway (Carum carvi L.) and anis (Pimpinella anisum L. ) plants. Ph.D. Thesis. Fac. Agric. Fayoum Univ., Egypt, 2007.

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6. Kowalczyk K, Zielon T. Effect of amino acids and asahi on yield and quality of lettuce grown on rockwool. In: Book of astracts of the conference of bio stimulators in modern agriculture, Warsaw, Poland, 40 p, 2008.

7. Mohammadipour N, Souri MK. Effects of different levels of glycine in the nutrient solution on the growth, nutrient composition and antioxidant activity of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). Acta Agrobot 2019;72(1):1759. CrossRef

8. Fahimi F, Souri M K, Yaghobi F. Growth and development of greenhouse cucumber under foliar application of biomin and humifolin fertilizers in comparison to their soil application and NPK. J Sci Technol Greenh Cult 2016;7(25):143–52. CrossRef

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10. Talaat IM, Youssef AA. The role of the amino acids lysine and ornithine in growth and chemical constituents of Basil plants. Egypt J Appl Sci 2002;17:83–95.

11. El-Din KM, El-Wahed MS. Effect of some amino acids on growth and essential oil content of chamomile plant. Int J Agri Biol 2005.

12. Ghasemi S, Khoshgftarmansesh A, Hadadzadeh H, Afyni M. Synthesis, characterizatiation and theoretical and experimental investigation. Amino acid complexes as ecofriendly, plant growth promoters and highly bioavailable sources of zinc. J Plant Growth Regul 2013;32:315–23. CrossRef

13. Souri MK, Hatamian M. Aminochelates in plant nutrition: a review. J Plant Nutr 2019;42(1):67–78. CrossRef

14. Villarreal SQ, Hermandez N, Romero L, Lazcano E, Dorantes A. Assessment of plant growth promotion by rhizobacteria supplied with tryptophan as phytohormone production elictor on axon opus affinis. Agric Sci Res J 2012;2(11):574–80.

15. Rai VK. Role of amino acid in plant responses to stresses. Biol Plantarum J 2002;45:481–7. CrossRef

16. Orabi S, Talaat I, Balbaa L. Physiological and biochemical responses of thyme plants to some antioxidants. Nus Biosci 2014;6:118–25; doi:10.13057/nusbiosci/n060203 CrossRef

17. Talaat IM. Physiological effect of salicylic acid and tryptophan on Pelargonium graveolens. Egypt. J Appl Sci 2005;20:751–60.

18. British Pharmacopeia. Determination of volatile oil in drugs. The Pharamaceutical Press, London, UK, 1963.

19. Hoftman E. Chromatography. 2nd edition, Reinhold Pulb. Corp, pp 208–515, 1967.

20. Bunzen JN, Guchard J, Labbe P, Sperinnet PJ, Trenchant J. Practical manual of gas chromatography. In: Trenchant J (ed). Elseiver, Amsterdam, Netherlands; London, UK, 1969.

21. Shindy WW, Smith O. Identification of plant hormones from cotton ovules. Plant Physiol 1975;55:550–4. CrossRef

22. Hashem HA. Physiological and molecular actions of jasmonic acid on soybean plant. Ph.D Thesis, Fac. of Sci. Ain Shams Univ. Cairo, Egypt, 2006.

23. Vogel AJ. A text book of practical organic chemistry. 3rd edition, English Language Book Society and Longman Group Ltd., pp 483–5, 1975.

24. Snedecor GW, Cochran WG. Statistical methods. 6th edition, Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, IA, 507 p, 1980.

25. Amin AA, Fatma AE, Gharib M, El-Awadi M, Rashad ES. Physiological response of onion plants to foliar application of putrescine and glutamine. Sci Horticult 2011;129:353–60. CrossRef

26. Glawischnig E, Tomas A, Eisenreich W, Spiteller P, Bacher A, Gierl A. Auxin biosynthesis in maize kernels. Plant Physiol 2000;123:1109–19. CrossRef

27. Ibrahim SMM, Taha LS, Farahat MM. Influence of foliar application of pepton on growth, flowering and chemical composition of Helichrysum bracteatum plants under different irrigation intervals. Ozean J Appl Sci 2010;3(1):143–55.

28. Marschner P. Mineral nutrition of higher plants. 3rd edition, Elsevier, London, UK, 2011.

29. Ma Q, Cao X, Xie Y, Xiao H, Tan X, Wu L. Effects of glucose on the uptake and metabolism of glycine in pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) exposed to various nitrogen sources. BMC Plant Biol 2017;17:58. CrossRef

30. Ge T, Song S, Roberts P, Jones DL, Huang D, Iwasaki K. Amino acids as a nitrogen source for tomato seedlings: the use of dual-labeled (13C, 15N) glycine to test for direct uptake by tomato seedlings. Environ Exp Bot 2009;66:357–61. CrossRef

31. Ziyad KS, Seyedeh SSM, Mohamed AA, Marwan AS. Pruning intensity and amino acids tryptophan and glycine on growth and flowering of Jasminum sambac. Ornament Horticult 2020;27(1):20–5. CrossRef

32. Hanan Z. Effect of tryptophan and paclobutrazol on caraway (Carum carvil L.) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) plants. M. S. C. Thesis. Fac. of Agric., Cairo, Egypt, 2000.

33. Khattab M, Shehata A, Abou El-Saadate E, Al-Hasni K. Effect of glycine, methionine and tryptophan on the vegetative growth, flowering and corms production of gladiolus plant. Alex Sci Ex J 2016;37(4). CrossRef

34. Talaat IM, Bekheta MA, Mahgoub MH. Physiological response of periwinkle plants (Catharanthus roseus L.) to tryptophan and putrescine. Int J Agric Biol 2005;7:210–3.

Reference

1.Dragland S, Aslaksen TH. Trial cultivation of caraway (Carum carvi L.). Effects of sowing date and seed rate on plots throughout Norway. Norsk Landbruks Forsking 1996;10(3-4):159-65.

2. Mohamed SF. The effect of growth regulators and partial replacement of mineral fertilizers by biofertilizers on botanical characters of caraway (Carum carvi L.) and anis (Pimpinella anisum L. ) plants. Ph.D. Thesis. Fac. Agric. Fayoum Univ., Egypt, 2007.

3. Kielland K. Amino acid absorption by arctic plants: implications for plant nutrition and nitrogen cycling. Ecology 1994;75(8): 2373-83. https://doi.org/10.2307/1940891

4. Goss A. Amino acid synthesis and metabolism. In: Physiology of plants and their cells. Pergamon Press INC, New York, NY; Toronto, CA; Oxford, UK; Sydney, Australia; Braunschweig, Germany, 202 p, 1973. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-017036-7.50013-1

5. Aslam M, Travis R, Rains D. Differential effect of amino acid on nitrate uptake and reduction systems in barley roots. Plant Sci 2001;160(2):219-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9452(00)00391-5

6. Kowalczyk K, Zielon T. Effect of amino acids and asahi on yield and quality of lettuce grown on rockwool. In: Book of astracts of the conference of bio stimulators in modern agriculture, Warsaw, Poland, 40 p, 2008.

7. Mohammadipour N, Souri MK. Effects of different levels of glycine in the nutrient solution on the growth, nutrient composition and antioxidant activity of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). Acta Agrobot 2019;72(1):1759. https://doi.org/10.5586/aa.1759

8. Fahimi F, Souri M K, Yaghobi F. Growth and development of greenhouse cucumber under foliar application of biomin and humifolin fertilizers in comparison to their soil application and NPK. J Sci Technol Greenh Cult 2016;7(25):143-52. https://doi.org/10.18869/acadpub.ejgcst.7.1.143

9. Gamal El-Din KM, Tarraf A Sh, Balbaa L. Physiological studies on the effect of some amino acids and micronutrients on growth and essential oil content in lemon grass. J Agric Sci. (Mansoura Univ.) 1997;22:4229-41.

10. Talaat IM, Youssef AA. The role of the amino acids lysine and ornithine in growth and chemical constituents of Basil plants. Egypt J Appl Sci 2002;17:83-95.

11. El-Din KM, El-Wahed MS. Effect of some amino acids on growth and essential oil content of chamomile plant. Int J Agri Biol 2005.

12. Ghasemi S, Khoshgftarmansesh A, Hadadzadeh H, Afyni M. Synthesis, characterizatiation and theoretical and experimental investigation. Amino acid complexes as ecofriendly, plant growth promoters and highly bioavailable sources of zinc. J Plant Growth Regul 2013;32:315-23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00344-012-9300-x

13. Souri MK, Hatamian M. Aminochelates in plant nutrition: a review. J Plant Nutr 2019;42(1):67-78. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2018.1549671

14. Villarreal SQ, Hermandez N, Romero L, Lazcano E, Dorantes A. Assessment of plant growth promotion by rhizobacteria supplied with tryptophan as phytohormone production elictor on axon opus affinis. Agric Sci Res J 2012;2(11):574-80.

15. Rai VK. Role of amino acid in plant responses to stresses. Biol Plantarum J 2002;45:481-7. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022308229759

16. Orabi S, Talaat I, Balbaa L. Physiological and biochemical responses of thyme plants to some antioxidants. Nus Biosci 2014;6:118-25. https://doi.org/10.13057/nusbiosci/n060203

17. Talaat IM. Physiological effect of salicylic acid and tryptophan on Pelargonium graveolens. Egypt. J Appl Sci 2005;20:751-60.

18. British Pharmacopeia. Determination of volatile oil in drugs. The Pharamaceutical Press, London, UK, 1963.

19. Hoftman E. Chromatography. 2nd edition, Reinhold Pulb. Corp, pp 208-515, 1967.

20. Bunzen JN, Guchard J, Labbe P, Sperinnet PJ, Trenchant J. Practical manual of gas chromatography. In: Trenchant J (ed). Elseiver, Amsterdam, Netherlands; London, UK, 1969.

21. Shindy WW, Smith O. Identification of plant hormones from cotton ovules. Plant Physiol 1975;55:550-4. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.55.3.550

22. Hashem HA. Physiological and molecular actions of jasmonic acid on soybean plant. Ph.D Thesis, Fac. of Sci. Ain Shams Univ. Cairo, Egypt, 2006.

23. Vogel AJ. A text book of practical organic chemistry. 3rd edition, English Language Book Society and Longman Group Ltd., pp 483-5, 1975.

24. Snedecor GW, Cochran WG. Statistical methods. 6th edition, Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, IA, 507 p, 1980.

25. Amin AA, Fatma AE, Gharib M, El-Awadi M, Rashad ES. Physiological response of onion plants to foliar application of putrescine and glutamine. Sci Horticult 2011;129:353-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2011.03.052

26. Glawischnig E, Tomas A, Eisenreich W, Spiteller P, Bacher A, Gierl A. Auxin biosynthesis in maize kernels. Plant Physiol 2000;123:1109-19. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.123.3.1109

27. Ibrahim SMM, Taha LS, Farahat MM. Influence of foliar application of pepton on growth, flowering and chemical composition of Helichrysum bracteatum plants under different irrigation intervals. Ozean J Appl Sci 2010;3(1):143-55.

28. Marschner P. Mineral nutrition of higher plants. 3rd edition, Elsevier, London, UK, 2011.

29. Ma Q, Cao X, Xie Y, Xiao H, Tan X, Wu L. Effects of glucose on the uptake and metabolism of glycine in pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) exposed to various nitrogen sources. BMC Plant Biol 2017;17:58. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-017-1006-6

30. Ge T, Song S, Roberts P, Jones DL, Huang D, Iwasaki K. Amino acids as a nitrogen source for tomato seedlings: the use of dual-labeled (13C, 15N) glycine to test for direct uptake by tomato seedlings. Environ Exp Bot 2009;66:357-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2009.05.004

31. Ziyad KS, Seyedeh SSM, Mohamed AA, Marwan AS. Pruning intensity and amino acids tryptophan and glycine on growth and flowering of Jasminum sambac. Ornament Horticult 2020;27(1):20-5. https://doi.org/10.1590/2447-536x.v27i1.2231

32. Hanan Z. Effect of tryptophan and paclobutrazol on caraway (Carum carvil L.) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) plants. M. S. C. Thesis. Fac. of Agric., Cairo, Egypt, 2000.

33. Khattab M, Shehata A, Abou El-Saadate E, Al-Hasni K. Effect of glycine, methionine and tryptophan on the vegetative growth, flowering and corms production of gladiolus plant. Alex Sci Ex J 2016;37(4). https://doi.org/10.21608/asejaiqjsae.2016.2543

34. Talaat IM, Bekheta MA, Mahgoub MH. Physiological response of periwinkle plants (Catharanthus roseus L.) to tryptophan and putrescine. Int J Agric Biol 2005;7:210-3.

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Morel Culture Study Part I: Morchela sp. mycelial growth and nutrient-primed mycelia

Elif Ayse Erdogan Eliuz, Gulden Goksen

Metabolic activities and health indices of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed varying levels of Zingiber officinale root

Adegbesan Sherifat Ibidunni, Obasa Samuel Olubodun, Abdulraheem Ikililu

Growth Performance and Survival of Clarias gariepinus Larvae Fed with Varying Inclusions of beef Brain Meal

Alain Okoan Achi , Rachel Ahou Koumi, Bruno Yapoga Ossey, Wongbé Yté, Issa Nahoua Ouattara, Célestin Boua Atsé

Biodiversity and biotechnological applications of halophilic microbes for sustainable agriculture

Ajar Nath Yadav, Anil Kumar Saxena

Coleoptilar node - A season-independent explant source for in vitro culture in maize (Zea mays L.)

Pavan Kumar Gudlavalleti, Sreenu Pagidoju , Sridevi Muppala , Reddy Malireddy Kodandarami , Sateesh Kumar Puligandla

Effect of growth hormones in induction of callus, antioxidants, and antibacterial activity in Nerium odorum

Avinash Prakasha, S Umesha

Effects of modulation dietary gelatinized cornstarch/protein ratio on growth performance, feed utilization, and body composition of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings

Y E O Gope yue Maurice , B L E Melecony Celestin, Fagbohoun Bedel, Etchian Assoi Olivier, Dabonne Soumaila

Synergistic Antibacterial Effect of Silver Nanoparticles and Extremely Low-Frequency Pulsed Magnetic Fields on Klebsiella pneumoniae

Mai I. El-kaliuoby, Alaa M. Khalil, Ahmed M. El-Khatib, Thanaa I. Shalaby

Antimicrobial applications of sophorolipid from Candida bombicola: A promising alternative to conventional drugs

Victoria Akemi Itakura Silveira, Christiane Aparecida Urzedo Queiroz Freitas, Maria Antonia Pedrine Colabone Celligoi

Effect of different culture media on growth of Chlorella sorokiniana and the influence of microalgal effluents on the germination of lettuce seeds

Dagon Manoel Ribeiro, Géssica Tais Zanetti, Maria Heloisa Moreno Julião, Tathiana Elisa Masetto, Jane Mary Lafayette Neves Gelinski, Gustavo Graciano Fonseca

Effect of different industrial and domestic effluents on growth, yield, and heavy metal accumulation in Turnip (Brassica rapa L.)

Noor ul Ain, Qurat ul Ain, Sadaf Javeria, Sana Ashiq, Kanwal Ashiq, Muhammad Sufyan Akhtar

Screening and characterization of siderophore producing endophytic bacteria from Cicer arietinum and Pisum sativum plants

Rajat Maheshwari, Namita Bhutani, Pooja Suneja

Comparative study of three locally available feeds on the growth and nutritional quality of Oreochromis niloticus juveniles

Ella Pélagie Larissa Kouadio, Ahou Rachel Koumi, Tia Jean Gonnety, Boua Célestin Atsé, Lucien Patrice Kouamé

Callus induction, Indirect Organogenesis and Plantlet Regeneration from different explants of Vernonia anthelmintica (L.) Willd

Maya Rajan, Shahena Soororbhavan, Vinaya Chandran, Linu Mathew

Optimization of physical parameters for the growth and lipid production in Nannochloropsis gaditana (Lubian, 1982)

Shyni MarKose, Ajan Chellappan, Praba Thangamani, Subilal George, Selvaraj Thangaswamy, Citarasu Thavasimuthu, Michaelbabu Mariavincent

Dye degradation potential and its degradative enzymes synthesis of Bacillus cereus SKB12 isolated from a textile industrial effluent

Thangaraj Sheela, Senthil Kumar Sadasivam

Nutritional requirements for the enhanced mycelial growth and yield performance of Trametes versicolor

Bich Thuy Thi Nguyen, Ve Van Le, Huyen Trang Thi Nguyen, Luyen Thi Nguyen, Thuy Trang Thi Tran, Nghien Xuan Ngo

Enhanced production of a bioactive molecule from a symbiotic marine bacterium, Paenibacillus macerans SAM 9 isolated from the sea anemone, Heteractis aurora

Thayanithi Bharathi, Kathirvelu Sambandan, Kandasamy Sivasubramani

Bioprospecting of endophytic bacteria from the Indian Himalayas and their role in plant growth promotion of maize (Zea mays L.)

Kusam Lata Rana, Divjot Kour, Tanvir Kaur, Rubee Devi, Ashok Yadav, Ajar Nath Yadav

Bacterial endophytes from halophyte black saxaul (Haloxylon aphyllum Minkw.) and their plant growth-promoting properties

Vyacheslav Shurigin,, Begali Alikulov, Kakhramon Davranov, Zafar Ismailov

Growth-promoting effects of marine microalgae species using tropical forest soil extracts

Kasturi Arumugam, Nor Suhaila Yaacob, Hasdianty Abdullah, Mohd Fadzli Ahmad, Maegala Nallapan Maniyam, Emi Fazlina Hashim, Fridelina Sjahrir, Wan Muhammad Ikram, Kazuhiro Komatsu, Victor S. Kuwahara

Evaluation of common wastewaters on the growth of alga Spirulina

Tassnapa Wongsnansilp, Wikit Phinrub

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as a potential biofertilizers for agricultural sustainability

Kumar Anand, Gaurav Kumar Pandey, Tanvir Kaur, Olivia Pericak, Collin Olson, Rajinikanth Mohan, Kriti Akansha, Ashok Yadav, Rubee Devi, Divjot Kour, Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Manish Kumar, Ajar Nath Yadav

Phosphate-Solubilizing Microorganisms for Agricultural Sustainability

Ajar Nath Yadav

Structural and functional diversity of plant growth promoting microbiomes for agricultural sustainability

Tanvir Kaur, Divjot Kour, Olivia Pericak, Collin Olson, Rajinikanth Mohan, Ashok Yadav, Shashank Mishra, Manish Kumar, Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Ajar Nath Yadav

Abiotic stress signaling in plants and transgenic technology as a triumph: A review

Seetha Babu Manepalli, Shraddha Tomar, Dinkar J. Gaikwad, Sagar Maitra

Potassium Solubilizing Microorganisms for Agricultural Sustainability

Ajar Nath Yadav

Implications of abiotic stress tolerance in arbuscular mycorrhiza colonized plants: Importance in plant growth and regulation

Madhulika Singh,, Sanskriti Bisht, Shatrupa Singh, Jai Gopal Sharma

Effect of nutrient media enhanced with plant-growth regulators on indirect somatic embryogenesis induction for the tissue culture of Digitalis purpurea

Mohammed Ahmed Al-Oqab, Salim Zaid, Youssef Al-Ammouri

Effect of liquid seaweed (Ulva rigida) extract on the growth and rooting of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.)

Najat Zouari, Hanane Bougdaoua, Noureddine El Mtili

Occurrence of two endophytic associative nitrogen-fixing Caulobacter spp., from three non-nodulating endemic legumes based on nifH gene analysis

N. Thamizhseran, Ganesh V. Shendye

Stress Adaptive Phosphorus Solubilizing Microbiomes for Agricultural Sustainability

Divjot Kour, Ajar Nath Yadav

Microbial diversity of Azadirachta indica (Neem) gum: An unexplored niche

Pragya Saxena,, Hillol Chakdar, Arjun Singh, Sheetal Shirodkar, Alok K. Srivastava

Impact of different levels of iron fertilizer on growth and yield physiology of Kodo millet under rainfed conditions – An overview

R. Samundeswari, N. Jeyapandiyan, M. Anitha, J. Patricia Kalaiarasi, R. Susan Poonguzhali, C. Jayapradha, S. Rathikannu, K. Udhaya Kumar

Isolation and characterization of robust plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria from lignite mines, Gujarat

Ravi Patel, Dilip N. Borada, Amisha Patel, Neil J. Shah

Effect of nutrient media enhanced with plant growth regulators on genetic stability in sub-cultures of Digitalis purpurea callus

Mohammed Ahmed AL-Oqab, Salim Zaid, Youssef Al-Ammouri, Shawqi H. Alawdi

Endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria: Untapped treasurer for agricultural sustainability

Kusam Lata Rana, Divjot Kour, Tanvir Kaur, Rajeshwari Negi, Rubee Devi, Neelam Yadav, Pankaj Kumar Rai, Sangram Singh, Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Ashok Yadav, R. Z. Sayyed, Ajar Nath Yadav

Rhizospheres of Rubus ellipticus and Ageratina riparia from Meghalaya exhibit Actinomycetota that promote plant growth

Debulman Syiemiong, Dhruva Kumar Jha, Samrat Adhikari, Dapkupar Mylliemngap, Richborn Kharbuki, Dominic Lyngdoh, Joel Paul Warlarpih, Neha Paul, Kevin Matthew Lamare, Chalcedony Wahlang, Rangehbok Lyngkhoi

An update about plant growth promoting Streptomyces species

Fatimah K. Al-Tammar, Ashraf Y. Z. Khalifa,

Minerals Solubilizing Microbes for Agricultural Sustainability

Ajar Nath Yadav

Application of the PCR and allele-specific PCR-nucleic acid lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of the SRY gene and the G1138A mutation in the FGFR3 gene for the human DNA

Anupong Sukjai, Theerapong Puangmali, Khunton Wichajarn, Monthira Monthatong

Nano-biofertilizers for Agricultural Sustainability

Ajar Nath Yadav,, Divjot Kour, Neelam Yadav

Rhizospheric microbiomes for agricultural sustainability

Ajar Nath Yadav,, Divjot Kour, Neelam Yadav

The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation affects plant growth and flavonoid content in tomato plant (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.)

Rusdi Hasan, Tia Setiawati, Dede Sukirman, Mohamad Nurzaman

Cytokine disbalance in the rats’ kidneys following Leiurus macroctenus envenomation

Ruzhena Matkivska, Serhii Shchypanskyi, Nataliia Raksha, Tetiana Vovk, Tetiana Halenova, Oleksandr Maievskyi, Olexiy Savchuk, Liudmyla Ostapchenko

Improvement in productivity of strawberry (Fragaria X ananassa Duch.) under vertical farming system

Pallvi Verma, Gurpreet Singh, Shailesh Kumar Singh, Anis Ahmad Mirza, Manish Bakshi, Anmol, Lakshya Bishnoi

Formulation and effectivity of consortia of potential plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria from chickpea (Cicer arietinum)

Pradeep Kumar, Jitender Rathee, Simran Rani, Pooja Suneja

Growth and yield of carrot (Daucus carota L.) as influenced by seed priming

Sunandha Pusuluri, Monisha Rawat, Khushboo Kathayat