Research Article | Volume 12, Issue 5, September, 2024

Composition and status of avian diversity in the Mandothi wetland habitat of Jhajjar, Haryana, India

Manju Chhikara Harkrishan Kamboj Parveen Kumar Vinay Malik   

Open Access   

Published:  Jul 20, 2024

DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2024.182519
Abstract

This study was carried out from October 2021 to May 2023 to explore the diversity, feeding guild, and threat status of avian fauna in the Mandothi Wetlands, Haryana, India. A total of 133 bird species were documented belonging to 94 genera of 42 families in 18 orders. Among them, 86 species were residents, 40 species were winter visitors, 6 species were summer visitors, and 1 species was passage visitor. Based on feeding guilds, omnivorous birds were dominant 42 (31.6%), followed by carnivorous 39 (29.3%) and insectivorous 33 (24.8%) bird species. In addition, the wetlands provided habitat to one endangered species (Steppe Eagle, Aquila nipalensis), one vulnerable species (Sarus Crane, Grus antigone), and six near-threatened species. A rich number of avian species with diverse feeding guilds as well as endangered, vulnerable, and threatened bird species confirmed that Mandothi wetlands are suitable habitats for both migratory and residential birds and emphasize the need for its conservation. The findings of this study will raise awareness among the public and state governments regarding the importance of Mandothi Wetlands in preparing conservation strategies for its avian fauna.


Keyword:     Avian fauna Wetlands Bird Diversity Endangered Vulnerable Near threatened


Citation:

Chhikara M, Kamboj H, Kumar P, Malik V. Composition and status of avian diversity in the Mandothi wetland habitat of Jhajjar, Haryana, India. J App Biol Biotech. 2024;12(5):228-236. http://doi.org/10.7324/JABB.2024.182519

Copyright: Author(s). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license.

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1. INTRODUCTION

Avian fauna within an ecosystem plays a vital role in monitoring the quality of any habitat. Because they occupy a diverse ecological niche, birds are excellent indicators of environmental health, productivity, trophic structure, human disturbance, and contamination levels [1]. Unfortunately, bird diversity is declining due to the destruction of natural habitats, over-exploitation of forest resources, and soil erosion. Understanding both resident and migratory bird populations is essential for determining niche relationships and developing effective management strategies for the protection and conservation of avian fauna. Water pollution and degradation of water sources pose major threats to bird populations. The intense anthropogenic activities in bird natural habitats compelled them to adapt to urban and non-native habitats [2]. Assessing bird communities has become crucial for biodiversity conservation, particularly in areas with high human impact [3,4].

Being one of the top 12 mega biodiversity countries, India is home to 1348 bird species accounting for approximately 12% of the world’s avifauna [5]. In the state of Haryana, approximately 450 bird species have been documented in various wetland areas such as ponds and lakes [6]. Wetlands are highly productive and dynamic ecosystems [7,8] that serve as a transitional link between aquatic and terrestrial habitats [9,10]. They have been recognized as potential habitats for a diverse range of water birds providing them with essential resources such as feeding grounds, breeding sites, roosting areas, and wintering habitats. Wetlands play a crucial role in supporting the livelihood of about 300 bird species [11]. Previous studies have suggested the wetlands of Haryana as a potential roosting and feeding grounds for migratory and several residential birds. In Haryana studies on avian fauna have been mostly performed in the Kurukshetra, Karnal, Panipat, Hisar, and Gurugram districts. However, there have been very few reports on the avian diversity of water birds in Jhajjar district [6,12-19].

The village Mandothi, Jhajjar, Haryana, has a vast area under wetlands. It has three large ponds surrounded by an agricultural ecosystem with a diverse vegetative cover comprising herbs, shrubs, and trees. These man-made wetlands serve as complementary habitats and food sources for a diverse variety of birds. Thus, the study aimed to evaluate the species diversity, feeding guilds, threat status, and population trends of aves in the Mandothi wetlands.


2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1. Study Area

Mandothi (28070’65” N and 76082’07” E) is located 40 km (25 miles) northwest of New Delhi in the Jhajjar district of Haryana [Figure 1]. Mandothi encloses an area of 25 km2 comprising nearly 1000 acres of wetland and 3 large ponds with a human population of about 11,000. The place experiences semi-arid type climatic conditions with moderate rainfall and harbors many tree species such as Dalbergia sissoo (Shisham), Prosopis cineraria (Jand), Ziziphus mauritiana (Beri), Salvadora oleoides (Jaal), Eucalyptus spp. (Safeda), Capparis decidua (Kair), Azadirachta indica (Neem), Acacia nilotica (Kikar), and Ficus religiosa (Peepal). Eucalyptus and Shisham trees are commonly abundant in areas with high soil moisture content, while Kikar is mostly spotted in areas with low moisture content. The area also harbors aquatic weeds such as Typha, Phragmites, and Water hyacinth.

Figure 1: Study site (A) location and outline map. (B) Landscape of Mandothi Wetland, Jhajjar, Haryana.



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2.2. Data Collection

The avian fauna diversity and seasonal migration patterns were investigated over a period of 1 year and 8 months from October 2021 to May 2023. Regular surveys were conducted every fortnight. During winters, the birds were observed from 07:00 AM to 10:00 AM and 04:00 PM to 07:00 PM, while, in summer, the birds were observed from 06:00 AM to 09:00 AM and 04:00 PM to 07:00 PM. The line transect method was employed in the study during each visit [20]. Birds were observed with Olympus binoculars (8 × 40), and photographs were taken with a Nikon P950 Coolpix camera. The identification of bird species was done by referring to field guides [21,22].

The status of the birds was categorized as Resident (R), Summer Migrant (SM), Winter Migrant (WM), and Passage Migrant (PM) based on their presence or absence at the study site following the guidelines [21]. The nomenclature, conservation status, and population trend were determined as per IUCN Red Data List version 15.1 (July 2022). Feeding guilds were assigned as per observation during the study and relevant literature sources [23-25].

The calculation of relative diversity (RDi) was performed as described earlier [26]:


3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This study of Mandothi Wetlands recorded a total of 133 bird species distributed among 94 genera of 42 families in 18 orders [Table 1]. Order Passeriformes (n = 50) was the most dominant followed by order Charadriformes (n = 18 species); Pelecaniformes, Anseriformes (n = 13 species each); Columbiformes (n = 6 species); Accipitriformes, Gruiformes (n = 5 species each); Suliformes (n = 4 species); Ciconiiformes, Coraciformes, Cuculiformes (n = 3 species each); and Galliformes, Piciformes, Psittaciformes (n = 2 species each), while order Bucerotiformes, Phoenicopteriformes, Podicipediformes, and Strigiformes reported with only one species [Table 1]. The findings of the study were in accordance with the previous studies on the dominance of the Passeriformes order as prevalent avian taxa in Haryana [26-28].

Table 1: Checklist and status of birds in Mandothi wetlands, Jhajjar, Haryana.

S. No.Scientific NameCommon NameResidential StatusIUCN StatusPopulation TrendFeeding Guild
Order: Accipitriformes
Family: Accipitridae
1Milvus migransBlack KiteRLCStableOV
2Circus aeruginosusEurasian Marsh HarrierWMLCStableCV
3Accipiter badiusShikraRLCStableCV
4Elanus caeruleusBlack-Winged KiteRLCStableCV
5Aquila nipalensisSteppe EagleWMENDecreasingCV
Order: Anseriformes
Family: Anatidae
6Anser indicusBar-Headed GooseWMLCDecreasingHV
7Dendrocygna javanicaLesser Whistling DuckSMLCDecreasingOV
8Sarkidiornis melanotosKnob Billed DuckRLCDecreasingOV
9Anas poecilorhynchaSpot-Billed DuckRLCDecreasingOV
10Anas acutaNorthern PintailWMLCDecreasingOV
11Anas clypeataNorthern ShovelerWMLCDecreasingOV
12Anas streperaGadwallWMLCIncreasingOV
13Tadorna ferrugineaRudddy ShelduckWMLCUnknownOV
14Anser anserGraylag GooseWMLCIncreasingOV
15Anas penelopeEurasian WigeonWMLCDecreasingHV
16Anas creccaCommon TealWMLCUnknownOV
17Anas platyrhynchosMallardWMLCIncreasingOV
18Anas querquedulaGarganeyWMLCDecreasingHV
Order: Bucerotiformes
Family: Upupidae
19Upupa epopsCommon HoopoeRLCDecreasingIV
Order: Charadriiformes
Family: Burhinidae
20Burhinus indicusIndian Thick-kneeRLCDecreasingCV
Family: Charadriidae
21Vanellus leucurusWhite-Tailed lapwingWMLCUnknownCV
22Vanellus indicusRed-Wattled LapwingRLCUnknownCV
Family: Jacanidae
23Hydrophasianus chirurgusPheasant-Tailed JacanaSMLCDecreasingOV
Family: Recurvirostridae
24Himantopus himantopusBlack-Winged StiltRLCIncreasingCV
25Recurviro straavosettaPied AvocetWMLCUnknownCV
Family: Rostratulidae
26Rostratula benghalensisGreater Painted SnipeRLCDecreasingOV
Family: Scolopacidae
27Limosa limosaBlack-Tailed GodwitWMNTDecreasingIV
28Tringa totanusCommon RedshankWMLCUnknownCV
29Gallinago gallinagoCommon SnipeWMLCDecreasingCV
30Philomachus pugnaxRuffWMLCDecreasingOV
31Tringa stagnatilisMarsh SandpiperWMLCDecreasingCV
32Tringa glareolaWood SandpiperWMLCStableIV
33Calidris minutaLittle StintWMLCIncreasingIV
34Calidris temminckiiTemminck’s StintWMLCUnknownIV
35Tringa erythropusSpotted RedshankWMLCStableIV
36Tringa ochropusGreen SandpiperWMLCIncreasingIV
37Actitis hypoleucosCommon SandpiperWMLCDecreasingCV
Order: Ciconiiformes
Family: Ciconiidae
38Mycteria leucocephalaPainted StorkRNTDecreasingCV
39Anastomus oscitansAsian Openbill StorkRLCUnknownCV
40Ciconia episcopusWoolly-Necked StorkRNTDecreasingCV
Order: Columbiformes
Family: Columbidae
41Columba liviaBlue Rock PigeonRLCDecreasingGV
42Stigmatopelia chinensisSpotted DoveRLCIncreasingGV
43Stigmatopelia senegalensisLaughing DoveRLCStableGV
44Streptopelia decaoctoEurasian Collared DoveRLCIncreasingGV
45Streptopelia tranquebaricaRed Collared DoveRLCDecreasingGV
46Treron phoenicopterusYellow-Footed Green PigeonRLCIncreasingFV
Order: Coraciiformes
Family: Alcedinidae
47Halcyon smyrnensisWhite-Throated KingfisherRLCIncreasingCV
48Ceryle rudisPied KingfisherRLCUnknownCV
Family: Meropidae
49Merops orientalisGreen Bee-EaterSMLCIncreasingIV
Order: Cuculiformes
Family: Cuculidae
50Centropus sinensisGreater CoucalRLCStableOV
51Clamator jacobinusJacobin CuckooSMLCStableOV
52Eudynamys scolopaceusAsian KoelSMLCStableOV
Order: Galliformes
Family: Phasianidae
53Francolinus pondicerianusGray FrancolinRLCStableOV
54Pavo cristatusIndian PeafowlRLCStableOV
Order: Gruiformes
Family: Gruidae
55Grus antigoneSarus CraneRVDecreasingOV
Family: Rallidae
56Amaurornis phoenicurusWhite-Breasted WaterhenRLCUnknownOV
57Fulica atraCommon CootWMLCIncreasingOV
58Gallinula chloropusCommon MoorhenWMLCStableOV
59Porphyrio porphyrioPurple SwamphenRLCUnknownOV
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Alaudidae
60Galerida cristataCrested LarkRLCDecreasingGV
61Mirafra erythropteraIndian Bush-LarkRLCStableGV
Family: Cisticolidae
62Orthotomus sutoriusCommon TailorbirdRLCStableIV
63Prinia flaviventrisYellow- Bellied PriniaRLCDecreasingIV
64Prinia gracilisGraceful PriniaRLCStableIV
65Prinia inornataPlain PriniaRLCStableIV
66Prinia socialisAshy PriniaRLCStableIV
Family: Corvidae
67Corvus macrorhynchosLarge-Billed CrowRLCStableOV
68Corvus splendensHouse CrowRLCStableOV
69Dendrocitta vagabundaRufous TreepieRLCDecreasingOV
Family: Dicruridae
70Dicrurus macrocercusBlack DrongoRLCUnknownCV
Family: Estrildidae
71Amandava amandavaRed AvadavatRLCStableOV
72Euodice malabaricaIndian Silver BillRLCStableGV
73Lonchura punctulataScaly- Breasted MuniaRLCStableGV
Family: Hirundinidae
74Hirundo smithiiWire-Tailed SwallowSMLCIncreasingIV
75Hirundo rusticaBarn SwallowWMLCDecreasingIV
76Petrochelidon fluvicolaStreak-Throated SwallowRLCIncreasingIV
77Riparia paludicolaPlain MartinRLCDecreasingIV
Family: Laniidae
78Lanius schachLong-Tailed ShrikeRLCUnknownCV
79Lanius vittatusBay-Backed ShrikeRLCStableCV
Family: Leiothrichidae
80Turdoides caudataCommon BabblerRLCStableOV
81Turdoides earleiStriated BabblerRLCDecreasingOV
82Turdoides malcolmiLarge Gray BabblerRLCStableOV
83Turdoides striataJungle BabblerRLCStableOV
Family: Muscicapidae
84Copsychus saularisOriental Magpie-RobinRLCStableIV
85Luscinia svecicaBluethroatWMLCStableIV
86Oenanthe fuscaBrown Rock ChatRLCStableIV
87Oenanthe isabellinaIsabelline WheatearWMLCStableIV
88Saxicola caprataPied BushchatRLCStableIV
89Saxicola torquatusCommon StonechatWMLCStableIV
90Saxicoloides fulicatusIndian RobinRLCStableIV
Family: Motacillidae
91Anthus hodgsoniOlive-Backed PipitWMLCStableIV
92Anthus rufulusPaddyfield PipitRLCStableIV
93Anthus trivialisTree PipitWMLCDecreasingIV
94Motacilla albaWhite WagtailWMLCStableIV
95Motacilla cinereaGray WagtailWMLCStableIV
96Motacilla citreolaCitrine WagtailWMLCIncreasingIV
97Motacilla flavaYellow WagtailWMLCDecreasingIV
98Motacilla maderaspatensisWhite- Browed WagtailRLCStableIV
Family: Nectariniidae
99Cinnyris asiaticusPurple SunbirdRLCStableNV
Family: Passeridae
100Gymnoris xanthocollisChestnut -Shouldered PetroniaRLCStableGV
101Passer domesticusHouse SparrowRLCDecreasingGV
Family: Ploceidae
102Ploceus philippinusBaya WeaverRLCStableOV
103Ploceus manyarStreaked WeaverRLCStableOV
Family: Pycnonotidae
104Pycnonotus caferRed-Vented BulbulRLCIncreasingOV
Family: Sturnidae
105Acridotheres ginginianusBank MynaRLCIncreasingOV
106Acridotheres tristisCommon MynaRLCIncreasingOV
107Gracupica contraAsian Pied StarlingRLCIncreasingOV
108Pastor roseusRosy StarlingPMLCUnknownOV
109Sturnus vulgarisCommon StarlingWMLCDecreasingOV
Order: Pelecaniformes
Family: Ardeidae
110Ardea cinereaGray HeronRLCUnknownCV
111Ardea purpureaPurple HeronRLCIncreasingCV
112Ardeola grayiiIndian Pond HeronRLCUnknownCV
113Bubulcus ibisCattle EgretRLCIncreasingCV
114Casmerodius albusLarge EgretRLCUnknownCV
115Egretta garzettaLittle EgretRLCIncreasingCV
116Ixobrychus sinensisYellow BitternRLCUnknownCV
117Mesophoyx intermediaMedian EgretRLCDecreasingCV
118Nycticorax nycticoraxNight HeronRLCDecreasingCV
Family: Threskiornithidae
119Pseudibis papillosaRed-Naped IbisRLCDecreasingCV
120Platalea leucorodiaEurasian SpoonbillRLCUnknownCV
121Plegadis falcinellusGlossy IbisWMLCIncreasingCV
122Threskiornis melanocephalusBlack Headed IbisRNTDecreasingCV
Order: Phoenicopteriformes
Family: Phoenicopteridae
123Phoenicopterus roseusGreater FlamingoRLCIncreasingOV
Order: Piciformes
Family: Megalaimidae
124Megalaima haemacephalaCoppersmith BarbetRLCIncreasingFV
Family: Picidae
125Jynx torquillaEurasian WryneckWMLCDecreasingIV
Order: Podicipediformes
Family: Podicipedidae
126Tachybaptus ruficollisLittle GrebeRLCDecreasingOV
Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
127Psittacula eupatriaAlexandrine ParakeetRNTDecreasingFV
128Psittacula krameriRose-Ringed ParakeetRLCIncreasingFV
Order: Strigiformes
Family: Strigidae
129Athene bramaSpotted OwletRLCStableCV
Order: Suliformes
Family: Anhingidae
130Anhinga melanogasterOriental DarterRNTDecreasingCV
Family: Phalacrocoracidae
131Phalacrocorax carboGreat CormorantRLCIncreasingCV
132Phalacrocorax fuscicollisIndian CormorantRLCUnknownCV
133Phalacrocorax nigerLittle CormorantRLCUnknownCV

WM: Winter migrants. SM: Summer migrants. PM: Passage migrants. LC: Least concerned. NT: Near threatened. V: Vulnerable. EN: Endangered. CV: Carnivorous. GV: Granivorous. IV: Insectivorous. NV: Nectarivorous. OV: Omnivorous. HV: Herbivorous. FG: Frugivorous.

The analysis of RDi revealed Anatidae (n = 13 species, 9.77%) as the most dominant family followed by the family Scolopacidae (n = 11 species, 8.27%); Ardeidae (n = 9 species, 6.77%); Motacillidae (n = 8 species, 6.02%); Muscicapidae (n = 7 species, 5.26%); Columbidae (n = 6 species, 4.51%); Accipitridae, Cisticolidae, Sturnidae (n = 5 species each, 3.76%); Rallidae, Hirundinidae, Leiothrichidae, Threskiornithidae (n = 4 species each, 3.01%); Ciconiidae, Cuculidae, Corvidae, Estrildidae, Phalacrocoracidae (n = 3 species each, 2.26%); and Charadriidae, Recurvirostridae, Alcedinidae, Phasianidae, Alaudidae, Laniidae, Passeridae, Ploceidae, Psittaculidae (n = 2 species each, 1.50%), whereas family Upupidae, Strigidae, Burhinidae, Jacanidae, Rostrafulidae, Meropidae, Anhingidae, Gruidae, Dicruridae, Nectariniidae, Pycnonotidae, Phoenicopteridae, Megalaimidae, Picidae, and Podicipedidae (n = 1 species each, 0.75%) represented least RDi [Table 2].

Table 2: RDi of avian fauna in Mandothi wetland, Jhajjar, Haryana.

S. No.FamilyGeneraSpeciesRDi
1Anatidae5139.77
2Scolopacidae6118.27
3Ardeidae896.77
4Motacillidae286.02
5Muscicapidae575.26
6Columbidae464.51
7Accipitridae553.76
8Cisticolidae2
9Sturnidae4
10Rallidae443.01
11Hirundinidae3
12Leiothrichidae1
13Threskiornithidae4
14Ciconiidae332.26
15Cuculidae3
16Corvidae2
17Estrildidae3
18Phalacrocoracidae1
19Charadriidae121.50
20Recurvirostridae2
21Alcedinidae2
22Phasianidae2
23Alaudidae2
24Laniidae1
25Passeridae2
26Ploceidae1
27Psittaculidae1
28Upupidae110.75
29Burhinidae1
30Jacanidae1
31Rostrafulidae1
32Meropidae1
33Gruidae1
34Dicruridae1
35Nectariniidae1
36Pycnonotidae1
37Phoenicopteridae1
38Megalaimidae1
39Picidae1
40Podicipedidae1
41Strigidae1
42Anhingidae1
94133

Feeding habits of the recorded birds revealed that the highest number of species belonged to the omnivorous (OV) (n = 42), followed by carnivorous (CV) (n = 39), insectivorous (IV) (n = 33), granivorous (GV) (n = 11), herbivorous (HV) (n = 3), frugivorous (FG) (n = 4), and the least represented guild was nectarivorous (NV) (n = 1). The diversity of feeding guilds suggested the adequate resource distribution and rich availability of food in the study site which attracts and supports a large number of birds [Figure 2].

Figure 2: Feeding habits observed in avian community observed at Mandothi Wetland, Jhajjar, Haryana.



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The threat status analysis found that Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) is an endangered species and Sarus Crane (Grus antigone) is a vulnerable species. The Woolly-Necked Stork (Ciconia episcopus), Black-Tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa), Painted Stork (Mycteria leucocephala), Black-Headed Ibis (Threskiornis melanocephalus), Oriental Darter (Anhinga melanogaster), and Alexandrine Parakeet (Psittacula eupatria) are near-threatened (NT) species (n = 6). The rest of the 125 species are least concerned (LC) [Figure 3]. The findings addressing conservation status are in accordance with an earlier study reporting 124 species in Mandothi Wetlands [28]. The assessment of the global population trend in the study area showed that a stable population is exhibited by 44 species, 41 species exhibited a decreasing population, 27 species exhibited an increasing population, and 21 species represented an unknown population trend [Figure 4]. The presence of a substantial number of species with declining population trends as well as the presence of endangered birds in this area highlights the importance of this site in avian conservation.

Figure 3: Threat status (IUCN) of avian diversity recorded at Mandothi Wetland, Jhajjar, Haryana.



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Figure 4: Population trends (IUCN) of avian community recorded at Mandothi Wetland, Jhajjar, Haryana.



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The seasonal migration data revealed that out of the 133 recorded species, 86 were resident species. While 47 exhibited migratory behavior, among them, 40 species are winter visitors, 6 are summer visitors, and 1 is passage migratory [Figure 5]. The findings are in accordance with a previous study conducted in Bhindawas Bird Sanctuary reporting 82 resident species, 30 WMs, 6 SMs, and 1 PM [16]. Despite a high number of winter migratory bird species in the present study as compared with Bhindawas Bird Sanctuary, a Ramsar site, which is merely 20 km away from the study site, highlights the importance of this site and also suggests that this wetland is a potential bird habitat in Haryana.

Figure 5: Migratory status observed in avian community recorded at Mandothi Wetland, Jhajjar, Haryana.



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4. CONCLUSION

The presence of 133 avian species including 47 migratory birds concludes that Mandothi provides a suitable habitat with rich and diverse feeding resources to support bird diversity. The presence of one endangered species, one vulnerable species, and six NT species draws immediate attention to the protection and conservation of this area for its avian diversity. The appropriate conservation efforts of this area will develop it into a thriving habitat for avifauna and a paradise for bird watchers. It is noteworthy that the study is not conclusive itself and more insightful research focusing on nesting behavior, roosting behavior, and perching guild can be done in the future to understand the avian ecology of the region and to design a holistic conservation plan.


5. AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS

All the authors have made substantial contributions to the content of the manuscript. MC, PK and VM worked on the concept and design. MC, HK and PK performed data acquisition. MC, HK and VM performed data analysis. MC and VM drafted the manuscript. PK and VM critically revised the manuscript. HK and PK performed statistical analysis. VM supervised and finally approved the manuscript.


6. FINANCIAL SUPPORT AND SPONSORSHIP

The study received no financial support and sponsorship.


7. CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

The authors report no financial or any other conflicts of interest in this work.


8. ETHICAL APPROVALS

This study does not involve experiments on animals or human subjects.


9. DATA AVAILABILITY

All the data is available with the authors and shall be provided upon request.


10. USE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI)-ASSISTED TECHNOLOGY

The authors confirm that there was no use of artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted technology for assisting in the writing or editing of the manuscript and no images were manipulated using AI.


11. PUBLISHER’S NOTE

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. This journal remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published institutional affiliation.


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23.  Ali S, Ripley SD. Compact handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan. Oxford University Press. New Delhi: India; 1987.

24.  Grimmett R, Inskipp C, Inskipp T. Pocket guide to the birds of the Indian subcontinent. Oxford University Press. New Delhi: India; 1999.

25.  Singh J, Hooda S, Phogat A, Malik V. Avian diversity and habitat use of Sultanpur National Park, Haryana, India. Asian J Conserv Biol. 2021;10(1):124–33.

26.  Singh J, Antil S, Goyal V, Malik V. Avifaunal diversity of Tilyar Lake, Rohtak, Haryana, India. J Threatened Taxa. 2020;12(8):15909–15. [CrossRef]

27.  Praveen J, Jayapal R, Pittie A. A checklist of the birds of India. Indian Birds. 2016;11(5-6):113–72.

28.  Rai D, Aruna Y. Avian community in and around Mandothi Wetlands, Haryana, India. J Appl Nat Sci. 2023;15(1):408–21. [CrossRef]

29.  The IUCN Red list of threatened species [updated 2023; cited 2023 Sep 22]. Available from: https://www.iucnredlist.org

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5. Praveen J, Jayapal R. Taxonomic updates to the checklists of birds of India, and the South Asian region. Indian Birds. 2022;18(1):1–3.

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13. Gupta RC, Kaushik TK. Discussing implications of fast depleting rural ponds on the globally threatened wetland winter migratory bird in Haryana: a case study of Nigdu village pond in Karnal District. J Trop Life Sci. 2013;3(2):113–9. https://doi.org/10.11594/jtls.03.02.08

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15. Chopra G, Rai D, Jyoti J. Avian diversity and their status in and around Bhindawas bird sanctuary, Haryana (India). J Appl Nat Sci. 2017;9(3):1475–81. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v9i3.1387

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17. Rai D, Gulia R, Chopra G, Kumar P. Avifaunal community composition and current status in Basai wetlands: an important bird area in Haryana, India. Indian Forester. 2019;145(10):971–85.

18. Kumar P, Sahu S. Composition, diversity and foraging guilds of avifauna in agricultural landscapes in Panipat, Haryana, India. J Threatened Taxa. 2020;12(1):15140–53. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.5267.12.1.15140-15153

https://doi.org/10.11609/jot.5267.12.1.15140-15153

19. Rai D, Vanita. Community composition and status of avifaunal diversity in and around Ottu reservoir of Sirsa, Haryana, India. J Appl Nat Sci. 2021;13(2):593–606. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v13i2.2666

20. Shekhawat DS, Bhatnagar C. Guild, status, and diversity of avian fauna in the Jhunjhunu district, Rajasthan, India. J Asia-Pacific Biodivers. 2014;7:262–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japb.2014.06.001

21. Grimmett R, Inskipp C, Inskipp T. Birds of the Indian Subcontinent. Oxford University Press and Christopher Helm. London: United Kingdom; 2011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japb.2014.06.001

22. Kalsi RS, Sharma SC, Choudhary JR. Birds of Haryana – A Field Guide. Unique Publications. Haryana: India; 2019.

23. Ali S, Ripley SD. Compact handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan. Oxford University Press. New Delhi: India; 1987.

24. Grimmett R, Inskipp C, Inskipp T. Pocket guide to the birds of the Indian subcontinent. Oxford University Press. New Delhi: India; 1999.

25. Singh J, Hooda S, Phogat A, Malik V. Avian diversity and habitat use of Sultanpur National Park, Haryana, India. Asian J Conserv Biol. 2021;10(1):124–33. https://doi.org/10.53562/ajcb.RKPR3560

26. Singh J, Antil S, Goyal V, Malik V. Avifaunal diversity of Tilyar Lake, Rohtak, Haryana, India. J Threatened Taxa. 2020;12(8):15909–15. https://doi.org/10.11609/jot.4700.12.8.15909-15915

27. Praveen J, Jayapal R, Pittie A. A checklist of the birds of India. Indian Birds. 2016;11(5-6):113–72.

28. Rai D, Aruna Y. Avian community in and around Mandothi Wetlands, Haryana, India. J Appl Nat Sci. 2023;15(1):408–21. https://doi.org/10.31018/jans.v15i1.4385

29. The IUCN Red list of threatened species [updated 2023; cited 2023 Sep 22]. Available from: https://www.iucnredlist.org

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