Research Article | Volume: 4, Issue: 5, Sep-Oct, 2016

Physiological and biochemical characterization of Sesamum germplasms tolerant to NaCl

Tapaswini Hota C. Pradhan G. R. Rout   

Open Access   

Published:  Oct 23, 2016

DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2016.40503

Sesamum indicum L. (family-Pedaliaceae) is an economically important oil seed crop grown in tropical and sub-tropical countries. It is widely used in food, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical industries. Salinity is considered as the most important abiotic stress limiting to crop production. In this context, the present study was to evaluate the Sesamum genotypes for salinity tolerance. Germinated seedlings (15-d-old) were used to screen the germplsm at different concentrations (0, 25mM, 50mM, 75mM, 100mM) of NaCl and observation was taken after 15th, 30th and 45th days of treatment. Ion content (Na+, Cl-, Ca++, Mg++ and K++) were measured after 15 days of treatment. Fresh and dry weight was less in salt sensitive genotypes than tolerant genotypes. During increase of salinity concentration, all the genotypes had a negative impact on roots. The seedlings showed reduced growth and displayed variation in ion uptake thus accumulating Na+ and Cl- in the roots. At higher concentration of salt treatment showed the more dry weight and displayed more effective ion regulation by manipulating low Na+/K+ and Na+/Ca++ ratio. The tolerant genotypes exhibited the lowest shoot Na+ content under salinity conditions. Higher proline accumulation was observed at 100 mM after 15 days of NaCl treatments in ‘KM-13’ genotype. After 15 days of treatment, the genotype ‘ES 2138-2’ showed maximum proline accumulation. The total carbohydrates contents increased in all the ten genotypes in presence of NaCl. Highest carbohydrate content was found in genotype ‘SI-1926’ grown in 100 mM NaCl. Enzyme activities are variable in different genotypes with different concentration of NaCl. This study will help in Sesamum improvement programme.

Keyword:     Sesamum genotypeProteinProlineSalinity stressOxidative enzymes.


Hota T, Pradhan C, Rout GR. Physiological and biochemical characterization of Sesamum germplasms tolerant to NaCl. J App Biol Biotech. 2016; 4 (05): 014-025. doi: 10.7324/JABB.2016.40503

Copyright: Author(s). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license.

HTML Full Text


1. Ashri A. In J Janick (Ed.), Plant breeding reviews, 2010, Vol. 16, Oxford, Wiley

2. Bedigian D, Harlan JR. Evidence for cultivation of sesame in the ancient world. Economic Botany. 1986; 40: 137-154.

3. FAOSTAT. Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations. 2012, http://faostat.fao.

4. Morris JB. Food, industrial, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical uses of sesame genetic resources. In: Janick, J., Whipkey, A. (Eds.), Trends in New Crops and New Uses. 2002, ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA, pp 153–156.

5. FAO (2000) The State of Food and Agriculture, 2000 (

6. Parida AK, Das AB. Salt tolerance and salinity effects on plants. Ecotoxicology & Environ.2005; 60: 324–349.

7. Evans LT. Feeding the ten billion. Cambridge University Press, 1983, pp.247.

8. Li G, Wan S, Zhou J, Yang Z, Qin P. Leaf chlorophyll fluorescence, hyperspectral reflectance, pigments content, malondialdehyde and proline accumulation responses of castor bean (Ricinus communis l.) seedlings to salt stress levels. Indust. Crop. Product. 2010; 31: 13-19.

9. Azevedo Neto AD, Prisco JT, EnéasFilho J, Abreu CEBD, Gomes Filho E. Effect of salt stress on antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in leaves and roots of salt tolerant and salt-sensitive maize genotypes. Environ. Experimental Bot.2006; 56: 87-94.

10. Amirjani MR. Effects of salinity stress on growth, mineral composition, proline content, antioxidant enzymes of soybean. Am. J. Physiol. 2010; 5: 350-360.

11. Leshem Y, Seri L, Levine A. Induction of Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase mediated endocytosis by Salt Stress Leads to Intracellular Production of Reactive Oxygen Species and Salt Tolerance. Plant Jour. 2007; 51:185-197.

12. Abogadallah GM. Antioxidative Defense under Salt Stress. Plant Signal. Behav., 2010; 5: 369-374.

13. Hoagland DR, Arnon DI. The water-culture method of growing plants without soil. Calif. Agr. Expt. Sta. Circ. 1950, p.347.

14. Bates LS, Waldren RP, Teare ID. Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant Soil. 1973; 39: 205–207.

15. Giannopolitis CN, Ries SK. Superoxide dismutases. I. Occurrence in Higher Plants. Plant Physiol.1977; 59: 309-314

16. Tomiyama K. and Stahmann MA. Alteration of oxidative enzymes in potato tuber tissue by infection with Phytophthora infestans. Plant Physiol.1964; 39: 483-490.

17. Wendel A. Glutathione Peroxidases. In: Enzymatic basis of detoxification, Jakoby WB. (Ed.). Academic Press, New York. 1980; pp. 333-353.

18. Ruiz JM., Blasco B., Rivero RM, Romero L. Nicotine-free and salt tolerant tobacco plants obtained by grafting to salinity-resistant rootstocks of tomato. Physiol. Plant. 2005; 124: 465–475.

19. Munns R, Tester M. Mechanisms of Salinity Tolerance. Ann. Rev. Plant Biol. 2008; 59: 651-681.

20. Azizpour K., Shakiba MR, Sima KK, Alyari H, Mogaddam M, Esfandiari E, Pessarakli. M. Physiological Response of Spring Durum Wheat Genotypes to Salinity. Jour. Plant Nut. 2010; 33:859-873.

21. Bazrafshan AH, Ehsanzadeh P. Growth, Photosynthesis and Ion balance of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) genotypes in response to NaCl Concentration in hydroponic Solutions. Photosynthetica. 2014; 52: 134-147.

22. Meloni DA, Oliva MA, Martinez CA, Cambraia J. Photosynthesis and Activity of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and glutathione reductase in Cotton under Salt Stress. Environ. Exp. Bot. 2003; 49:69-76.

23. Nasir Khan M, Siddiqui H, Masroor M , Khan A, Naeem M. Salinity induced changes in growth, enzyme activities, photosynthesis, proline accumulation and yield in linseed genotypes. World Jour. Agric. Sci.2007; 3: 685-695.

24. Kaymakanova M, Stoeva N. Physiological reaction of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to salt stress. Gen. Appl. Plant Physiol. 2008; 34: 177-188.

25. Tuna AL, Kaya C, Dikilitas M, Higgs D. The combined effects of gibberellic acid and salinity on some antioxidant enzyme activities, plant growth parameters and nutritional status in maize plants. Environ. Exp. Bot. 2008; 62:1-9.

26. Ehsanzadeh P, Sabagh Nekoonam M, Nouri Azhar J, Pourhadian H, Shaydaee F.

27. Growth, chlorophyll, and cation concentration of tetraploid wheat on a solution high in sodium chloride Salt: Hulled Versus Free-threshing Genotypes. Jour. Plant Nut. 2009; 32: 58-70.

28. Maksimović I, Putnik-Delić M, Gani I, Marić J, Ilin Ž. Growth, ion composition, and stomatal conductance of Peas Exposed to Salinity. Central Europe Jour. Biol. 2010; 5: 682-691.

29. Farissi M, Faghir M, Bargaz A, Bouizgaren A, Makoudi B, Sentenac H, Ghoulam C. Growth, nutrients concentration, and enzymes Involved in plants nutrition Alfalfa populations under saline conditions. Jour. Agr. Sci. Tech. 2014; 16: 301-314.

30. Kafi M, Shariat Jafari MH, Moayedi A. The Sensitivity of Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) Developmental Stages to Salinity Stress: An Integrated Approach. Jour. Agr. Sci. Tech. 2013; 15: 723-736.

31. Flowers TJ, Gaur PM, Gowda CLL, Samineni KS, Siddique KHM, Turner NC, Vadez V, Varshney RK, Colmer TD. Salt sensitivity in chickpea. Plant Cell. Environ. 2010; 33: 490-509.

32. Ashraf M, Harris PJC. Potential Biochemical Indicators of Salinity Tolerance in Plants. Plant Sci. 2004; 166: 3-16.

33. Demiral T, Türkan I. Comparative lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defense systems and proline content in roots of two rice cultivars differing in Salt Tolerance. Environ. Exp. Bot. 2005; 53: 247-257.

34. Koca H, Bor M, Özdemir F, Türkan I. The Effect of salt stress on lipid peroxidation, antioxidative enzymes and proline content of sesame cultivars. Environ. Exp. Bot. 2007; 60: 344-351.

35. Zushi K, Matsuzoe N. Postharvest changes in sugar, organic acid, glutamic acid and antioxidant contents in tomato fruit grown under salinity stress. Environment Control in Biol. 2006; 44:111–117.

36. Akram M, Ashraf MY, Ahmad R, Waraich EA, Iqbal J, Mohsan M. Screening for salt tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids at an early seedling stage. Pak. Jour. Bot. 2010; 42:141-154.

37. Khayat PN, Jamaati-e-Somarin S, Zabihi-e-Mahmoodabad R, Yari A, Khayatnezhad M, Gholamin R. Screening of salt tolerance canola cultivars using physiological markers. World Applied Soil Jour. 2010; 10;817-820.

38. Khan MA, Unger IA, Showalter AM. Effects of salinity on growth, ion content and osmotic relations in Halopyrum mucronatum (L.) Stapf. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 1999; 22:191-204.

39. Marcum KB, Yensen NP, Leake JE. Genotypic variation in salinity tolerance of Distichlis spicata turf ecotypes. Aust. Jour. Expt. Agricult. 2007; 47:1506-1511.

40. Blumwald E. Sodium transport and salt tolerance in plants. Current Opinion in Cell Biol. 2000; 12:431-434

41. Bor M, Özdemir F, Türkan I. The effect of Salt Stress on lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in Leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and Wild Beet (Beta maritime L.). Plant Sci.2003; 164: 77-84.

42. Dionisio-Sese ML, Tobita S. Antioxidant responses of rice seedlings to salinity stress. Plant Sci. 1998; 135: 1–9.

43. Vaidyanathan H, Sivakumar P, Chakrabarty R, Thomas G. Scavenging of reactive oxygen species in NaCl-stressed Rice (Oryza sativa L.): differential response in salt-tolerant and sensitive varieties. Plant Sci. 2003; 165: 1411-1418.

Article Metrics

127 Absract views 170 PDF Downloads 297 Total views

Related Search

By author names

Citiaion Alert By Google Scholar

Name Required
Email Required Invalid Email Address

Comment required
Similar Articles