Research Article | Volume: 6, Issue: 6, Nov-Dec, 2018

Synergistic Antibacterial Effect of Silver Nanoparticles and Extremely Low-Frequency Pulsed Magnetic Fields on Klebsiella pneumoniae

Mai I. El-kaliuoby Alaa M. Khalil Ahmed M. El-Khatib Thanaa I. Shalaby   

Open Access   

Published:  Oct 20, 2018

DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2018.60606
Abstract

The potential use of antibiotics made dramatically increase of antibacterial resistance and the need for different alternatives to antibiotics becomes a must. Recently effects of supplying AgNPs and exposure to ELF-PMF as bactericidal agents were examined alone/and with a combination of antibiotics. This research aimed to explore the synergistic effects of the combination of exposure to ELF-PMF and supplying of AgNPs. K. pneumonia bacterium is used as a gram-negative model to be tested undersupplying of different AgNPs concentrations and exposure to ELF-PMF at different frequencies. The best synergistic effect is determined by obtaining a most inhibitory concentration of AgNPs and resonance frequency of ELF-PMF causing maximum inhibition in bacterial growth. Kinetics of growth and MIC/MBC levels showed that exposure to 20 Hz-PMF, 30 min with a supplement of 150 ppm-AgNPs caused a highly synergistic effect by 90% enhancement of growth inhibition. It is concluded that using the benefits of exposure to electromagnetic waves with the presence of nanoparticles can limit the wide-spread of silver nano-products and give a chance of nano-antibacterial agents to be used in safe limits.


Keyword:     ELF-PMF AgNPs K. pneumonia Kinetics of growth MIC MBC.


Citation:

El-kaliuoby MI, Khalil AM, El-Khatib AM, Shalaby TI. Synergistic Antibacterial Effect of Silver Nanoparticles and Extremely LowFrequency Pulsed Magnetic Fields on Klebsiella pneumoniae. J App Biol Biotech. 2018;6(06):039-045. DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2018.60606

Copyright: Author(s). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license.

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1. INTRODUCTION

The wide use of antibiotics in different infections made several types of bacterium to become antibacterial resistant. As a result, production of several multidrug-resistant microbes was generated. Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia) is Gram-negative bacteria causes a broad spectrum of diseases, including pneumonia, bacteremia, meningitis and urinary tract infections and has become resistant to many types of antibiotics. At most hospital k. pneumonia pathogen infects patients in intensive care units who have got weakened immune systems [1,2,3,4]. Latterly, different research studies were done in multi-directions to find an alternative way for stopping bacterial infections.

Latterly, different research studies were done in multi-directions to find an alternative way for stopping bacterial infections. Using of electromagnetic field (EMF) at an extremely low frequency (ELF) is one of the most recent applications that have great potential to establish different significant interactions to living systems [5-8]. However, the mechanism of interaction and its consequences in living systems is ambiguous and need more work to be clarified. Effects of exposure to ELF-EMF were spotted to be dependent on signal physical characteristics, frequency and field intensity, exposure time and growth stage [9-14]. Several studies were performed to evaluate the bio-effects on bacterium as a result of exposure to such fields and different consequences were approached. Particularly on the bacterial cell, there were remarkable alterations in ultra-structural, changes in growth kinetics, viability reductions, and antibiotic sensitivity, and cellular proliferation, modulations in the flow of ions through membranes and cellular physiological functions as well as cell-to-cell communications [15-23].

Improvement in nanotechnology has opened new skylines in nanomedicine, allowing the synthesis of nanoparticles that could be a powerful weapon against bacteria. Recently, Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) used as antibacterial agent [24-26] and its effects related to interaction with DNA and RNA, a burst of the cell membrane, interference with cell respiration, and affecting enzyme conformation [27,28]. On the other hand, many other research studies evoked to prove the potential of integrating AgNPs with antibiotics as a potent antimicrobial key against the bacteria causes resistance to various antibiotics alone [29].

On the same manner, the present work is intended to study the synergistically impact of combination between AgNPs and exposure to ELF as a new method to restrain resistant bacterium.


2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1. Reagents

Silver nitrate (AgNO3, 99.99%), trisodium citrate dehydrate (C6H5O7Na3.2H2O, 99.99%), and deionized water was purchased from Sigma Aldrich.

2.2. Bacterial Strain

The standard strain of Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia) (ATCC 70068) was collected from Global Hospital, Alexandria, Egypt and used for all the current comparative experiments. The bacterial isolates were inoculated on MacConkey agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Bacterial subcultures were produced by suspending three colonies from agar plate into sterilized MacConkey broth media (5 ml for each) and then incubated at 37°C for 24 h. It is worthy to mention that for maintaining a new strain, this step is being done every while before running each experiment.

2.3. Silver Nanoparticles Preparation Method

According to Fang et al. (2005) the Silver nanoparticles were synthesized. In brief, 10 mL of AgNO3 solution (5 mM) in deionized water was heated until it began to boil, then 1 mL trisodium citrate solution drops (1%) were added, and continuing of heating until reaching pale yellow color. The solution was cooled to room temperature for further characterizations [30].

3.4 Reaction Mechanism

4Ag+ + C6H5O7Na3 + 2H2O → 4Ag0 + C6H5O7H3 + 3Na+ + H+ + O2

2.5. Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles

Utilizing UV-Vis-spectrophotometer the optical absorption spectrum of Ag colloids was recorded. The morphological shapes and size of silver nanoparticles in Ag colloid were measured with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) operating at 200 kV. The sample was intended by dropping the colloid onto underlying Cu grid tissue paper coated with carbon, leaving behind a film. The FT-IR spectra were obtained by using FT-IR spectrophotometer (Shimazdu IR Prestige-21). The samples were blended uniformly with potassium bromide at 1:100 (sample: KBr) ratio respectively and incubated at 110°C overnight. Then after, the mixture was cooled down in desiccators. A hydraulic press was used for preparing the KBr discs by compressing the powders (a mixture of sample and KBr). The discs were scanned in the range of 400–4000 cm-1 to obtain FT-IR spectra.

2.6. Pulsed Magnetic Field Exposure System

The power supply of direct current was used through an electronic switching device to produce an interrupted current of 50% duty cycle with different frequencies. The square-pulsed current (80 mA) then directed to a pair of Helmholtz coils (each of 445 turns and of total resistance 6.8 ohm) separated by a distance 10 cm equal to the radius of the coil to produce a homogeneous magnetic field in form of impulses. The system manufactured at the Electronics physics laboratory in the Faculty of Science, Alexandria University-Egypt. This field measured by using a Gauss/Tesla meter model 4048 at different locations, with probe T-4048.001 (USA) of accuracy ±2% in order to confirm the most homogenous zone (in the midpoint between the two coils) and field intensity found to be (0.32 mT). The tubes (5mL) of bacterial cell suspensions were set in the field point of the coils where PMF was homogeneous. The magnetic field square wave shape was also displayed using the Linear Hall-effect IC sensor on the oscilloscope.

2.7. Bactericidal Test

To examine the bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles on K. pneumoniae bacteria, in approximation 105 colony forming units (CFU) of it were inoculated on MacConkey agar plates supplemented with Nano-sized silver particles (AgNPs) in series of concentrations (50, 100, 150, 250, 300, 400, and 500 ppm). The plates were incubated for 24 h at 37°C and the numbers of colonies were counted. For examining the growth rate of bacterial and its growth curve in the supplement of AgNps, bacteria were grown in MacConkey broth medium supplemented with same concentrations of these. Silver-free agar plates cultivated under the same stipulations were used as a control.

To inspect the effect of exposure to PMF on K. pneumoniae, samples approximately of 105 CFU were cultured in MacConkey broth medium and exposed directly to series of PMF frequencies (0.5, 1, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Hz) for 30 min. Unexposed cultured bacteria under the same stipulations were used as a control. Samples incubated at 37°C and every 1 h the incubations are discontinuous for absorbance measurements and each sample is inoculated on MacConkey agar in order to determine viable cell count. Moreover, the growth inhibition percentage was calculated for all examined samples relative to control one and most inhibitor frequency was determined (resonance frequency).

It is worthy to mention here that all experiments were performed in three replicates and counts corresponding to each particular sample were averaged. Growth kinetics and bacterial growth density were determined by measuring optical density (OD) at 600 nm each 60 min (OD of 0.1 corresponds to a concentration of 108 cells per cm3) [31]. The growth of the inoculums in the broth is indicated by turbidity of the broth and the lowest concentration of the Nano-sized silver particles which inhibited the growth of the bacteria was taken as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) [32]. After specifying MIC level of the AgNPs tested concentrations, an amount of 10 μl from all tubes in which no growth of bacteria was observed inoculated in MacConkey agar plates free of AgNPs. The plates were then incubated for overnight at 37°C. The lowest concentration of antimicrobial agent that kills >99.9% of the initial bacterial population is defined as the Minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) [33].

Synergistically effect of adding AgNps and exposure to PMF was performed by exposing samples supplemented with different concentrations of AgNPs to the prior determined resonance frequency.

2.8. Statistical Analysis

The statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS for Windows statistical package program (SPSS Inc., ver. 21). All the data are presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to determine the significant differences between groups. When the one-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference, post hoc Tukey test (least significant differences test) was used to determine the differences between specifc means. A “p” of <0.05 was considered statistically significant and used for all the comparisons.


3. RESULTS

3.1. AgNPs Characterization

3.1.1. TEM Analysis

The typical TEM micrograph of the synthesized AgNPs is presented in Figure 1. The figure depicted that most of the AgNPs were homogeneously distributed and take a spherical shape. Also, it indicated that the particle sizes were ranging from 6.48 nm to 10.7 nm with an average size 8.5 nm.

Figure 1: TEM image of AgNPs.

[Click here to view]

3.2. UV-Visible Spectrum Analysis

UV-Vis spectroscopy is a method that used to examine the production of the nanoparticles based on their optical properties. The UV-Vis analysis of Ag nanoparticles represents the SPR features of Ag nanostructures that are in agreement with those from the previous studies as depicted in Figure 2. The absorption spectrum of Ag nanoparticles (nanosphere) prepared by reduction method shows a sharp SPR feature at 422 nm indicating monodispersity of the sample with no evidence for aggregation [34].

Figure 2: UV-Vis spectra of the Ag nanoparticles.

[Click here to view]

3.3. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy

FTIR spectrum of chemically prepared AgNPs using trisodium citrate showed the absorption band at 2061 cm-1 which can be ascribed to citrate precursor —(CH2) as depicted in Figure 3. The sharp narrow peak at 1648 cm-1 corresponds to carbonyl stretching (C=O). The broad O-H peak at 3369-3527 cm-1 is due to water molecules appear in the sample.

Figure 3: FTIR spectra of the AgNPs chemically prepared by the reduction of silver nitrate with trisodium citrate.

[Click here to view]

3.4. Antibacterial Effect of Silver Nanoparticles

Antibacterial effects were performed against K. pneumonia bacterium by measuring dynamics of its growth in MacConkey broth media supplemented with different concentrations of AgNPs. The growth characteristics were monitored by taking a reading of O.D. at 600 nm every 1 h after inoculum as shown in Figure 4. The figure depicted that all assigned concentrations of AgNPs caused growth inhibition of K. pneumonia and increasing of concentration resulted in more inhibition with maximum effect at 500 ppm of AgNPs.

Figure 4: Cell viability growth curves of K. pneumonia treated with different concentrations of AgNPs.

[Click here to view]

3.5. The MIC and MBC

The antibacterial growth inhibition effects were investigated by measuring CFU% grown in MacConkey agar plates inoculated by approximately 105 CFU of K. pneumonia and supplemented by different concentrations of AgNPs. The MIC and MBC changes due to bacterium counts at each concentration of supplied AgNPs are presented in Figures 5 and 6. The results indicated that MIC level was to be 400 ppm and MBC was to be 500 ppm that caused more than 90% inhibitions.

Figure 5: The MIC of AgNPs towards K. pneumonia. The data bars represented an average of triplicates CFU% for each AgNPs concentration with STD. *Statistically significant, **Statistically highly significant

[Click here to view]

Figure 6: The MBC of AgNPs towards K. pneumonia. The data bars represented an average of triplicates CFU% for each AgNPs concentration with STD. * Statistically significant, ** Statistically highly significant

[Click here to view]

3.6. Antibacterial Resonance Effect of PMF

The characteristics of growth kinetics for K. pneumonia under application of PMF at different frequencies are shown in Figure 7. Same dispersions were observed for all assigned exposed samples as compared to unexposed one. It is worthy to indicate that the maximum delay in growth kinetics was obtained after exposure to PMF at a frequency of 20 Hz.

Figure 7: The cell viability growth curves of K. pneumonia exposed to different frequencies of PMF.

[Click here to view]

Resonance frequency was determined by applying PMF for 30 min at different frequencies on K. pneumonia inoculated in MacConkey broth. The growth inhibition percentages were determined relative to the unexposed ones and resonance curve was performed as shown in Figure 8. The data illuminated highly significant inhibition by 30% for K. pneumonia samples exposed to 20 Hz for a period of 30 min.

Figure 8: Growth inhibition% with STD of K. pneumonia exposed to different frequencies of PMF. *Statistically significant, **Statistically highly significant

[Click here to view]

3.7. Synergistic Antibacterial Effect of AgNPs and PMF

Exposure of K. pneumonia to the predetermined frequency of PMF with supplementing of AgNPs at different concentrations was performed and curves of growth kinetics were done as shown in Figure 9. The synergistic effects of mixing exposure to 20 Hz and AgNPs at assigned concentrations 50, 150 and 300 ppm were remarkably observed and highly shifted to lower levels. Significant inhibition of growth dynamics by more than 80% was obtained for bacterium supplemented with 300 ppm of AgNPs and exposed to 20 Hz-PMF.

Figure 9: The synergistic effect on K. pneumonia of growth curves treated with PMF at different concentrations of AgNPs.

[Click here to view]

Figure 10 depicts bacterial colonies number that grown on MacConkey plates priory exposed to 20 Hz-PMF, 30 min as a function of AgNPs concentration. The data represented the highly interactive effect of mixing exposure of PMF at the resonance frequency and adding of AgNPs even if it is at low concentration. One may observe that the exposure of PMF with a supplement of AgNPs at a concentration of 150 ppm caused a highly synergistic effect by 90% enhancement of bacterium growth inhibition. On the same manner, no significant growth inhibition was observed for K. pneumonia supplied with 300 ppm AgNPs and exposed to 20 Hz-PMF in a way that it acts like supplying of 500 ppm AgNPs alone.

Figure 10: The synergistic effect of treating K. pneumonia with PMF (20 Hz) and AgNPs at different concentrations. The data bars represented an average of triplicates CFU% for each AgNPs concentration with STD. *Statistically significant, **Statistically highly significant

[Click here to view]


4. DISCUSSION

Antimicrobial resistance is a growing problem in modern healthcare around the world. One of the most common species of bacteria that cause problems in healthcare today is K. pneumoniae. Although some treatments still remain, few new ones are being explored, thus the best option is to control the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance [35]. Nanoparticles are yet considered an applicable alternative to antibiotics and appear to have a high potential to solve the problem of the evolution of bacterial multidrug resistance [36]. Among the different nanosized antibacterial agents, AgNPs has proved to be the most effective against a broad spectrum of microbes. This effect particularly is important in the case of Gram-negative bacteria (K. pneumonia) as it is able to physically interact with bacterium cell surface [37,38]. In this regards, the kinetics of growth for K. pneumonia supplemented with different concentrations of AgNPs were examined and data depicted that all assigned concentrations of AgNPs caused growth inhibition of K. pneumonia and increasing of concentration resulted in more inhibition with maximum inhibition at 400 ppm of AgNPs (MIC level). The AgNPs have the ability to be attached to the surface of the cell membrane and cause a disturbance on its permeability and respiration functions [39]. In the same manner, the lowest concentration of AgNPs kills >99.9% of the initial bacterial population where no visible growth of the bacteria (MBC level) was found to be 400 ppm.

The size, shape, and concentration of AgNPs are highly influenced by its bactericidal effects as smaller ones have more ability to penetrate into bacteria [40-42]. The absorption spectrum of synthesized AgNPs indicated monodispersity of the sample with no evidence of aggregation. Also, FTIR spectrum showed absorption band at 2061 cm-1 which can be ascribed to citrate precursor — (CH2). The sharp narrow peak at 1648 cm-1 corresponds to carbonyl stretching (C=O). The broad O-H peak at 3369-3527 cm-1 is due to water molecules appear in the sample. The results of TEM confirmed that most of the AgNPs has a spherical shape and distributed homogeneously and ranging from 6.48 nm to 10.7 nm.

Our results show resemblance to that smaller dimensions of AgNPs (<30 nm) was found to be most effective against Staphylococcus aureus and K. pneumoniae [43]. It has a surface/volume ratio much greater than the corresponding bulk material; thus, types and amount of the interactions with the bacterial surfaces are enhanced and determine a higher antibacterial activity.

Exposure to PMF causes a significant delay in growth kinetics and maximum inhibition by 30% was obtained at 20 Hz-PMF which considered as resonance frequency. These findings corroborate with the findings of Sule et al. [44] who reported ELF-EMF affects the crucial physicochemical processes in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The exposure effects may cause changes in cell membrane integrity and affect its ionic permeability, which resulted in alterations of ionic concentration and cation uptake capacity of bacterium cell. In the other hand, exposure may modulate the cellular enzymatic activity and rise changes in the spectrum of proteins tightly bound to DNA. As a result of affecting ionic concentration and other enzymes involved in the control of chromatin structure, changes in chromatin conformation were induced and followed by changes in cell growth, DNA and protein synthesis [45-49].

The reaction of mixing exposure to PMF at resonance frequency prior determined and supplying of AgNPs showed highly synergism and significant advanced effects in bacterium growth. Synergistic effect of combining exposure to 20 Hz-PMF and supplying of AgNPs at 300 ppm indicated highly depression in kinetically growth by more than 80%. It is worthy to clarify that supplying of 300 ppm AgNPs combined with exposure to 20 Hz-PMF gave same growth inhibition as supplying of 500 ppm AgNPs alone. Moreover, exposure and supplying of AgNPs at 150 ppm caused a highly synergistic effect by 90% enhancement of bacterium growth inhibition.


5. CONCLUSION

The exposure to PMF increased the ability of AgNPs uptake and hence moved its effect to the higher level of bacterial inhibition. Accordingly, a lower concentration of AgNPs is needed and wide-spread of products containing silver nano-forms will be limited. Moreover, the benefits of electromagnetic waves give chance to safe use of different nano-particles at low permissible concentrations and decrease the possible bio-toxicity.


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Reference

1. Meatherall B, Gregson D, Ross T, Pitout J, Laupland K. Incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of Klebsiellapneumoniae bacteremia. Am J 2009;122:866-73.

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Akshata Pai, Chandrakala Shenoy

Impact of chemical properties of soil on spore density, colonization, and distribution of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Capsicum annuum L.

Komal Chandrakant Dhumal, Bharat Pandharinath Shinde

Identification and in-silico characterization of differentially expressed salt-induced proteins in the leaves of mangrove grass Myriostachya wightiana

Mathikani Kiran Kumar, B V Sandeep, Pola Sudhakar

Distribution and species listing of wild macrofungi in Sitio Canding, Barangay Maasin, San Clemente, Tarlac Province, Philippines

Rich Milton Dulay, Jose Santos Carandang VI, Sofronio Kalaw, Renato Reyes

Interactive potential of Pseudomonas species with plants

Suhana Shaikh,, Nutan Yadav, Anoop R. Markande,

Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in female population, Gabon

Mohamed Ag Baraïka, Richard Onanga, Berthold Bivigou-Mboumba, Arsène Mabika-Mabika, Ulrick Jolhy Bisvigou, Fousseyni S. Touré Ndouo, N. Coumba Touré Kane

Molecular identification and optimization of cultural conditions for mycelial biomass production of wild strain of Chlorophyllum molybdites (G.Mey) Massee from the Philippines

Benjie L. Garcia, Jerwin R. Undan, Rich Milton R. Dulay, Sofronio P. Kalaw, Renato G. Reyes

Sustainable development of plant tissue culture industry: The Indian scenario

Shashank M. Patil, V. B. Chandana Kumari, K. Sumana, S. Sujay, M. Tejaswini, Prithvi S. Shirahatti, Ramith Ramu

Beneficial plant-microbe interactions for agricultural sustainability

Ajar Nath Yadav

Enhanced production of a bioactive molecule from a symbiotic marine bacterium, Paenibacillus macerans SAM 9 isolated from the sea anemone, Heteractis aurora

Thayanithi Bharathi, Kathirvelu Sambandan, Kandasamy Sivasubramani

Antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities of leaves extracts of Filicium decipiens

Atiyaparveen I Basarikatti, Sanjay Mishra, Vijaykumar Uppar, Basavaraj Padmashali

Antiplasmodial activity of desloratadine-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine on Plasmodium berghei infected mice

Udeme Owunari Georgewill, Nwakaego Omonigho Ebong, Elias Adikwu

Allelopathic effect of Wedelia trilobata L., on the germination and growth of Cicer arietinum, Vigna unguiculata, and Vigna radiata seedlings

S. Shahena, Maya Rajan, Vinaya Chandran, Linu Mathew

The comparative antimicrobial and anticancer of chemical extract from in vitro and in vivo Peperomia pellucida plantlet

Lydia Teoh, Nareshwaran Gnanasegaran, Ahmad Faris Mohd Adnan, Rosna Mat Taha

Plasticity of tandem repeats in expressed sequence tags of angiospermic and non-angiospermic species: Insight into cladistic, phenetic, and elementary explorations

Shamshad Ul Haq, Prerna Dhingra, Meenakshi Sharma, S. L. Kothari, Sumita Kachhwaha

Effects of light on cell growth, chlorophyll, and carotenoid contents of Chlorella sorokiniana and Ankistrodesmus falcatus in poultry dropping medium

Jane Chizie Ogbonna, Nkechinyere Onyekwere Nweze, Christiana Nwakego Ogbonna

Microbial biotechnology for bio-prospecting of microbial bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites

Ajar Nath Yadav

Screening of synergistic and antimicrobial effect of Cr (VI) and Ni (II) tolerant bacteria Bacillus cereus

Subhayan Dutta, Khaleda Firdous, Swati Chakraborty

Linalool protects hippocampal CA1 neurons and improves functional outcomes following experimental ischemia/reperfusion in rats

Vishal Airao, Prakruti Buch, Tejas Sharma, Devendra Vaishnav, Sachin Parmar

Bioprospecting of endophytic bacteria from the Indian Himalayas and their role in plant growth promotion of maize (Zea mays L.)

Kusam Lata Rana, Divjot Kour, Tanvir Kaur, Rubee Devi, Ashok Yadav, Ajar Nath Yadav

Antimicrobial activity of the lichens Parmotrema andium and Dirinaria applanata

Bijayananda Sahoo, Satyabrata Dash, Sabyasachy Parida, Jayanta Kumar Sahu, Biswajit Rath

Biodiversity and bioprospecting of extremophilic microbiomes for agro-environmental sustainability

Ajar Nath Yadav

Neurotensin agonist PD 149163 modulates the hypothalamic– pituitary–adrenal axis impairment in lipopolysaccharide-challenged mice

Ankit Mishra, Krishna Pal Singh

Dengue infection profile in Gujarat, West India: A recent report

Nishita S. Naik, Shiva V. Murarka, Dhariya Sanghrajka, Bhavini S. Shah, Rutvik J. Raval, Mandava V. Rao

An insight on micro propagation of Myrica species for improvement in cultivation practices of nutraceutically important fruits

Sohan Lal, Amita Kumari, Ishita Guleria, Jyoti Dhatwalia, Shabnam Thakur, Shailja Kumari, Subhash Sharma

Accumulation of plastics in terrestrial crop plants and its impact on the plant growth

Bhavika Garua, Jai Gopal Sharma

Production of bioactive compounds by Streptomyces sp. and their antimicrobial potential against selected MDR uropathogens

Archana Singh, Padma Singh

Seasonal analysis of certain biochemical parameters of carps cultured in domestic sewage oxidation ponds

Sharique A. Ali, M. Hanumanth Raju, Naima Parveen

Diversity and antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi from aromatic plants of Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary, Western Ghats, Karnataka

Rajeshwari Jagadish, Srinivas Chowdappa

Identification of noval non-coding RNAs in Rhizoctonia solani through mining of transcriptomic data

Balachander Durairaj, Sudheesh K. Prabhudas, Jaiganesh Rengarajan, Iyappan Sellamuthu

Bacterial degradation of sericin for degumming of silk fibers–A green approach

Bhavna Pandya, Soniya Shetty

Biodiversity of cyanobacteria in fresh water ponds of Pudukkottai district, Tamil Nadu, India

Dhanalakshmi Jayakumar, Jeevan Pandiyan

Phytomicrobiomes for agro-environmental sustainability

Ajar Nath Yadav

Microalgal biorefinery: Challenge and strategy in bioprocessing of microalgae carbohydrate for fine chemicals and biofuel

Tan Kean Meng, Razif Harun, Ramizah Kamaludin, Mohd Asyraf Kassim

Soil nutrient status and yield of rice under organic and inorganic inputs

Michael Troza, Anamae Sutacio, Al Polinar, Reuben James Cillo Rollon

Study of in vitro activity on glucose uptake of 3T3L1 cells, RIN5f cells, and glycemic index stimulation inhibitory effect of Abutilon indicum (L.) extract

L. Lavanya, V. Veeraraghavan, Renuka Srihari, C. N. Prashantha

Allelopathic effect of marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) leaf extract on growth of Chlorella vulgaris

Tassnapa Wongsnansilp, Wikit Phinrub, Niran Juntawong

Efficient plant regeneration and molecular marker-based genetic integrity analysis of Ceropegia lawii Hook: An endemic and endangered herb

Mukta R. Bhamare, Hemantkumar A. Thakur, Jaykumar J. Chavan

Assessment of sublethal toxicity using proliferation markers in fish cell line-ICG exposed to agrochemicals

Ankita Salunke, Parth Pandya, Ankur Upadhyay, Pragna Parikh

Synergistic effect of Hydnophytum formicarum tuber and Vatica diospyroides Symington cotyledon extracts with ampicillin on pathogenic bacteria

Kanokrat Keawchai, Parinuch Chumkaew, Patima Permpoonpattana, Theera Srisawat

Allelopathic potential of Annona muricata (L.) on physiological and biochemical changes of Vigna radiata (L.) and Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.

Edwina Kannan, Leela Palayian

Suppression of the RAGE gene expression in RAW 264.7 murine leukemia cell line by ethyl acetate extract of Mikania micrantha (L.) Kunth.

Alex Zohmachhuana, Malsawmdawngliana Tlaisun, Vabeiryureilai Mathipi, Lalrinzuali Khawlhring, Joyce Sudandara Priya

A review on fish peptides isolated from fish waste with their potent bioactivities

Ayusman Behera, Rajashree Das, Pranati Patnaik, Jyotirmaya Mohanty, Gargee Mohanty

Vitamin K2: An emerging essential nutraceutical and its market potential

Sunita Aggarwal, Siddharth Gupta, Shalini Sehgal, Praneeta Srivastava, Aparajita Sen, Garishma Gulyani, Anmol Jain

Growth-promoting effects of marine microalgae species using tropical forest soil extracts

Kasturi Arumugam, Nor Suhaila Yaacob, Hasdianty Abdullah, Mohd Fadzli Ahmad, Maegala Nallapan Maniyam, Emi Fazlina Hashim, Fridelina Sjahrir, Wan Muhammad Ikram, Kazuhiro Komatsu, Victor S. Kuwahara

Quantification of phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant activities from various parts of Euphorbia neriifolia Linn.

Priya Chaudhary, Pracheta Janmeda

Microbes-mediated alleviation of heavy metal stress in crops: Current research and future challenges

Rubee Devi, Tanvir Kaur, Divjot Kour, Macie Hricovec, Rajinikanth Mohan, Neelam Yadav, Pankaj Kumar Rai, Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Ashok Yadav, Manish Kumar, Ajar Nath Yadav

Molecular diversity and phylogenetic analysis of exopolymer producing fungal strains isolated from Krishna river mangrove sediments

Annavarapu Mohana Ventaka Naga Prathyusha, Venkateswarulu Nagam, Chanda Vikrant Berde, Siva Saikiran Badithala, Muni Ramanna Gari Subhosh Chandra, Thummala Chandra Sekhar, Veera Bramhachari Pallaval

Microbes for Agricultural and Environmental Sustainability

Ajar Nath Yadav, Divjot Kour, Ahmed M. Abdel-Azeem, Murat Dikilitas, Abd El-Latif Hesham, Amrik Singh Ahluwalia

Microplastics accumulation in agricultural soil: Evidence for the presence, potential effects, extraction, and current bioremediation approaches

Varsha Yadav, Saveena Dhanger, Jaigopal Sharma

Role of microRNAs in the progression and metastasis of gastric cancer

Havisha Dinesh, Megala Jayaraman

Effect of different cooking conditions on resistant starch and estimated glycemic index of macaroni

Nguyen Minh Thuy, Ngo Van Tai

Emerging microplastic contamination in ecosystem: An urge for environmental sustainability

Akanksha Saini, Jai Gopal Sharma

Bioremediation and Waste Management for Environmental Sustainability

Ajar Nath Yadav, Deep Chandra Suyal, Divjot Kour, Vishnu D. Rajput, Ali Asghar Rastegari, Joginder Singh

Microbe-mediated bioremediation: Current research and future challenges

Divjot Kour, Sofia Shareif Khan, Harpreet Kour, Tanvir Kaur, Rubee Devi, Pankaj Kumar Rai, Christina Judy, Chloe McQuestion, Ava Bianchi, Sara Spells, Rajinikanth Mohan, Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Ajar Nath Yadav

Bioremediation— sustainable tool for diverse contaminants management: Current scenario and future aspects

Manali Singh, Kuldeep Jayant, Shivani Bhutani, Anshi Mehra, Tanvir Kaur, Divjot Kour, Deep Chandra Suyal, Sangram Singh, Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Ajar Nath Yadav

Ex-situ biofilm mediated approach for bioremediation of selected heavy metals in wastewater of textile industry

Anu Kumar, Shivani, Bhanu Krishan, Mrinal Samtiya, Tejpal Dhewa

Bioremediation of textile dyeing industry effluent from small-scale industries using a microbial consortium of Bacillus sp., Escherichia coli, and Aspergillus niger

Shobina Kannan, Jegathambal Palanichamy,, T. Sugitha, C. Mayilsami

Exosome mediated cell signal toward breast cancer metastasis: A comprehensive review

Manikantan Pappuswamy, Anushka Shitut

Calcium influences biochemical and antioxidant enzymatic activities in tomato fruits during storage

Salma Santhosh, Thiyagarajan Chitdeshwari, Kavitha Chinnasamy

Meta-analysis of Type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance gene expression datasets to decipher their associated pathways

Aditya Saxena, Nitish Mathur, Uma Chaudhary, Utkarsh Raj, Sneha Rai, Sandeep Kumar Mathur

Endophytic bacterial metagenomics and phosphate solubilization activities in an endemic legume Humboldtia brunonis Wall.

Ganesh V. Shendye, N. Thamizhseran

In vitro evaluation of the antibacterial potential of flavonoid glycosides from Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC.

K. Suresh Kannan, D. Kandavel, P. Rajalakshmi, P. Maheswari

Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.: An overview of its botany, uses, reproductive biology, pharmacological properties, and industrial potentials

Eric Wei Chiang Chan,, Siew Wei Yeong, Chen Wai Wong, Oi Yoon Michelle Soo,, Alice Choon Yen Phua, Ying Ki Ng

Detrimental effects of microplastics in aquatic fauna on marine and freshwater environments – A comprehensive review

Irene Monica Jaikumar, Majesh Tomson, Manikantan Pappuswamy, Krishnakumar V, Anushka Shitut, Arun Meyyazhagan, Balamuralikrishnan Balasubramnaian, Vijaya Anand Arumugam

Multitargeted molecular docking study of phytochemicals on hepatocellular carcinoma

Vikas Jha, Anjali Bhosale, Prakruti Kapadia, Agraj Bhargava, Arpita Marick, Zahra Charania, Omkar Parulekar, Mafiz Shaikh, Bhakti Madaye

Occurrence of two endophytic associative nitrogen-fixing Caulobacter spp., from three non-nodulating endemic legumes based on nifH gene analysis

N. Thamizhseran, Ganesh V. Shendye

Role of effective microorganisms on hematological and biochemical indices of cultured Oreochromis niloticus exposed to lead, copper, and cadmium under temperature variations

Ragab G. Abdel Salam,, Samah M. Bassem, Eman Salah Abdel-Reheim, Mahmoud Abdel-Latif, Giulia Guerriero, Fagr Kh Abdel-Gawad,

Engineering to enhance thermostability of xylanase: For the new era of biotechnology

Chitranshu Pandey, Pallavi Sharma, Neeraj Gupta

Elemental, nutritional, and phytochemical profiling and antioxidant activity of Cordia obliqua Willd. (Clammy Cherry): An important underutilized forest tree of East India

Mamta Naik#,, Shashikanta Behera#,,, Sadhni Induar, Swaraj K. Babu, Pradeep K. Naik

Isolation and partial characterization of serine proteases from jellyfish of the Antarctic region

Nataliia Raksha, Teyiana Halenova, Tetiana Vovk, Tetiana Beregova, Tetiana Maievska, Victor Tomchuk, Olexiy Savchuk, Ludmila Ostapchenko

Antimicrobial peptide coding gene of thermophilic bacteria isolated from crater hot spring in mountains around West Java

Emma Rachmawati, Sinta Asarina, Gabriel Bagus Kennardi, Ratu Safitri, Toto Subroto, Ani Melani Maskoen

Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm and their molecular escape strategies

M. G. Avinash, S. Aishwarya, Farhan Zameer, Shubha Gopal

Microbes mediated plastic degradation: A sustainable approach for environmental sustainability

Harpreet Kour, Sofia Shareif Khan, Divjot Kour, Shafaq Rasool, Yash Pal Sharma, Pankaj Kumar Rai, Sangram Singh, Kundan Kumar Chaubey, Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Ajar Nath Yadav

Characterization of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis and stability from Micrococcus luteus

Patcha Boonmahome, Wiyada Mongkolthanaruk

Leveraging monoclonal antibodies as therapeutics to address antimicrobial resistance in bacteria

Vaishali Verma

Overview of refolding methods on misfolded recombinant proteins from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies

Ahmad Nabiel, Yosua Yosua, Sriwidodo Sriwidodo, Iman Permana Maksum

Isolation, characterization and optimization of keratinolytic bacteria from chicken feather waste dumping site

Thiyagarajan Amuthavalli, Cyril Ravi

Micropropagation strategies in medicinally important turmeric (Curcuma sp): Current research and future challenges

Hemavathi Brijesh, Brijesh Ajjappala

Assessment of agronomic trait and tolerance indices on yield parameters in eight barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions under salt stress

Rajeswari Somasundaram, A. Somasundaram

Revisiting microbial pectinases: An understanding between structure-functional relationship in the arena of genetic engineering

Surojit Bera, Evangeline Rajan, Sandali Shakya, Imasha Perera, Sasini Wijewarna, Movinya Semini

Antimicrobial potential of Indian cooperative spider, Stegodyphus sarasinorum, and Golden orb spider, Nephila pilipes hemolymph against pathogenic bacteria

Dhanapal Sangavi, Padur Sankaranarayanan Anisha, Douglas J. H. Shyu, Parthasarathy Thiruchenthil Nathan

Antimicrobial and anticancer potential of soil bacterial metabolites - a comprehensive and updated review

A. Ram Kumar,, S. Kumaresan

Identification of host-specific skin-mucus and gut microbiota in snakehead murrel (Channa striata) (Bloch, 1793) using metagenomics approach

Kiran D. Rasal, Sangita Dixit, Pragyan Paramita Swain, Prabhugouda Siriyappagouder, Rajesh Kumar, Mir Asif Iquebal, Manohar Vasam, Jakson Debbarma, Sarika Jaiswal, U. B. Angadi, Anil Rai, Dinesh Kumar, Jitendra Kumar Sundaray

Beneficial microorganisms for healthy soils, healthy plants and healthy humans

Ajar Nath Yadav, Divjot Kour, Neelam Yadav

Microbes as a gift from God

Ajar Nath Yadav,, Divjot Kour, Neelam Yadav

Sensing oxy anodic microbial fuel cell potential of halotolerant protease producer Priestia megaterium BorS17B13 belonging to mangrove biota

Priyanka S. Sawant, Jignasha T. Thumar

A metagenomic analysis of gut microbiome phylogeny among four economically important carp species from wild and aquaculture farms

Shrihari Ashok Pingle, Abhay John Khandagle

Characterization of Bean common mosaic virus strain blackeye cowpea mosaic infecting cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) in Egypt

Naglaa A.R. EL-Sayed, Amro A. Farrag, Noura H. Mohamed, Om-Hashim M. EL-Banna, Moustafa A.S. EL-Kady

A novel trypsin inhibitor peptide MoCh I with antimicrobial activity derived from Momordica charantia

Samriti Dogra, Rajesh Biswas, Rupinderjeet Kaur, Sangeeta Sharma, Kakoli Biswas

Biotechnological potential of secondary metabolites: Current status and future challenges

Sofia Sharief Khan, Divjot Kour, Seema Ramniwas, Shaveta Singh, Sanjeev Kumar, Satvinder Kour, Roshi Sharma, Harpreet Kour, Shafaq Rasool, Sarvesh Rustagi, Sangram Singh, Kundan Kumar Chaubey, Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Ajar Nath Yadav

Biofertilizer science and practice for agriculture and forestry: A review

Sudipta Saha, Debasish Paul, Tika Ram Poudel, Nafis Mahadi Basunia, Tasnimul Hasan, Mahadi Hasan, Bei Li, Rubel Reza, Ahmed Redwan Haque, Md. Abu Hanif, Manobendro Sarker, Nathan James Roberts, Muneer Ahmad Khoso, Haibo Wu, Hai-long Shen

miR-122 and miR-21 as clinical biomarkers in hepatocellular carcinoma: A review

Nishant Kumar, Priyvart Choudhary, Narotam Sharma, Alok Tripathi, Nishesh Sharma

Isolation of yeast endophytes from healthy seeds of Capsicum annuum L. and assessment of their antimicrobial activity

Barbi Bhuyan, Purthimi Kungri Hansepi, Suraiya Akhtar, Raja Ahmed, Rafiul Amin Laskar, Kumanand Tayung

Metabolic profile, bioactivities, and variations in chemical constituents of essential oils of twenty mango ginger (Curcuma amada) accessions

Jyotirmayee Lenka, Snehalata Khuntia, Basudeba Kar, Suprava Sahoo

Bacillus paralicheniformis (OQ202112) - Mediated biodiesel production using groundnut husk: A sustainable approach for bioenergy generation

Roshani Kantibhai Chaudhary, Priti Hemant Patel, Nikita Rajendrasinh Chavda, Vaidehi Kamlesh Patel, Kaushal Kantilal Chaudhary

The development of multiplication conditions in vitro of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni in Morocco

Bouaaza Ghizlane,, Chetto Ouiam, Beniken Lhou, Dziri Laila, Benkirane Rachid, Hamid Benyahia

Investigating plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance in gut microbes: A focus on Prevotella and Bifidobacterium

Jayavigneshwar Natarajan, Sorna Lakshmi S, Ishaan Ramachandran, Devika Sharma, Bhuvaneshwaran Rajaguru, Priya Swaminathan

Assessment of oxidative stress, genotoxicity, and histopathological alterations in freshwater food fish Channa punctatus exposed to fungicide, Mancozeb

Manoj Kumar, Anjali Mishra, Akash Verma, Anamika Jain, Adeel Ahmad Khan, Shikha Dwivedi, Sunil P. Trivedi

Bioactive properties of the extracts of peels, pomace, seeds, and essential oils of Citrus limon and Citrus aurantifolia

Folasade Oluwatobi, Olakunle Afolabi, Pius Okiki, Funmilayo Adeniyi, Oghenerobor Akpor

Assessment of bioactivity of the novel exopolysaccharide secreted by Bacillus subtilis isolated from the gut of marine anchovies

Thejaswi Bhandary, Paari Kuppusamy Alagesan

Molecular docking and simulation studies of medicinal plant phytochemicals with Leishmania donovani adenosylmethionine decarboxylase

Praffulla Kumar Arya, Krishnendu Barik, Ajay Kumar Singh, Anil Kumar

Rhizospheric microbiomes for agricultural sustainability

Ajar Nath Yadav,, Divjot Kour, Neelam Yadav

Environment and climate change: Influence on biodiversity, present scenario, and future prospect

Divjot Kour, Kanwaljit Kaur Ahluwalia, Seema Ramniwas, Sanjeev Kumar, Sarvesh Rustagi, Sangram Singh, Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Ajar Nath Yadav,, Amrik Singh Ahluwalia

Biodiesel production of oleaginous yeast isolated from the Mount Makiling Forest Reserve

Irene G. Pajares, Princess J. Requiso, Lorenzo M. Fabro Jr, Kristine Rose M. Ramos, Asuncion K. Raymundo

Solid-state fermentation of pigment producing endophytic fungus Fusarium solani from Madiwala lake and its toxicity studies

Bhoomika Prakash Poornamath, Suma Sarojini, Saranya Jayaram, Soma Biswas, Anand Kaloor, Mridul Umesh

Evaluation of pancreatic lipase and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors from ethanolic extract of butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.) flowers

Ratna Djamil, Diah Kartika Pratami, Tia Novia Wilantika, Qurrata A’yun, Abdul Mun’im, Asep Bayu, Masteria Yunovilsa Putra

Microbial diversity of river Ganga at Haridwar (Uttarakhand) through metagenomic approaches

Annapurna Katara, Sumit Chand, Harshvardhan Chaudhary, Harish Chandra, Ramesh Chand Dubey

Antimicrobial peptide and their role in sperm cryopreservation

Manish Kumar,, Ravi Ranjan, Alok Bhardwaj

Impact of nanoparticles on microalgae and the prospects for biofuel production: Current advancements and future outlook

Richa Pahariya, Abhishek Chauhan, Anuj Ranjan,, S. K. Thakur¸ Hardeep Singh Tuli, Seema Ramniwas, Moyad Shahwan,, Tanu Jindal

Improving micropropagation of Moringa oleifera: The use of semi-solid medium for rooting and sucrose-free liquid medium combined with temporary ventilation for hardening

Eufrocinio Dela Cruz Marfori

Classification of gene expression from RNA-seq data for pancreatic cancer prognosis using ensemble learning

G. Jagadeeswara Rao,, A. Siva Prasad

Porphyridium sp. Microalgae as a source of polysaccharides

Yulia-Danae Boychenko, Ekaterina Budenkova, Nina Kostyushina, Olga Babich, Egor Kashinskikh

Study of morphology and orchid mycorrhizal associations in Malaxis rheedei

B. S. Jyothsna, Radha Mahendran, Manish Raj Mishra, Sanjay Dey, Deepti Srivastava

AZIN1-centric dynamic network biomarker of tipping point in non-small cell lung cancer metastasis

Anita Chauhan, Kuntal Kalra, Seema Kalra

The medicinal plant Berberis aristata and its endophytes for pharmacological applications: Current research and future challenges

Sheetal Sharma, M. V. N. L. Chaitanya, Sarika Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar, Sarvesh Rustagi, Sangram Singh, Sheikh Shreaz, Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Rajeshwari Negi, Ajar Nath Yadav,

Toxins in plant pathogenesis: Understanding the role of toxins in host-pathogen interaction

Seweta Srivastava, Akhilesh Chandrapati, Aakash Gupta, Meenakshi Rana, Arun Karnwal, Kanuri Komala Siva Katyayani, Raghavendra Reddy Manda, Dipshikha Kaushik, Shaptadvipa Bhattacharjee, Ravindra Kumar

Unlocking the mysteries of Alzheimer’s disease: Role of single-cell sequencing in uncovering microbial infections

Prashant Singh, Monu Kaushik, Sarvesh Kumar Gupta, Amit Chaudhary

Phenotypic and genotypic detection of Beta-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from Haryana, India

Khem Chand,, Amit Lath, Aparna Yadav, Madhu Sharma, Nater Pal Singh, Sanjay Kumar, Rajiv Yadav, Sawraj Singh, Anita Rani Santal

A computational statistical approach to assess cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] cultivars diversity and select elite genotypes from Agro-morphological and biochemical traits

Noel Dougba Dago, Jean Simon Konan Assouman, Saraka Didier Martial Yao, Nafan Diarrassouba

Molecular, morphological, and biomolecular characterization of ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutations in Aerides odoratum, an orchid

B. S. Jyothsna, Sanjay Dey, Venkataramanan S., Raghavendra L. S. Hallur, Deepti Srivastava

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria: Influence to abiotic stress tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Trinayana Sonowal, Namrata Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar, Sarvesh Rustagi, Sangram Singh, Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Sheikh Shreaz, Rajeshwari Negi, Ajar Nath Yadav,

Secondary metabolite profiles, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of callus, and leaves extract of Piper sarmentosum Roxb.

Junairiah Junairiah, Listijani Suhargo, Tri Nurhariyati, Nabilah Istighfari Zuraidassanaaz

Befunolol as a potential inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase: an in silico approach

Pavani Nadavapalli, Padmini Nadavapalli, Kavya Sritha Bojja, Kavishankar Gawli

Pharmacological and biotechnological overview of Sauropus androgynus L. Merr.: an underexploited perennial shrub

Dhaneswar Swain, Bijaya Kumar Sahoo, Ajaya Pattanaik, Subrat Kumar Mahapatra, Gyana Ranjan Rout