Research Article | Volume: 6, Issue: 1, Jan-Feb, 2018

Metabolic syndrome susceptibility of suckling male and female rats given oral administration of natural honey compared with cane syrup

Abdulwahid Ajibola   

Open Access   

Published:  Jan 17, 2018

DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2018.60103

The acute effects of natural honey (NH) and cane syrup (golden syrup, GS) on metabolism in 89 (10-day old) suckling Sprague Dawley rats were investigated. Low dose group fed 10mls/kg of either NH or GS; high dose group gavaged with 20mls/kg of either solution; while the fifth group, control received 10mls/kg distilled water. All treatments were administered via stomach tube twice daily for 10 consecutive days. The pups were euthanized on day 21 for the measurements of metabolic substrates and long bones. All the dietary treatments induced significant (p<0.001, ANOVA) body weight gain. There was no difference (p≥0.05) amongst all the groups in all the parameters measured (NFG; NFT; hepatic lipids and glycogen; as well as length and weight of the femur and the tibia), except the values of plasma free fatty acids (p<0.0001) and hepatic lipid content (p<0.001) that were significantly higher in GS-fed than the honey fed pups. The study showed that despite the rapid growth phase of the neonatal pups shown as BW gain, the adverse effects associated with the consumption of refined sugars, did not manifest prominently within the short term, but could develop with chronic exposure as previously reported.

Keyword:     Honey Metabolic substrates Cane syrup metabolic syndrome rats.


Ajibola A. Metabolic syndrome susceptibility of suckling male and female rats given oral administration of natural honey compared with cane syrup. J App Biol Biotech. 2018; 6 (1): 13-19. DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2018.60103

Copyright: Author(s). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license.

HTML Full Text

1 Rutledge AC, Adeli K. Fructose and the metabolic syndrome: pathophysiology and molecular mechanisms. Nutrition Review. 2007;65: S13–S23.

2 Tappy L, Le K. Metabolic effects of fructose and the worldwide increase in obesity. Physiological Review. 2010; 90: 23 – 69.

3 Ouyang X, Cirillo P, Sautin Y, McCall S, Bruchette JL, Diehl AM, Johnson RJ, Abdelmalek MF. Fructose consumption as a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Journal of Hepatology. 2008; 48 (6): 993 – 999.

4 Bernardes N, Ayyappan P, De Angelis K, Bagchi A, Akolkar G, Dias DS, Bello-Klein A, Singal PK. Excessive consumption of fructose causes cardiometabolic dysfunctions through oxidative stress and inflammation. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. e-First Article 2017 February 10 doi: 10.1139/cjpp-2016-0663.

5 Cruz ML, Goran MI. The metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. Current Diabetes Reports. 2004; 4: 53 – 62.

6 Stanhope KL, Schwarz JM, Keim NL, Griffen SC, Bremer AA, et al. Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose-sweetened, beverages increases visceral adiposity and lipids and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese humans/ Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2009; 119:1322–1334. doi:10.1172/JCI37385.

7 Busserolles J, Gueux E, Rock E, Mazur A, Rayssiquier Y. Substituting honey for refined carbohydrates protects rats from hypertriglyceridemic and prooxidative effects of fructose. Journal of Nutrition, 2002. 132: 3379 – 3382.

8 Al-Bukhari M. (2008). The Translation of the Meanings of Sahih Al-Bukhari, Arabic- English. Translated by Dr Muhammad Muhsin Khan. Published by Dar Us Salam Publishers and Distributors, Riyadh 11416, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Vol. 7, Bk. 71, nos. 584, 585, 588, 603.

9 Ramenghi LA, Amerio G, Sabatino G. Honey, a palatable substance for infants: from De Rerum Natura to evidence-based medicine. European Journal of Pediatrics. 2001; 160: 677 – 678.

10 Ajibola A, Olusakin J, Oyewale AA. Growth and metabolic response of suckling rats fed with natural honey supplements, International Journal of Food and Nutritional Science. 2016; 3(1): 1 – 5.

11 Rivero-Urgell M, Santamaria-Orleans A. Oligosaccharides: application in infant food (review). Early Human Development. 2001; 65: 43 – 52.

12 AOAC. Official methods of analysis (18th Edition). Association of Analytical Chemists, Washington DC, USA. 2011.

13 Monteagudo MD, Hernandez ER, Seco C, Gonzalez-Riola J, Revilla M, Villa LF, Rico H. Comparison of the bone robusticity index and bone weigth/bone length index with the results of bone densitometry and bone histomorphometry in experimental studies.Acta Anatomical. 1997; 160: 195 – 199.

14 Loxham SJG, Teague J, Poucher SM, De Schoolmeester J, Turnbull AV, Carey F. Glucagon challenge in the rat: a robust method for the in vivo assessment of Glycogen phosphorlyase inhibitor efficacy, Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods. 2007; 55: 71 – 77.

15 Passoneau JV, Lauderdale VR. A comparison of three methods of glycogen measurement in tissues. Analytical Biochemistry. 1974; 60: 405 – 412.

16 Bligh EG, Dyer WJ. A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology. 1959; 37: 911 – 917.

17 Chepulis LM, Starkey NJ, Waas JR, Molan PC. The effects of long-term honey, sucrose or sugar-free diets on memory and anxiety in rats. Physiology & Behavior. 2009; 97: 359 – 368.

18 Ajibola A. Physico-chemical and physiological values of honey and its importance as a functional food. International Journal of Food and Nutritional Science. 2015; 2 (6): 1 – 9.

19 Baumgarner BL, Nagle AM, Quinn MR, Farmer AE, Kinsey ST. Dietary supplementation of β-guanidinopropionic acid (βGPA) reduces whole-body and skeletal muscle growth in young CD-1 mice. Molecular & Cellular Biochemistry. 2015; 403(1-2): 277 – 285.

20 Yang HS, Xiong X, Wen QQ, Yin YL. Effects of dietary supplementation with ethanolamine on intestine development and growth performance of weaned piglets.Journal of Animal Science. 2016;94(3):79–81.

21 Lin G, Wang X, Wu G, Feng C, Li D, Wang J, Zhou H. Improving amino acid nutrition to prevent intrauterine growth restriction in mammals. Amino Acids. 46(7) 2014 March doi: 10.1007/s00726-014-1725-z •

22 Elahi MM, Matata BM. Effects of maternal high-fat diet and statin treatment on bone marrow endothelial progenitor cells and cardiovascular risk factors in female mice offspring fed a similar diet. Nutrition. 2017; 35: 6 – 13.

23 Fritton JC, Myers ER, Wright TM, van der Meulen MCH. Loading induces site specific increases in mineral content assessed by micro-computed tomography of the mouse tibia. Bone. 2005;36: 1030 – 1038.

24 Tylavsky FA. Nutrition influences bone growth in children, Journal of Nutrition. 2004; 134: 689S – 690S.

25 Ajibola A, Chamunorwa JP, Erlwanger KH. Dietary supplementation with natural honey promotes growth and health of male and female rats compared to cane syrup, Scientific Research & Essays. 2013; 8: 543 – 553.

26 Ajibola A, Chamunorwa JP, Erlwanger KH. Comparative effects of dietary supplementation with natural honey and cane syrup on the morphometry of viscera in growing male and female rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology.2013; 51: 303 – 312.

27 Khitan Z, Kim DH. Fructose: A key factor in the development of metabolic syndrome and hypertension, Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism 2013;

28 Busserolles J, Mazur A, Gueux E, Rock E, Rayssiquier Y.Metabolic syndrome in the rat: females are protected against the pro-oxidant effect of a high sucrose diet.Experimental Biology and Medicine. 2002; 227: 837 – 842.

29 Galipeau DM, Yao L, McNeil JH. Relationship among hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension is dependent on sex, American Journal of Physiology – Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 2002; 283: H562 – H567.

30 Ajibola A, Chamunorwa JP, Erlwanger KH. Nutraceutical values of natural honey and its contribution to human health and wealth, Nutrition & Metabolism (Lond).2012; 9: 61.

31 Ajibola A. Novel insights into the health importance of natural honey. Malaysian Journal of Medical Science.2015; 22: 7 – 22.

Article Metrics

58 Absract views 74 PDF Downloads 132 Total views

Related Search

By author names

Citiaion Alert By Google Scholar

Similar Articles