Research Article | Volume: 5, Issue: 4, July-August, 2017

Metabolic activities and health indices of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed varying levels of Zingiber officinale root

Adegbesan Sherifat Ibidunni Obasa Samuel Olubodun Abdulraheem Ikililu   

Open Access   

Published:  Aug 14, 2017

DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2017.50404

Growth, haematology and histopathology are important indices in evaluating the health and physiological state of fish. These metabolic and health indices were examined in Clarias gariepinus fed with Zingiber officinale (ginger) roots- powder supplemented diets in 40-litre freshwater-filled plastic tanks. 120 C. gariepinus fingerlings (weight, 2.33±0.07g) were fed with 40% crude protein diets containing three concentrations of Zingiber officinale roots-powder: GRP1–1%; GRP2–2%; GRP3–3%, and control–0% ad libitum twice daily for 12 weeks. Significant differences (p < 0.05) occurred in the growth parameters except feed conversion ratio and specific growth rate. Survival rate decreased as concentration of powder increased. Differences (p<0.05) seen in packed cell volume (PCV), Haemoglobin (Hb), and Red blood cell (RBC), thus highest in GRP3: PCV (37.00±1.16%), Hb (12.37±0.37g/dl) and RBC (3.47±0.08 x 106/l) and lowest in control: PCV (22.00±0.58%), Hb (7.37±0.20g/dl) and RBC (2.07±0.06 x 106/l). Liver histology of control fish was normal, while fatty degenerations were seen in the treated fish. The histology of fish kidney was normal in all treatments. The study concluded that 1% ginger root-powder dietary supplementation in cultured C. gariepinus could effectively improve the metabolic activities, health profile and survival of the fish.

Keyword:     Growth ginger root-powder metabolism health dietary supplement Clarias gariepinus.


Ibidunni AS, Olubodun OS, Ikililu A. Metabolic activities and health indices of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed varying levels of Zingiber officinale root. J App Biol Biotech. 2017; 5 (04): 021-028.

Copyright: Author(s). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license.

HTML Full Text

1 Abdelhamid AM, Magouz FI, Salem MFE, Mohammed AA, Mohsen MK. Effect of graded levels of aflatoxin B1 on growth performance, biochemical, chromosomal and histological behavior of Nile tilapia Oreochromisniloticus. Procedure of the 1st Conference on Animal and Fish Production, Mansoura 24 & 25 September. 2002; pp. 231-250.

2 Alicia E, Toranzo T, Beatriz MOS, Romalde, JL. A review of the main bacterial fish diseases in mariculture system aquaculture. 2005; 246:37-61.

3 Denev SA. Ecological alternatives of antibiotic growth promoters in the animal’s husbandry and Aquaculture. Dsc Thesis, Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology, Trakia University, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria. 2008, pp. 294.

4 Raa J, Roerstad G, Ingested R, Robertson B. The use of Immunostimulants to increase resistance of aquatic organisms to microbial infections, In:Shariff IM, Subasingbe RP, Arthur JR, (editors). Diseases in Asian aquaculture: International Fish health section, Manila, Philippines: Asian Fisheries Society. 1992, pp. 39-50.

5 Chagas EC, Val AL. Effeito da vitmina C no ganho de peso e emparametros hematologicos de tambaqui. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, Brasilia. 2003; 38(3):397-402.

6 Thopon S, Pokethitiyook P, Chalermwat K, Upatham ES, Sahaphong S. Ultrastructural alterations in the liver and kidney of white sea bass, Latescalcarifer, in acute and subchronic cadmium exposure, Environmental Toxicology. 2004; 19:11-19.

7 Athikesavan S, Vincent S, Ambrose T, Velmurugan B. Nickel induced histopathological changes in the different tissues of freshwater fish, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes). Journal of Environment biology. 2006; 27:391-95.

8 Loganathan K, Velmurugan, B, Hongray HJ, Selvanayagam M, Bhusan PB. Zinc induced histological changes in brain and liver of Labeorohita (Ham.). Journal of Environment biology. 2006; 27:107-10

9 Onyeagba RA, Ugboju OC, Okeke CU, Irokas O. Studies on the antimicrobial effects of garlic (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiberofficinale) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia), African Journal of Biotechnology. 2004; 3:552-554.

10 Akram M, Shah MI, Usmanghan K, Mohiuddinn E, Sami A. Zingiberofficinale Roscoe (A medicinal plant).Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2011; 10:399-400.

11 Murray M. The Healing Power of Herbs, 2nd revised edition, Random House USA Inc Publishing Company, New York, United States. 1995; pp. 432.

12 Chang Y, Liu Wu C, Chiang C, Lian J, Hsieh S. Dietary administration of zingerone to enhance growth, non -specific immune response and resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) juveniles. Fish and Shellfish Immunology. 2012; 32:284-290.

13 El-desouky H, El-Asely A, Shaheem AA, Abass A. Effects of Zingiber officinale and Cyanodon dactylon on the Growth Performance and Immune Parameters of Macrobranchium rosenbergii. World Journal of Fish and Marine Science. 2012; 4(3):301-307.

14 Nya EJ, Austin B .Use of dietary ginger, Zingiber officinale. Rosoe, as an immunostimulant to control Aeromonas hydrophila infections in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchusmykiss (Walbaum). Journal of Fish Disease. 2009; 32:971-977.

15 Haghighi M, Rohani MS. The effect of powered ginger (Zingiberofficinale) on the haematological and immunological parameters of rainbow trout Oncorrrhychusmykiss. JMPHTR. 2013; 1:8-12.

16 AOAC. Association of International Official Analytic Chemists, AOAC International, 18th edition, Arlington, Virginia. 2011.

17 Klontz GW, Smith LS. Methods of using Fish as biological research subjects. In methods of animal experimentation vol. iii (editor W. I. Grey), Academic Press, New York. 1986, pp. 323-383.

18 Blaxhall PC, Dasley KW. Routine haematological methods for use with fish blood. Journal of Fish Biology. 1973; 5:771-781.

19 Ivanova NT. Atlas of Fish Blood cells, LPP, Moscow, Russia. 1983. ISBN: 19832225035. pp. 80.

20 Haghighi M. Laboratory methods of fish haematology, aquaculture science publications, Tehran, Iran. 2010, pp. 29-71.

21 Dacie JV, Lewis SM. Practical Haematology 9th Edition, Churchill Livingstone, London. 2001, pp. 633.

22 Samuelson A. Textbook of Veterinary Histology, Elsevier Health Sciences Publishing Company, London, United Kingdom. 2007, pp. 560.

23 Agbebi OT, Lawal HB, Odebiyi VC. Aflatoxin effect of moulded gel wastemixed with ginger and its histopathological study on Clarias garepinus. Global Journal of Science Frontier research. 2012; 12 (1):7-15.

24 Duncan DB. Multiple ranges and Multiple F-tests Biometrics. International Biometric Society. 1955; 11:25-40.

25 Adekoya BB, Olunuga OA, Ayansanwo TO, Omoyinmi GAK. Manual of the second annual seminar and training workshop held at Ogun State Agricultural Development Programme, OGADEP, OlabisiOnabanjo way, Idi-Aba, Abeokuta. Publisher: Fisheries Society of Nigeria (Ogun State Chapter). 2004, pp. 52.

26 Omotayo AM, Akegbejo-Samson Y, Olaoye OJ. Fish Production, preservation, processing and storage, Training manual of the 2006 Joint training of fish farmers in Epe, Lagos State Agricultural media Resources and Extension Centre (AMREC), Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Ogun State and BATN Foundation, Victoria Island, Lagos. 2006, pp. 19-20.

27 Bello OS, Emikpe BO, Olaifa FE. The body weight changes and gut morphometry of Clarias gariepinus juveniles on feeds supplemented with Walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum) Leaf and Onion (Allium cepa) Bub Residues. International Journal of Morphology. 2012; 30(1):253-251.

28 Karangiya VK, Savsani HH, Shrikant SP, Garg DD, Murthy KS, Ribadiya NK, Vekariya SJ. Effect of dietary supplementation of garlic, ginger and their combination on feed intake, growth performance and economics on commercial broilers, Vet World, 2016; 9(3):245-250.

29 Obasa SO, Faturoti EO. Growth response and serum component and yield of the African bony tongue (Heterotisniloticus) fed varying dietary crude protein level, ASSET Series A. 2001; 1(2):97-104.

30 Muhammad-Jameel AK, Sohail HK, Salma M, Syeda SG, Jamila S, Farouq H, Mehdi H, Muhammad A. Effect of Dietary supplementation of Aloe veraleaves on growth performance and immunity of Fayoumi Chicks. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2014. 13 (4):191-195.

31 Heidarieh M, Mirvaghefi AR, Sepahi A, Shiekhzadeh N, Shahbazfar AA .Effects of dietary Aloe Vera on growth performance, skin and Gastrointestine Morphology in Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchusmykiss. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 2013;13: 361-373.

32 Onibi GE, Adebisi O E, Fajemisin AN, Adetunji AV. Response of broiler chickens in terms of performance and meat quality to garlic (Allium sativum) supplementation, African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2009; 4(5):511-517.

33 Abdel-Rahman AM. Antagonism of Aeromonas hydrophila by propolis and its effect on the performance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, Fish Shellfish Immunology. 2009; 27:454-459.

34 Zomrawi WB, Abdel-Atti KHA, Mahala AG. Effect of ginger root powder supplementation on broiler chick performance, blood and serum constituents. Journal of Animal and Feed Research. 2011; 1(6):457-460.

35 De silva SS. Performance of Oreochromis niloticus fry maintained on mixed feeding schedules of different protein levels. Aquaculture and Fisheries. 2001; 16:621-633.

36 Abou-zeid SM. The effect of some medical plant on reproductive and productive performance of Nile tilapia, Oreochronis niloticus. Ph.D Thesis Cairo, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University. 2002, pp. 212.

37 Farah A, Kasiri M, Sudager M, Soleiman I M, Zorrieh-Zahra SMJ. Effect of dietary supplementation of Mellisa officinalis and Aloe vera on haematological traits, lipid oxidation of carcass and performance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchusmykiss). Journal of Animal and Feed Research. 2012; 2(1):01-05.

38 Ashade OO, Adelusi OE, Ligali NA. Histopathological effects of untreated ginger peel (Zingiber officinale) fish meal on the intestine tissue profiling of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 2014; 2:95-98.

39 Oyawoye EO, Ogunkunle M. Physiological and biochemical effects of raw Jack beans on broilers, Proceedings of Annual Conference, Nigeria Society of Animal Production. 1998; 23:141-142.

40 Isidahomen CE. Effect of diets containing supplements of ginger (zingiberofficinale) and vitamin c on body weight, haematology and blood serum components in cocks, Nigerian Journal of Agriculture, Food and Environment. 2016; 12(2):162-165.

41 Schaperclaus W. Fish diseases. Oxonian Press Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 1991; 2:1398.

42 Douglas JW, Jane KW. In Schalm’s Veterinary Haematology. John Willey and Sons, Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2001. pp. 1232

43 Sotolu AO, Faturoti EO. Growth performance and haematology of Clarias gariepinus fed varying inclusions of Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal. Revista UDO Agricola. 2009; 9(4):979-985.

44 Dienye HE, Olumuyi OK. Growth performance and haematological responses of African mud catfish Clarias gariepinus fed dietary levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal. Net Journal of Agricultural Science. 2014; 2(2):79-88.

45 Rapatsa MM, Moyo NAG. Effect of Moringer oleiferaon the histology, haematology and growth of Oreochromis mossambicusin aquadams fertilized with chicken manure in South Africa. African Journal of Aquatic Science. 2014; 39(3):295-303.

46 Bamidele NA, Obasa SO, Ikeiwenwe NB, Abdulraheem I, Adeoye AA, Odebiyi OC. Effect of dried moringa (Moringa oleifera) seed meal based diet on the growth, haematological, biochemical parameter and histopathology of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 2015; 2:27-34.

47 Szende B, Suba Z. Introduction to Histopathology, Medicinal Publishing, Budapest. 1999, pp. 292.

48 Daudo OM. Effect of ginger by-product meal supplementation with Enzyme/Palm oil on performance, blood chemistry and histopathology of broiler chickens. PhD Thesis, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. 2012, pp. 205.

Article Metrics
99 Views 36 Downloads 135 Total



Related Search

By author names

Similar Articles

Toxicological effect of pretilachlor on some physiological processes of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PUPCCC 64

Davinder Pal Singh, Jasvirinder Singh Khattar, Alka, Gurdeep Kaur, Yadvinder Singh

Toxicological effect of pendimethalin on some physiological parameters of the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Desmonostoc muscorum PUPCCC 405.10

Manzoor Ahmad Bhat, Davinder Pal Singh, Jasvirinder Singh Khattar, Ram Sarup Singh

Computer aided drug design of florfenicol to target chloramphenicol acetyltransferase of vibriosis causing pathogens

Ratul Bhowmik, Shubham Roy, Sounok Sengupta, Lokesh Ravi

Integration of mutational and molecular docking studies: An in silico approach to assess the stability and binding potential of CYP3A4

Archana Anthappagudem, Sreenivas Enaganti, Bhima Bhukya

Befunolol as a potential inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase: an in silico approach

Pavani Nadavapalli, Padmini Nadavapalli, Kavya Sritha Bojja, Kavishankar Gawli

Evaluation of heavy metals in selected fruits in Umuahia market, Nigeria: Associating toxicity to effect for improved metal risk assessment

Uroko Robert Ikechukwu, Victor Eshu Okpashi, Uchenna Nancy Oluomachi, Nwuke Chunedu Paulinus, Nduka Florence Obiageli, Ogbonnaya Precious

Astaxanthin: An algae-based natural compound with a potential role in human health-promoting effect: An updated comprehensive review

Jinu Medhi, Mohan Chandra Kalita

DNA-based identification and control of disease spreading mosquito species: A review

Rajesh Dhakane, Kiran Ahirrao, Anant Shinde, Janardhan Kotule

Detection of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria from the hospital and non-hospital wastewater sources of a small town in Noakhali, Bangladesh

Md. Mijanur Rahman, Popy Devnath, Rafshan Jahan, Asma Talukder

Vitamin K2: An emerging essential nutraceutical and its market potential

Sunita Aggarwal, Siddharth Gupta, Shalini Sehgal, Praneeta Srivastava, Aparajita Sen, Garishma Gulyani, Anmol Jain

Assessment of health risk associated with Ethion dissipation in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.)

Venkateswara Rao, B. S. R. Reddy, K. N. Subrahmanya, Tamanna Parida, Srinivas Namuduri

Emerging microplastic contamination in ecosystem: An urge for environmental sustainability

Akanksha Saini, Jai Gopal Sharma

Effects of gut bacteria and their amyloids on mental health and neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease

Kush K Mehta, Radhika Bhat, Anoop R Markande

Arsenic contamination in the food chain: A threat to food security and human health

Siril Singh, Rajni Yadav, Sheenu Sharma, Anand Narain Singh

Dietary Supplementation of Synbiotic Formulation with Phytoactives on Broiler Performance, Relative Ready-to-Cook Weight, Health, Nutrient Digestibility, Gut Health, and Litter Characteristics

Vishwanath G Bhagwat, Santoshkumar V G Tattimani, Mirza Rizwan Baig

Biotechnological potential of secondary metabolites: Current status and future challenges

Sofia Sharief Khan, Divjot Kour, Seema Ramniwas, Shaveta Singh, Sanjeev Kumar, Satvinder Kour, Roshi Sharma, Harpreet Kour, Shafaq Rasool, Sarvesh Rustagi, Sangram Singh, Kundan Kumar Chaubey, Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Ajar Nath Yadav

Recent important insight into nutraceuticals potential of pigmented rice cultivars: A promising ingredient for future food

Le Thi Kim Loan, Bui The Vinh, Ngo Van Tai

Probiotic formulations for human health: Current research and future perspective

Tawseefa Jan, Rajeshwari Negi, Babita Sharma, Sangram Singh, Sanjeev Kumar, Sarvesh Rustagi, Sheikh Shreaz, Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Pankaj Kumar Rai, Mohd Aaqib Sheikh, Krishan Kumar, Naseer Ahmed, Ajar Nath Yadav,