Published:  Dec 27, 2014DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2014.2603
Chlorination has been most widely practiced method of disinfection for potable waters since the turn of century and principal means by which the microbial quality of water is maintained in Iraq. Khabur river is the main source of our drinking water in Zahko-Duhok city, here chlorine in form of hypochlorous at concentration 2 ppm are most used. In this paper we have attempted to compare sensitivity of microorganisms toward chlorine and also we have tried to determination of chlorine resistance bacteria to antibiotics. Results from our experiment suggest that bacteria isolated from post chlorinated water samples are more resistant to chlorine disinfection than prechlorinated water samples. the isolated organisms are Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus varians and Aeromonas hydrophila fully resistant to chlorine at this concentration and the most resistant bacterium of all isolates is Staphylococci. Although the strains were sensitive to abroad spectrum of antibiotics but the strains show resistant to the most important clinical antibiotics. Suggestion that either the synthesis of unique proteins or aggregation of the bacteria as mechanisms of resistance to inactivation. This study will help us to suggest relevant changes in purification processes for supply of better quality of drinking water to our Municipal Corporation.
Mohammad I. Al-Berfkani, Anies I. Zubair, Husham Bayazed. Assessment of chlorine resistant bacteria and their susceptibility to antibiotic from water distribution system in Duhok province. J App Biol Biotech. 2014; 2 (06): 010-013. DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2014.2603
1. Ludovici, P. P., R. A. Phillips, and W. S. Jeter.Comparative inactivation of bacteria and viruses in tertiary- treated wastewater by chlorination, In J. D. Johnson (ed.), Disinfection: water and wastewater. Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Michigan; 1977, p. 359-390.
2. LeChevallier, M. W., R. J. Seidler, and T. M. Evans.Enumeration and characterization of standard plate count bacteria in chlorinated and raw water supplies. Journal of Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 1980; 40:922-930.
3. Means, E. G., L. Hanami, H. F. Ridgway, and B. H. Olson. Enumeration of bacteria in potable water distribution systems: evaluation of media and plating techniques. Am. Water Works Assoc. Journal. 1981; 53:585-590.
4. Bishankha, S., Et Al. assessment of microbial quality of chlorinated drinking tap water and susceptibility of gram negative bacterial isolates towards chlorine. kathmandu university journal of science, engineering and technology. 2013; 9(1): 222-229.
5. Mir, J., et al.. "Resistance to chlorine of freshwater bacterial strains. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 1996; 82: 7-1 8.
6. Hiraishi, A., et al. Phenotypic and Genetic Diversity of Chlorine-Resistant Methylobacterium Strains Isolated from Various Environments. Journal of Applied And Environmental Microbiology. 1995; 61(6): 2099–2107.
7. Ridgway, H. F. and B. H. Olson. Chlorine Resistance Patterns of Bacteria from Two Drinking Water Distribution Systems. Journal of Applied And Environmental Microbiology. 1982; 44(4): 972-987.
8. Geldreich E. E. Microbial quality of water supply in distribution systems. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida ;1996.
9. Haas, C. N., and J. P. Gould. Disinfection. J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 1979; 51:1232-1242.
10. Hoadley, A. W., and J. P. Gould. Disinfection. J. Water Pollut Control Fed. 1977; 49:1067-1073.
11. Armstrong, J. L., D. S. Shigeno, J. J. Calomiris, and R. J. Seidler. Antibiotic resistant bacteria in drinking water. Journal of Applied And Environmental Microbiology.1981;42:277-283.
12. Armstrong, J. L., J. Calomiris, and R.J. Seidler. Selection of antibiotic resistant standard plate count bacteria during water treatment Journal of Applied And Environmental Microbiology. 1982; 44:308-316.
13. Martins, S. C. S., et al. Chlorine and antibiotic-resistant bacilli isolated from an effluent treatment plant. Acta Scientiarum. 2013; 35(1): 3-9.
14. Murray, G.E.. et al. Effect of chlorination on antibiotic resistance profiles of sewage related bacteria. Journal of Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 1984; 48(1):73-77.
15. Smith, H. W. Incidence of R*Escherichia coli in coastal bathing waters of Britain. Nature (London). 1971; 234:155-156.
16. Strutrevant, A. B., G. H. Cassell, and T. W. Feary, Incidence of infection drug resistance among fecal coliforms isolated from raw sewage. Journal of Applied And Environmental Microbiology. 1971; 21:487-491.
17. White, G. C. Handbook of chlorination for potable water. Waste water. Cooling water. Industrial processes. And swimming pools. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. New York; 1972.
18. Datta, N. Drug resistance and R-factors in the bowel bacteria of London patients before and after admission to hospital. British Medical Journal. 1969;2:407-411.
19. Farrar, W. E., Jr., M. Eidson, P. Guerry, S. Falkow, L. M. Drusin, and R, B. Roberts. Interbacterial transfer of R-factor in the human intestine: in vitroaquistion of R-factor mediated kanamycin resistance by a multiresistant strain of Shigella sonnei. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1972;126:27-33.
20. Smith, H. W. Transfer of antibiotic resistance from animal and human strains of Escherichia coli to resident E.coli in the alimentary tract of man. Lancet i.1969;1174-1176.
21. Van Graevenitz, A. The role of opportunistic bacteria in human disease. Annual Review of Microbiology. 1977; 31:447-471.
22. NCCLS-National Committee for Clinical Laboratorial Standards. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Wayne: NCCLS;2005. (Supplement M100-S14).
23. Holt, J. G.; Krieg, N. R.; Sneath, P. H. A.; Staley, J. T.; Williams, S. T. Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins;1994.
24. Jenkins, D.E., Schultz, J.E. and Matin, A. Starvationinduced cross protection against heat or H,Oz challenge in Escherichin coli. Journal of Bacteriology.1988; 170, 3910-3914.
25. Schultz, J.E. and Matin, A. Regulation of carbon starvation genes in Escherichia coli. In Homeostatic Mechanisms in Microorganisms. FEMS Symposium No. 44 ed. Whittenbury, R., Gould, G.W., Banks, J.G. and Board, R.G. pp. 5M6. Claver Down: Bath University Press;1988.
26. Matin, A. and Harakeh, S. Effect of starvation on bacterial resistance to disinfectants. In Drrnkin,c I f u f e rA 4icrohiolog)~P. rogress and Rerent Decr1opnient.v ed. AIcFeters, G..k pp. Springer-Verlag .New York .1990; 88-103.
770 Absract views 197 PDF Downloads 967 Total views