Research Article | Volume: 5, Issue: 4, July-August, 2017

Genetic drift in six cultivated populations of Terminalia arjuna

Pramod Kumar Sairkar Shweta Chouhan Amit Sen Rajesh Sharma Raj Kumar Singh   

Open Access   

Published:  Aug 14, 2017

DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2017.50408

Low genetic diversity among five cultivated populations of Terminalia arjuna was revealed using DNA fingerprints generated by ten commercially available random (RAPD) primers i.e. RPI01 to RPI10. Out of ten primers, eight primers generated total 79 bands with 87.34 percentage of polymorphism, while primer RPI02 and RPI08 did not show amplification. Applied all 8 primes having a good polymorphic informativeness among the populations (mean PIC = 0.355 ± 0.032 and Ho = 0.463 ± 0.018). Higher genetic variation, gene diversity (H), Shannon's Information index (I) and Percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) among populations (H = 0.290 ± 0.162, I = 0.440 ± 0.221 and PPB = 87.34%) was observed compared to within populations (maximum H = 0.165 ± 0.212, I = 0.239 ± 0.304 and PPB = 39.24%, minimum H = 0.026 ± 0.104, I = 0.038 ± 0.150, PPB = 06.33%). Low average gene diversity (π = 0.075 ± 0.062) within population, higher pair-wise Fst (ranged from 0.498 to 0.844) among the population and Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) shown adequate genetic variation among population (Pv = 75.57%) but serious low genetic variation within populations (Pv = 24.43, ΦST = 0.756). Among the populations of T. arjuna the higher relative differentiation (GST = 0.7843) with restricted gene flow GST (Nm) = 0.1375 was observed. Unbiased measures of genetic distance and phylogram revealed that all locations have their once genetic identity and they arranged in their respective clusters. Lowest distance was shown by accession collected from JNKVV and TFRI Jabalpur.

Keyword:     Terminalia arjuna genetic and molecular diversity population genetics relative differentiation and gene flow AMOVA polymorphic information content (PIC) heterozygosity


Sairkar PK, Chouhan S, Sen A, Sharma R, Singh RK. Genetic drift in six cultivated populations of Terminalia arjuna. J App Biol Biotech. 2017; 5 (04): 048-056.

Copyright: Author(s). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license.

HTML Full Text

1. Chakravarty S, Ghosh SK, Suresh CP, Dey AN, Shukla G . Deforestation: Causes, Effects and Control Strategies, Global Perspectives on Sustainable Forest Management, Dr. Clement A. Okia (Ed.), , InTech, 2012. Available from:

2. Nabuurs GJ, O Masera, K Andrasko, P Benitez-Ponce, R Boer, M Dutschke, E Elsiddig, J Ford-Robertson, P Frumhoff, T Karjalainen, O Krankina, WA Kurz, M Matsumoto, W Oyhantcabal, NH Ravindranath, MJ Sanz Sanchez, X Zhang, 2007: Forestry. In Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [B. Metz, O.R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch, R. Dave, L.A. Meyer (eds)], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

3. Barker JSF. Sequential gel electrophoretic analysis of esterase-2 in two populations of Drosophila buzzatii. Genetica. 1994; 92(3): 165--175.

4. Burgarella C, Navascués M, Soto Á, Lora Á, Fici S. Narrow genetic base in forest restoration with holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) in Sicily. Annals of Forest Science. 2007; 64(7):757-763.

5. Li YY, Chen XY, Zhang X, Wu TY, Lu HP, Cai YW. Genetic Differences between Wild and Artificial Populations of Meta sequo iaglypto stroboides: Implications for Species Recovery. Conservation Biology. 2005; 19(1):224-231.

6. Bekalo TH, SD Woodmatas, ZA Woldemariam. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by local people in the lowlands of Konta Special Woreda, Southern nations, nationalities and peoples regional state. Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2009; 5:26.

7. Rao MR, MC Palada. BN Becker. Medicinal and aromatic plants in Agro forestry systems. 2004; (61): 107-122.

8. Mahonge CPI, JV Nsenga, Mtangi, AC Matte. Utilization of medicinal plants by Walguru people in east Uluguru mountains, Tanzania. African Journal of Traditional & Alternative and Alternative Medicine. 2006 ; (4): 121-134.

9. Verma S, Singh SP. Current and future status of herbal medicines. Veterinary World. 2008; 1(11): 347-350.

10. Omobuwajo OR, GO Alade, A Sowemimo. Indigenous Knowledge and practices of women herb sellers of Southwestern Nigeria. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge. 2008; 7(3): 505-510

11. Oladele AT, GO Alade, OR Omobuwajo. Medicinal plants conservation and cultivation by traditional medicine practitioners (TMPs) in Aiyedaade Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria. Agric. Biol. J. N. Am. 2011; 2(3): 476-487

12. Welsh J, McClelland M. Fingerprinting genomes using PCR with arbitary primers. Nuc. Acids Res. 1990; 18: 7213-7218.

13. Williams JGK, Kubelik AR, Livak KJ, Rafalski JA, Tingey SV. DNA polymorphism amplified by arbitrary primers are useful as genetic markers. Nuc. Acids Res. 1990; 1: 6531-6535.

14. Mandal S, Patra A, Samanta A, Roy S, Mandal A, Mahapatra TD, PradhanS, Das K, Nandi DK. Analysis of phytochemical profile of Terminalia arjuna bark extract with antioxidative and antimicrobial properties Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2013; 3(12): 960-966.

15. Mandal A, Das K, Nandi D K. In vitro bioactivity study of bark extract of Terminalia arjuna on probiotics, commercially available probiotic formulation. Int J Phytopharmacol. 2010; 1(2): 109-113.

16. Das K, Chakraborty PP, Ghosh D, Nandi DK. Protective effect of aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna against dehydrating induced oxidative stress and uremia in male rat. Iran J Pharma Res. 2010; 9(2): 153-161.

17. Bone K. Clinical Applications of Ayurvedic and Chinese Herbs. Warwick, Queensland, Australia. Phytotherapy Press. 1996; 131-133.

18. Kapoor LD. Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press. 1990; 319-320.

19. Nema R, Jain P, Khare S, Pradhan A, Gupta A, Singh D. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Terminalia arjunaleaves extract with special reference to flavanoids. Basic Res J Med ClinSci1. 2012; (5): 63-65.

20. Deshmukh V.P., Thakare P.V., Chaudhari U.S., Gawande P.A. A simple method for isolation of genomic DNA from fresh and dry leaves of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wight and Argot. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology. 2007; 10(3):468-472.

21. Sairkar P, Chouhan S, Batav N, Sharma R. Optimization of DNA isolation process and enhancement of RAPD PCR for low quality genomic DNA of Terminalia arjuna. Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology. 2013a ; 11(1):17-24.

22. Nagy S, Poczai P, Cernák I, Gorji AM, Hegedűs G and Taller J. PICcalc: an online program to calculate polymorphic information content for molecular genetic studies. Biochem Genet. 2012; 50(9-10):670-672.

23. Hammer O, Harper DAT, PD Ryan. PAST: Paleontological Statistics Software Package for Education and Data Analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica. 2001; 4(1):9.

24. Kimura M, Crow JF. The Number of Alleles That Can Be Maintained In A Finite Population. Genetics. 1964; 49:725-38.

25. Nei M. Analysis of gene diversity in subdivided populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA. 1973; 70, 3321-3.

26. Lewontin RC. Testing the theory of natural selection. Nature 1972; 236(5343): 181-182

27. McDermott JM, McDonald BA. Gene flow in plant pathosystems. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 1993; 31: 353-73.

28. Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M, Kumar S. MEGA5: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis using Likelihood, Distance, and Parsimony methods. Mol Biol Evol 2011; 28:2731-2739.

29. Nei M, Li WH. Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1979; 76:5269-5273.

30. Excoffier L, Laval G, Schneider S. Arlequin ver. 3.5: An integrated software package for population genetics data analysis. Evol Bioinfo Online, 2005; 1:47-50.

31. Sucher NJ, Carles MC. Genome-Based Approaches to the Authentication of Medicinal Plants. Planta Med, 2008; 74: 603-623.

32. Nei M 1971 Identity of genes and genetic distance between populations. Genetics 68: s47. --, 1972 Genetic distance between populations. Am. Naturalist 106: 283-292. -, 1973a A new measure of genetic distance. Genetic Distance. Edited by J. F. CROWP. Lenum Press, New York. (In press), 1973b The theory and estimation of genetic distance. Genetic Structure of Populations. Edited by N. E. MORTONU.niv. of Hawaii Press, Honolulu.

33. Nei M, AK Roychoudhury. Gene differences between Caucasian, Negro and Japanese populations. Science, 1972; 177: 434-436.

34. Mishra P, Ali AS, Kuralkar SV, Dixit SP, Aggarwal RAK, Dangi PS, Verma NK. Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Berari Goat Population of Maharashtra State. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science. 2013; 3(3): 553-559.

35. Yun R, Zhong M, Wang HX, Wei W, Qian YQ. Study on DNA diversity of Liadong Oak population at Dongling Mountain Region Beiging. Acta Botanica Sinica. 1998; 40(2):169-175.

36. Fu C, Qiu Y, Kong H. RAPD analysis for genetic diversity in Changium smyrnioides (Apiaceae), an endangered plant. Bot Bull Acad Sci. 2003; 44:13-18.

37. Vijay N, Sairkar P, Silawat N, Garg RK, Mehrotra NN. Genetic variability in Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) from Madhya Pradsh, India by random amplified polymorphic DNA. Afr J Biotech. 2009; 8(14):3135-3140.

38. Ginwal HS, Mittal N, Tomar A, Varshney VK. Population genetic structure and diversity of high value vulnerable medicinal plant Acorus calamus in India using RAPD and chloroplast microsatellite markers. J For Res. 2011; 22(3):367-377.

39. Wijarat P, Keeratinijakal V, Toojinda T, Vanavichit A, Tragoonrung S. Assessing genetic diversity of Andrographis paniculata (Burm f.) Nees, an important medicinal plant of Thailand using RAPD markers. Thai J Genet. 2011; 4(2):115-125.

40. Wang XM, Hou XQ, Zhang YQ, Yang R, Feng SF, Li Y, Ren Y. Genetic Diversity of the Endemic and Medicinally Important Plant Rheum officinale as Revealed by Inter-Simpe Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Markers. Int J Mol Sci. 2012a; 13:3900-3915.

41. Sairkar P, Vijay N, Batav N, Silawat N, Garg RK, Chouhan S, Sharma R, Mehrotra NN. Genetic Variability in Two Economically Important Medicinal Plants of Madhya Pradesh, India and Withania SomniferaRauwolfia Serpentina Using RAPD Markers. Asian J Exp Biol Sci. 2013b; 4(1):36-43.

42. Bostein D, White RL, Skolnick M, Davis RW. Construction of a Genetic Linkage Map in Man Using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms. Am J of Human Genet. 1980; 32:314-331.

43. Weber RP. Basic Content Analysis. Sage Publications, Newburry Park, CA. 1990.

44. Bhattacharya S, Bandopadhyay TK, Ghosh PD. Efficiency of RAPD and ISSR markers in assessment of molecular diversity in elite germplasms of Cymbopogon winterianus across West Bengal, India. Emir J Food Agric. 2010; 22(1):13-24.

45. Tripathi N, Chouhan DS, Saini N, Tiwari S. Assessment of genetic variations among highly endangered medicinal plant Bacopa monnieri (L.) from Central India using RAPD and ISSR analysis. Biotech. 2012; 2:327-336.

46. Lal S, Mistry KN, Chaturvedi SP. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Fingerprinting for Evaluation of Interspecific Catharanthus roseus Populations Collected from Gujrat, India. Int J Biol Pharma Alli Sci. 2013; 2(2):373-385.

47. Muthusamy S, Kanagarajan S, Ponnusamy S. Efficiency of RAPD and ISSR markers system in accessing genetic variation of rice bean (Vigna umbellata) landraces. Electronic J Biotech. 2008; 11(3):1-10.

48. Sadeghi A, Cheghamirza K. Efficiency of RAPD and ISSR marker systems for studying genetic diversity in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars. Ann Biol Res. 2012; 3(7):3267-3273.

49. Kesari V, VM Sathyanarayana, A Parida, L Rangan. Molecular marker-based characterization in candidate plus trees of Pongamia pinnata, a potential biodiesel legume. AoB Plants. 2010; plq017.

50. Slatkin M. A measure of population subdivision based on microsatellite allele frequencies. Genetics. 1985; 139:457-462.

51. Shi W, Yang CF, Chen JM, Guo YH. Genetic variation among wild and cultivated populations of the Chinese medicinal plant Coptis chinensis (Ranunculaceae). Plant Biology. 2008; 10(4):485-491.

52. Yuan QJ, Zhang ZY, Hu J, Guo LP, Shao AJ, Huang LQ. Impacts of recent cultivation on genetic diversity pattern of a medicinal plant, Scutellaria baicalensis (Lamiaceae). BMC Genet. 2010; 11:29.

53. Hu YP, Wang L, Xie XL, Yang J, Li Y, Zhang HG. Genetic diversity of wild populations of Rheum tanguticum endemic to China as revealed by ISSR analysis. Bioch Syst Ecol. 2010; 38:264-274.

54. Wu Y, Xia L, Zhang Q, Yang Q. Habitat fragmentation affects genetic diversity and differentiation of the Yarkand hare. Conserv Genetics. 2010; 11(1):183-194.

Article Metrics

92 Absract views 102 PDF Downloads 194 Total views

Related Search

By author names

Citiaion Alert By Google Scholar