Research Article | Volume: 5, Issue: 2, March-April, 2017

Trichoderma oligosaccharides priming mediates resistance responses in pearl millet against downy mildew pathogen

Boregowda Nandini Puttaswamy Hariprasad Harischandra Sripathy Prakash Nagaraja Geetha   

Open Access   

Published:  Mar 20, 2017

DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2017.50216

Fungal cell wall oligosaccharides are being focused on the biological management of crop diseases by elicitation of defense responses. In the present study, an approach was taken to enhance the pearl millet disease resistance using biotic elicitors for eco-friendly management against downy mildew pathogen through seed priming approach. Crude oligosaccharides extracted from four different Trichoderma spp. enhances the disease protection ability in pearl millet. Seed priming with T. asperellum along with the osmopriming agent, mannitol had shown better protection with improved seedling vigor compared to controls. Modulation of defensive enzymes such as peroxidase and lipoxygenase also confirms the elicitation of resistance responses in the host with increased enzyme activity at different time interval patterns.

Keyword:     Trichoderma spp. Oligosaccharides Sclerospora graminicola mannitol osmopriming defense enzymes.


Nandini B, Hariprasad P, Prakash HS, Geetha N. Trichoderma oligosaccharides priming mediates resistance responses in pearl millet against downy mildew pathogen. J App Biol Biotech. 2017; 5 (02): 097-103. DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2017.50216

Copyright: Author(s). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license.

HTML Full Text

1. Thakur RP, Rao VP, Sharma R. Influence of dosage, storage time and temperature on efficacy of metalaxyl treated seed for the control of pearl millet downy mildew. Euro J Plant Pathol. 2011; 129:3230-59.

2. Thakur RP, Rai KN, Khairwal IS, Mahala RS. Strategy for downy mildew resistance breeding in pearl millet in India. J SAT AgricRes. 2008; 6:1-11.

3. Dodds PN, Rathjen JP. Plant immunity: towards an integrated view of plant-pathogen interactions. Nat Rev Genet. 2010; 11:539-48.

4. Boyd LA, Ridout C, O'Sullivan DM, Leach JE, Leung H. Plant-pathogen interactions: disease resistance in modern agriculture. Trends Genet. 2013; 29:233-240.

5. Harman GE, Howell CR, Viterbo A, Chet I, Lorito M. Trichoderma species- opportunistic a virulent plant symbionts, Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2004; 2:43-56.

6. Benitez T, Rincon AM, Limon MC, Codon AC. Biocontrol mechanisms of Trichoderma strains. Int Microbiol. 2004; 7:249-260.

7. Sivasithamparam K, Ghisalberti EL. Secondary metabolism in Trichoderma and Gliocladium. In: Kubicek CP, Harman GE, editiors. Trichoderma and Gliocladium, Basic Biology, Taxonomy and Genetics, London: Taylor and Francis Ltd; 1998, p. 139-191.

8. Kredics L, Antal Z, Manczinger L, Nagy E. Breeding of mycoparasitic Trichoderma strains for heavy metal resistance. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2001; 2:112- 116.

9. Gajera HP, Bambharolia RP, Patel SV, Khatrani TJ, Goalkiya BA. Antagonism of Trichoderma spp. against Macrophomina phaseolina: evaluation of coiling and cell wall degrading enzymatic activities. J Plant Pathol Microb. 2012; 3:7.

10. Vinale F, Sivasithamparam K, Ghisalberti EL, Marra R, Woo SL, Lorito M. Trichoderma plant pathogen interactions. Soil Biol Biochem. 2008; 40:1-10.

11. Brunner K, Zeilinger S, Ciliento R, Woo S, Lorito M, Kubicek CP, Mach RL. Improvement of the fungal biocontrol agent Trichoderma atroviride to enhance both antagonism and induction of plant systemic disease resistance. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005; 71:3959-3965.

12. Harman GE, Kubicek CP. Trichoderma and Gliocladium. Enzymes, biological control and commercial applications, UK London; Taylor and Francis. 1998; vol. 2

13. Ge barowska EW, Pietr SJ. Colonization of roots and growth stimulation of cucumber by iprodione-resistant isolates of Trichoderma spp. applied alone and combined with fungicides. Phytopathol Pol. 2006; 41:51-64.

14. Calistru C, McLean M, Berjak P. In Vitro Studies on the Potential for Biological Control of Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium moniliforme by Trichoderma Species: A Study of the Production of Extracellular Metabolites by Trichoderma Species. Mycopathologia 1997; 137:115-124.

15. Manjunatha G, Niranjan Raj S, Shetty NP, Shetty HS. Nitric oxide donor seed priming enhances defense responses and induces resistance against pearl millet downy mildew disease. Pestic Biochem Physiol 2008; 91:1-11.

16. Manjunatha G, Deepak S, Geetha NP, Niranjan-Raj S, Kini RK, Shetty HS. Hypersensitive reaction and P/HRGP accumulation is modulated by nitric oxide through hydrogen peroxide in pearl millet during Sclerospora graminicola infection. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol. 2009; 74:191-198

17. Saravanakumar K, Yu C, Dou K, Wang M, Li Y, Chen J. Synergistic effect of Trichoderma-derived antifungal metabolites and cell wall degrading enzymes on enhanced biocontrol of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cucumerinum. Biol Control. 2016; 94:37-46

18. Lamb CJ, Lawton MA, Dron M. and Dixon RA. Signals and transduction mechanisms for activation of plant defense against microbial attack. Cell. 1989; 56:215-24.

19. Kauss H, Jeblick W, Domard A. The degrees of poylimerization and N-acetylation of chitosan determine its ability to elicite callose formation in suspension cells and protoplasts of Catharanthus roseus. Planta. 1989; 178:385-392.

20. Lattanzio V, Lattanzio VMT, Cardinali A. Role of phenolics in the resistance mechanisms of plants against fungal pathogens and insects. Phytochem Adv Res. 2006; 6: 23- 67.

21. Nita-Lazar M, Heyraud A, Gey C, Braccini I, Lienart Y. Novel oligosaccharides isolated from Fusarium oxysporum L. rapidly induce PAL activity in Rubus cells. Acta Biochem Pol. 2004; 51:625-34

22. Sadasivam S, Balasubramanian T. Practical manual (undergraduate). Coimbatore: Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. 1985; p. 2.

23. Dubois M, Gilles KA, Hamilton JK, Smith F. Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Ann Chem. 1956; 28:350-6.

24. Roopa KS, Geetha NP, Sharathchandra RG, Pushpalatha HG, Sudisha J, Amruthesh KN, Prakash HS, Shetty HS. Osmopriming enhances pearl millet growth and induces downy mildew disease resistance. Arch Phytopathol Plant Prot. 2009; 42:979-87.

25. Nandini B, Hariprasad P, Niranjana SR, Shetty HS, Geetha NP. Elicitaion of resistance in pearl millet by oligosaccharides of Trichoderma spp. against downy mildew disease. J Plant Inter. 2013; 8:45-55.

26. International Seed Testing Association. 2003. Proceedings of ISTA. International rules for seed testing. Seed Sci Technol. 21:25-30.

27. Abdul Baki AA, Anderson JD. Vigor determination in soybean seed by multiple criteria. Crop Sci. 1973; 13:630-3.

28. Singh SD, Gopinath R. A seedling inoculation technique for detecting downy mildew resistance in pearl millet. Plant Dis. 1985; 72:425-8.

29. Safeeulla KM. Biology and control of the downy mildews of pearl millet, sorghum and finger millet. Biol Control downy mildews pearl millet, sorghum finger millet. Mysore University; 1976.

30. Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein dye binding. Anal Biochem. 1976; 72:248-54.

31. Hammerschmidt R, Nuckles EM, Kuc J. Association of enhanced peroxidase activity with induced systemic resistance of cucumber to Colletotrichum lagenarium. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol. 1982; 20:73-82.

32. Plewa MJ, Smith SR, Wagner ED. Diethyldithiocarbamate suppresses the plant activation of aromatic amines into mutagens by inhibiting tobacco cell peroxidase. Mutat Res. 1991; 247:57-64.

33. Borthakur AB, Bhat B, Ramasoss CS. The positional specifications of the oxygenation of linolenic acid catalyzed two forms of lipoxgenase isolated from Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum). J Biosci. 1987; 11:257-63.

34. Axelrod B, Cheesbrough TM, Laakso S. Lipoxygenase from soybeans. Methods Enzymol. 1981; 71:441-51.

35. Kulkarni KS, Zala HN, Bosamia TC, Shukla YM, Kumar S, Fougat RS, Patel MS, Narayanan S, Joshi CG. De novo transcriptome sequencing to dissect candidate genes associated with pearl millet-downy mildew (Sclerospora graminicola Sacc.) interaction. Front Plant Sci. 2016; 7:847.

36. Arun-Kumar. Biocontrol of plant diseases: Need to tap the options. J Arid Leg, 2008; 5:99-108.

37. Shetty HS, Kumar VU. Biological control of pearl millet downy mildew: present status and future prospects. In: Upadhyay R, Mukerji KG, Chamola BP, editiors. Biocontrol potential and its exploitation in sustainable agriculture, Germany: Springer Verlag; 2000, Vol I. p. 251-265.

38. Sriram S, Manasa SB, Savitha MJ. Potential use of elicitors from Trichoderma in induced systemic resistance for the management of Phytophthora capsici in red pepper. J Biol Control. 2009; 23(4):449-456.

39. Reimers PJ, Guo A, Leach JE. Increased activity of a cationic peroxidase associated with an incompatible interaction between Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae and rice. Plant Physiol. 1992; 99:1044-50.

40. Young SA, Guo A, Guikema JA, White FF, Leach JE. Rice cationic peroxidase accumulates in xylem vessels during incompatible interactions with Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Plant Physiol. 1995; 107:1333-41.

41. Pushpalatha HG, Sudisha J, Geetha NP, Amruthesh KN, Shetty HS. Thiamine seed treatment enhances LOX expression, promotes growth and induces downy mildew disease resistance in pearl millet. Bio Plant. 2011; 55:522-7.

Article Metrics
81 Views 50 Downloads 131 Total



Related Search

By author names