Evaluation of pancreatic lipase and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors from ethanolic extract of butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.) flowers

Ratna Djamil Diah Kartika Pratami Tia Novia Wilantika Qurrata A’yun Abdul Mun’im Asep Bayu Masteria Yunovilsa Putra   

Open Access   

Published:  Jan 19, 2024

DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2024.161859
Abstract

Clitoria ternatea L. (CT) contains flavonoids, saponins, tannins, coumarins, steroids/triterpenoids, and essential oils. CT flowers have been used for ages to maintain good health in the Indonesian community. Based on the empirical use of CT, scientific studies are needed to establish its therapeutic values. The objectives of this research were to examine the quality parameters and analyze the activities of CT as antihyperlipidemic and antihypertensive in vitro. The total phenolic contents (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC), as well as specific (identity, organoleptic examination, and the percentage of soluble compounds in certain solvents) and non-specific (water content, loss on drying, ash content, residual solvent, heavy metal, and microbial contamination) quality parameters were also evaluated. The antihyperlipidemic and antihypertensive activities were determined using lipase enzyme inhibition and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition activity. The TPC and TFC of ethanolic extract of CT (EECT) were 38.30 ± 4.50 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract and 29.379 ± 0.31 mg quercetin equivalent/g extract. The determined parameters satisfy the quality and safety requirements of the medicinal herb standard. The IC50 values of the lipase enzyme and ACE inhibition of EECT were 131.79 ± 5.27 μg/mL and 84.9653 ppm, respectively. CT extract inhibits both the lipase and ACE enzymes. The EECT has potential as an antihyperlipidemic and antihypertensive agent.


Keyword:     Antihyperlipidemic Antihypertensive Angiotensin-converting enzyme Clitoria ternatea L. Lipase


Citation:

Djamil R, Pratami DK, Wilantika TN, A’yun Q, Mun’im A, Bayu A, Putra MY. Evaluation of pancreatic lipase and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors from ethanolic extract of butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.) flowers. JApp Biol Biotech. 2024. Online First. http://doi.org/10.7324/JABB.2024.161859

Copyright: Author(s). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license.

HTML Full Text
Reference

1. Elnaem MH, Rosley NF, Alhifany AA, Elrggal ME, Cheema E. Impact of pharmacist-led interventions on medication adherence and clinical outcomes in patients with hypertension and hyperlipidemia: A scoping review of published literature. J Multidiscip Healthc 2020;13:635-45. https://doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S257273

2. Mente A, Dehghan M, Rangarajan S, McQueen M, Dagenais G, Wielgosz A, et al. Association of dietary nutrients with blood lipids and blood pressure in 18 countries: A cross-sectional analysis from the PURE study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2017;5:774-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(17)30283-8

3. Shao C, Wang J, Tian J, Tang YD. Coronary artery disease: From mechanism to clinical practice. Adv Exp Med Biol 2020;1177:1-36. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-2517-9_1

4. Poznyak AV, Bharadwaj D, Prasad G, Grechko AV, Sazonova MA, Orekhov AN. Renin-angiotensin system in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and treatment of CVD. Int J Mol Sci 2021;22:6702. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22136702

5. Rask Larsen J, Dima L, Correll CU, Manu P. The pharmacological management of metabolic syndrome. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol 2018;11:397-410. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512433.2018.1429910

6. Habib R, Aziz A, Khatun M, Rabbi A. Inhibitory effect of Ammannia bacifera leaves against lipase and angiotensin-converting enzyme. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2022;11:21-3. https://doi.org/10.22271/phyto.2022.v11.i2a.14371

7. Arozal W, Louisa M, Soetikno V. Selected Indonesian medicinal plants for the management of metabolic syndrome: Molecular basis and recent studies. Front Cardiovasc Med 2020;7:82. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2020.00082

8. Wang Y, Liu T, Xie Y, Li N, Liu Y, Wen J, et al. Clitoria ternatea blue petal extract protects against obesity, oxidative stress, and inflammation induced by a high-fat, high-fructose diet in C57BL/6 mice. Food Res Int 2022;162:112008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2022.112008

9. Daisy P, Santosh K, Rajathi M. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Clitoria ternatea Linn. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Afr J Microbiol Res 2009;3:287-91. https://doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v8i5.48082

10. Marpaung AM. Measuring the potential of butterfly pea flower as a functional drink. Food Rev 2020;15:1-6.

11. Pratami DK, Desmiaty Y, Simorangkir EM, Faradhila D. Standardization and antioxidant activity of propolis extract for SARS-CoV2 infection therapy. J Ilmu Kefarmasian Indones 2021;19:272-80. https://doi.org/10.35814/jifi.v19i2.1062

12. Directorate General of Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices. Pharmacopoeias Formularies Herbal Medicine. Jakarta II: Ministry of Health Republic Indonesia; 2017. p. 515-32.

13. Xu J, Wang W, Du M, He C, Bian J, Du X. A comparative analysis of inhibitory effect of different levels of Ya'an Tibetan tea on lipase. J Phys Conf Ser 2020;1549:032047. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1549/3/032047

14. Sepanlou SG, Safiri S, Bisignano C, Ikuta KS, Merat S, Saberifiroozi M, et al. The global, regional, and national burden of cirrhosis by cause in 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020;5:245-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(19)30349-8

15. Aulena DN, Tambunan RM, Desya P. The activity of antioxidants, ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitor, and toxicity from 70% ethanol jamblang leaves extracts (Syzigium cumini L.). Sainstech Farma J Ilmu Kefarmasian 2020;13:99-106.

16. Shi L, Gu Y, Wu D, Wu X, Grierson D, Tu Y, et al. Hot air drying of tea flowers: Effect of experimental temperatures on drying kinetics, bioactive compounds and quality attributes. Int J Food Sci Technol 2019;54:526-35. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.13967

17. Ulmillah A, Suri IM, Kamelia M, Pawhestri SW. The combination tea of corn silk (Zea mays L.) and rosella flowers (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.): Antioxidant levels using different drying methods. Inornatus Biol Educ J 2022;2:61-8. https://doi.org/10.30862/inornatus.v2i2.354

18. Chakraborty R, Roy S. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors from plants: A review of their diversity, modes of action, prospects, and concerns in the management of diabetes-centric complications. J Integr Med 2021;19:478-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joim.2021.09.006

19. Multisona RR, Shirodkar S, Arnold M, Gramza-Michalowska A. Clitoria ternatea flower and its bioactive compounds: Potential use as microencapsulated ingredient for functional foods. Appl Sci 2023;13:2134. https://doi.org/10.3390/app13042134

20. Jeyaraj EJ, Lim YY, Choo WS. Extraction methods of butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea) flower and biological activities of its phytochemicals. J Food Sci Technol 2021;58:2054-67. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-020-04745-3

21. The Ministry of Health RI. Materia Medika Indonesia. Jakarta: Departemen Kesehatan RI Hal; 1995. p. 32-6.

22. The Indonesian Food and Drug Authority. Indonesian FDA Decree No 32 Year 2019 about Requirements for Safety and Quality of Traditional Medicines. Indonesia: The Indonesian Food and Drug Authority; 2019. p. 1-37.

23. Syukri Y, Purwati R, Hazami N, Tahmid HA, Fitria A. Standardization of specific and non-specific parameters of propolis extract as raw material for herbal product. Eksakta J Sci Data Anal 2020;1:36-43. https://doi.org/10.20885/EKSAKTA.vol1.iss1.art6

24. Thuy NM, Ben TC, Ngoc PT, Van Tai N. Application of butterfly pea flower extract in processing some Vietnamese traditional foods. J Appl Biol Biotechnol 2022;10:143-50. https://doi.org/10.7324/JABB.2022.100518

25. Pratami DK, Munim A, Sundowo A, Sahlan M. Phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity of propolis ethanolic extract from Tetragonula bee. Pharmacogn J 2018;10:128-35. https://doi.org/10.5530/pj.2018.1.23

26. Jaafar NF, Ramli ME, Mohd Salleh R. Optimum extraction condition of Clitorea ternatea flower on antioxidant activities, total phenolic, total flavonoid and total anthocyanin contents. Trop Life Sci Res 2020;31:1-17. https://doi.org/10.21315/tlsr2020.31.2.1

27. Babac BD, Dulay RM, Calpito RA, Domingo MA, Macamos MG, Mangabat AR, et al. In-vitro activity of ethanolic extract of Lentinus strigosus mycelia in N2 wild strain Caenorhabditis elegans-an animal model for obesity and its chemical composition. J Appl Biol Biotechnol 2021;9:41-6.

28. Wang Y, Wang J, Wang S, Cao Z, Gu D, Wang Y, et al. An efficient method based on an inhibitor-enzyme complex to screen an active compound against lipase from Toona sinensis. Food Funct 2021;12:10806-12. https://doi.org/10.1039/D1FO01542G

29. Yunarto N, Sulistyowati I, Reswandaru UN, Elya B, Sauriasari R, Konadi L. Inhibitory Activity of Uncaria gambir Roxb Extract, Ethyl Acetate Fraction, and Catechin Isolate on Lipase. In: AIP Conference Proceedings. AIP Publishing LLC; 2023. p. 20011. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0118363

30. Buchholz T, Melzig MF. Medicinal plants traditionally used for treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus-screening for pancreatic lipase and α-amylase inhibition. Phytother Res 2016;30:260-6. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5525

31. Prado AS, Shen Y, Ardoin R, Osorio LF, Cardona J, Xu Z, et al. Effects of different solvents on total phenolic and total anthocyanin contents of Clitoria ternatea L. petal and their anti-cholesterol oxidation capabilities. Int J Food Sci Technol 2019;54:424-31. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.13953

32. Rinayanti A, Radji M, Munim A, Suyatna FD. Screening angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor activity of antihypertensive medicinal plants from Indonesia. Int J Pharm Teach Pract 2013;4:527-32.

33. Escher GB, Marques MB, do Carmo MA, Azevedo L, Furtado MM, Sant'Ana AS, et al. Clitoria ternatea L. petal bioactive compounds display antioxidant, antihemolytic and antihypertensive effects, inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities and reduce human LDL cholesterol and DNA induced oxidation. Food Res Int 2020;128:108763. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2019.108763

34. Perez-Vizcaino F, Duarte J, Jimenez R, Santos-Buelga C, Osuna A. Antihypertensive effects of the flavonoid quercetin. Pharmacol Rep 2009;61:67-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1734-1140(09)70008-8

35. Guerrero L, Castillo J, Quiñones M, Garcia-Vallvé S, Arola L, Pujadas G, et al. Inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme activity by flavonoids: Structure-activity relationship studies. PLoS One 2012;7:e49493. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049493

36. Loizzo MR, Said A, Tundis R, Rashed K, Statti GA, Hufner A, et al. Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) by flavonoids isolated from Ailanthus excelsa (Roxb) (Simaroubaceae). Phytother Res 2007;21:32-6. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2008

Article Metrics

29 Absract views 34 PDF Downloads 63 Total views

Related Search

By author names

Citiaion Alert By Google Scholar