Research Article | Volume 11, Issue 5, September, 2023

Performance of mung bean as influenced by different levels of fertilizers and cropping systems in the semi-arid region of India

Jayanti Yomso Sandeep Menon Mustapha Na-Allah Sale Johnson Yumnam   

Open Access   

Published:  Aug 10, 2023

DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2023.113474
Abstract

Mung bean being a leguminous crop is helpful in improving the soil properties. Since it is a pulse crop, it is deprived of proper fertilization. Hence, the study was aimed to determine the best fertilizer combination and cropping system for mung bean production. The experiment comprised eight treatments and three replications arranged in a split-plot design. The results revealed that yield components, namely, number of pods/plant, number of seeds/pod, 1000 seed weight, stover yield, seed yield, and biological yield in sole mung bean were significantly higher when mung bean is grown as an intercrop. While in the case of different fertilizer levels, the treatment with the combination of nanofertilizers and NPK fertilizers produced higher yield attributes than all other treatments. In contrast, the control (no fertilizer) produced lower yield characters. The study concludes that the combination of 50% recommended dose fertilizer + 50% nano NPK fertilizers + sole mung bean produced the highest yield and can be used for higher mung bean production.


Keyword:     Cropping system Mung bean Nanofertilizers Fertilization Yield attributes


Citation:

Yomso J, Menon S, Sale MN, Yumnam J. Performance of mung bean as influenced by different levels of fertilizers and cropping systems in the semi-arid region of India. J App Biol Biotech. 2023;11(5):152-156. https://doi.org/10.7324/JABB.2023.113474

Copyright: Author(s). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license.

HTML Full Text

1. INTRODUCTION

Mung bean (Vigna radiate L.) is a major pulse crop in India that belongs to the Leguminosae family and contains significant amounts of proteins, minerals, nutrients, and essential amino acids. It has high economic and commercial values. Mung bean, also known as moong or green gram, is one of India’s main pulse crop for agricultural exports. It is a rich source of protein, fiber, and iron and is oftenly cultivated as a Kharif crop, similar to a summer crop. The crop can be grown on a variety of soil types and gives excellent results when planted on well-drained loamy to sandy-loam soils [1,2]. In India, especially in the north-western region, rice-wheat cropping is one of the most common aspects of agriculture. However, the continuous implementation of this cropping system has resulted in significant challenges such as the decline in the soil nutrient reserves, deteriorated soil health, water depletion, an escalating production cost, a scarcity of labor, an increase in greenhouse gas emissions due to crop residue burning, climate vulnerabilities, and herbicide resistance in weeds [3,4]. Thus, to overcome these challenges, it is necessary to adopt maize-mung bean cropping system which has low water and nutrient demand compared to rice-wheat cropping system. As a leguminous crop, mung bean will benefit farmer’s economies and enhance soil fertility, eventually substituting rice and wheat for farmers around the world [5].

Chemical fertilizers are now vital to existing agricultural production methods, yet they have also been correlated to environmental and ecological issues. The loss of nutrients from agricultural fields through leaching and gaseous emissions is the main factors contributing to environmental pollution and climate change. Sustainable crop production can be achieved if new nutrient sources are explored and existing sources are altered [6-8]. Research in nanotechnology may provide long-term solutions to significant problems faced by modern-day intensive agriculture. Nanofertilizer is a nutrient fertilizer that comprises nanostructured formulations for efficient uptake by plants due to the slower release of nutrients. However, in conventional bulk fertilizers, the plant uptake efficiency is low; hence, larger quantities are required. In NPK-based fertilizers, nutrient uptake efficiency is reduced mainly due to the drastic changes in chemical forms that plants cannot absorb, leading to runoff, leaching, and atmospheric losses. Thus, it is necessary to produce fertilizers that can be taken up more readily by plants while posing no threat to soil and the environment [9-11]. Furthermore, large surface areas of leaves allow nanoparticles to interact more effectively with target sites, besides other benefits. Nanofertilizers are better than fertilizers, because they provide nutrients for the plant and restore the soil to its natural state without damaging the soil [12,13]. Furthermore, nanofertilizers allow crop production systems to be more sustainable without compromising yields [6,14]. Although many studies have been conducted to increase mung bean crop yield, just a few uses of NPK nanofertilizers in India, particularly in the Punjab area, are reported in the literature. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the response of mung bean to eco-friendly granular as well as foliar NPK nanofertilizers under semi-arid conditions of Punjab.


2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

The study for this research was performed on the research farm of Lovely Professional University, Punjab, at an elevation of 249 m above mean sea level. The experimental location was situated at 31.2560° N latitude and 75.7051° E longitude. The soil of the experimental site was clay loam in texture, slightly alkaline in reaction (7.9), low in organic carbon (0.30%), medium in nitrogen (252 kg/ha), phosphorous (15 kg/ha), and potassium (15 kg/ha) availability. The treatment consisted of two cropping systems, namely, M1: Mung bean (Sole cropping) and M2: Mung bean + Maize (Intercropping), and four levels of fertilizers, namely, S1: Control, S2: 100% Recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF), S3: 100% Nano NPK fertilizers, and S4: 50% RDF + 50% Nano NPK fertilizers. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design and replicated 3 times. The cropping systems were assigned to the main plots, while the fertilizer treatments were assigned to the subplot. The recommended fertilizer doses were applied @ 5 kg/acre N, 16 kg/acre P205, and 0 kg/acre K in mung bean, while in maize 50 kg/acre N, 25 kg/acre P205, and 12 kg/acre K, respectively. As chemical sources of fertilizer, urea, diammonium phosphate, and muriate of potash were used, and Nano NPK (19:19:19) in granular form was used as nanofertilizer treatment and applied as foliar application @ 2 g/L. The data collected were number (No.) of pods/plant, No. of seeds/pod, 1000 seed weight, stover, seed, and biological yield. Data were subjected to an analysis of variance using the star (statistical tool for agriculture) software. Duncan’s multiple test range was used to separate the statistically significant means (P ≤ 0.05).


3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This study was aimed to quantify the degree of variance in various measures caused by treatment variables. The data have been statistically incorporated at appropriate places in table. It is, further, illustrated with graphs wherever necessary in the text. The main effects have been described first and the interaction effect if significant is narrated further.

3.1. Yield Parameters

3.1.1. No. of pods/plant, No. of seeds/pod, and 1000 seed weight (g)

The results revealed that the application of different levels of fertilizers had a significant (P≤0.05) impact on the yield parameters [Table 1, Figures 1 and 2]. Statistically, a higher No. of pods/plant, No. of seeds/pod, and 1000 seed weight were recorded in the sole mung bean compared to the intercrop mung bean. The possible reason could be due to the less competition and efficient utilization of growth resources, which led to better plant growth and development and, hence, increased the pods/plant, seeds/pod, and 1000 seed weight. Similar findings were also reported by Yousaf and Rahman, Khan et al. [15,16], who noted a significant increase in yield characteristics of sole mung bean in comparison when mung bean is intercropped with cereals. The relative decrease in the pods/plant, grains/pod, and 1000 seed weight in intercrop mung bean was due to the increase in competition between mung bean and maize for essential growth resources. A similar trend was observed by Legwaila et al., Morgado and Willey, and Khan and Khaliq [17-19], who observed cereal crops as a stronger competitors to legumes when grown in intercropping environments.

Table 1: Effect of different levels of fertilizers on the yield parameters of sole and intercrop mung bean.

TreatmentsNo. of pods/plantNo. of seed/pod1000 seed weight (g)Stover yield (t/ha)Seed yield (t/ha)Biological yield (t/ha)
A - Main Plot
 M135.10a11.55a36.84a1.55a1.32a2.88a
 M226.64b10.51b31.02b1.38b1.01b2.39b
 SEM (±)0.8100.0250.1490.0060.0100.016
 CD (P≤0.05)5.3300.1660.9790.0380.0680.107
B - Sub Plot
 S120.42b8.34d19.07d0.997d0.725d1.72d
 S235.18a11.75b39.76b1.652b1.325b2.97b
 S332.13a11.12c35.08c1.282c0.983c2.26c
 S435.73a12.91a41.88a1.945a1.642a3.58a
 SEM (±)1.1900.0870.4680.0210.0190.040
 CD (P≤0.05)3.7200.2721.4580.0660.0600.125
Interaction (A×B)NS*****

a,b,c and

d are statically different at 0.05%,

*: significant

Figure 1: Effect of different levels of fertilizers on the No. of pods/plant and No. of seeds/pod of sole and intercrop mung bean.



[Click here to view]
Figure 2: Effect of different levels of fertilizers on the 1000 seed weight of sole and intercrop mung bean.



[Click here to view]

The maximum mean value of all the yield parameters was recorded in 50% RDF and 50% nano NPK fertilizers which proved to be significantly superior to all other treatments except in the pods/plant which was statically at par with 100% RDF and 100% nano NPK fertilizers, while the control consistently recorded the lowest mean values [Table 1]. This may be due to the more rapid supply of primary mineral nutrients by nanofertilizers through foliar spray through plant openings (stomata or wounds and scratches) in the leaves, which increased the delivery of nutrients for the metabolism of plants. This encourages vegetative and reproductive growth and aids in improving the yield characteristics of mung bean, namely, pods/plant, seeds/pod, and 1000 seed weight. The outcome is in accordance with the findings of [20-22], who reported an increase in growth and yield attributes due to enhanced efficiency of nanofertilizers nutrients through foliar spraying in cereals and pulses, respectively.

There was no significant interaction between the cropping system and levels of fertilizer in pods/plant, but it was significant in the case of the seeds/pod and 1000 seed weight. The maximum mean value was recorded in sole mung bean in conjunction with 50% RDF and 50% nano NPK fertilizers, while the minimum was found in intercrop mung bean in combination with the control [Tables 2 and 3].

Table 2: Interaction between cropping system and different levels of fertilizer on the No. of seeds/pod.

TreatmentsNo. of seeds/pod

S1S2S3S4
M18.81512.02511.77013.625
M27.87011.48310.48612.208
SEM (±)0.110
CD (P≤0.05)0.362

Table 3: Interaction between cropping system and different levels of fertilizer on the 1000 seed weight.

Treatments1000 seed weight (g)

S1S2S3S4
M121.89544.11338.60442.757
M216.26035.42031.41341.008
SEM (±)0.592
CD (P≤0.05)1.975

3.1.2. Stover, seed, and biological yield (t/ha)

There was significant effect of the cropping system on all the yield components recorded, where the sole mung bean had significantly higher stover, seed, and biological yield in comparison to intercrop mung bean [Table 1 and Figure 3]. This could be attributed to the fact that cereals are a stronger competitor and utilize plant resources better than legumes, coupled with mutual shading effect brought on by high plant densities in the cereal companion crops. These findings are also supported by Sarunaite et al., Jiao et al., and Jeyakumaran and Seran [23-25], who noticed cereals as a better competitor than legumes when intercropped.

Figure 3: Effect of different levels of fertilizers on the yield of sole and intercrop mung bean. Data is in the form of Mean±SEM, *: Significance at P≤0.05, NS: Non-Significant at P≤0.05, CD: Critical difference, means followed by different letters (a, b, c and d) are statically different at 0.05%, M1: Mung bean (sole cropping), M2: Maize+Mung bean (intercropping), S1: Control, S2: 100% RDF, S3: 100% nano NPK fertilizers, and S4: 50% RDF+50% nano NPK fertilizers.



[Click here to view]

The use of 50% RDF and 50% Nano NPK fertilizers consistently produced the highest stover, seed, and biological yield while the control consistently recorded the lowest values. The possible reason for these variations may be due to the capability of mung bean to utilize the vital nutrients provided by the RDF at the early growth stage combined with the nutrients supplied by the NPK nanofertilizers through foliar spray at the later stages. This accelerates the uptake of nutrients and water, enhancing photosynthesis, and leading to a higher production of dry matter, translating into the final yield. This supports the findings of [26], who reported a synergistic effect between conventional fertilizers and nanofertilizers for higher nutrient uptake in the cells of the plant. This led to increased photosynthesis, accumulation of higher levels of photosynthates, and transportation of nutrients to the economically important parts of the plant that correlate to a final seed yield. In addition, the findings were also in agreement with those of [27-29], who found that combining 50% NPK chemical fertilizers with 50% nano NPK fertilizers increased all sorghum characteristics in both seasons.

The interaction effects between the cropping system and levels of fertilizer were significant in all the parameters mentioned above. The sole mung bean was found to have the highest mean value when mixed with 50% RDF and 50% nano NPK fertilizers, whereas the intercrop mung bean was found to have the lowest mean value when combined with control [Tables 4-6].

Table 4: Interaction between cropping system and different levels of fertilizer on the stover yield.

TreatmentsStover yield (t/ha)

S1S2S3S4
M11.1201.6741.3482.087
M20.8751.6301.2161.803
SEM (±)0.026
CD (P≤0.05)0.087

Table 5: Interaction between the cropping system and different levels of fertilizer on the seed yield.

TreatmentsSeed yield (t/ha)

S1S2S3S4
M10.8641.4341.1111.884
M20.5851.2160.8551.400
SEM (±)0.026
CD (P≤0.05)0.095

Table 6: Interaction between cropping system and different levels of fertilizer on the biological yield.

TreatmentsBiological yield (t/ha)

S1S2S3S4
M11.9843.1092.4593.970
M21.4602.8462.0713.203
SEM (±)0.052
CD (P≤0.05)0.179

4. CONCLUSION

The present research shows that foliar spray of nano NPK fertilizers affects mung bean growth, leading to favorable changes in yield attributes, and yield. Thus, the experiment concluded that the combination of 50% RDF + 50% nano NPK fertilizers + sole mung bean was found to be the best fertilizer combination and cropping system for increasing mung bean yield and can be followed for higher mung bean production. Nonetheless, further field research is needed for more clear results.


5. AUTHORS’ CONTRIBUTIONS

All authors made substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; took part in drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; agreed to submit to the current journal; gave final approval of the version to be published; and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work. All the authors are eligible to be an author as per the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) requirements/guidelines.


6. FUNDING

There is no funding to report.


7. CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

The authors report no financial or any other conflicts of interest in this work.


8. ETHICAL APPROVALS

The study does not involve experiments on animal or human subjects.


9. DATA AVAILABILITY

All data generated and analyzed are included within this research article.


10. PUBLISHER’S NOTE

This journal remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published institutional affiliation.

REFERENCES

1.  Aziz-ur-Rehman M, Kaukab S, Saeed S, Aqeel M, Riasat G, Rafiq CM. Prospects of Mungbean as an additional crop in rice-wheat system of Punjab Pakistan. Univ J Agric Res 2019;7:136-41. [CrossRef]

2.  Hou D, Yousaf L, Xue Y, Hu J, Wu J, Hu X, et al. Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.):bioactive polyphenols, polysaccharides, peptides, and health benefits. Nutrients 2019;11:1238. [CrossRef]

3.  Laik R, Sharma S, Idris M, Singh AK, Singh SS, Bhatt BP, et al. Integration of conservation agriculture with best management practices for improving system performance of the rice-wheat rotation in the Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains of India. Agric Ecosyst Environ 2014;195:68-82. [CrossRef]

4.  Banjara TR, Bohra JS, Kumar S, Ram A, Pal V. Diversification of rice-wheat cropping system improves growth, productivity and energetics of rice in the Indo-Gangetic Plains of India. Agric Res 2021a;10:1-10. [CrossRef]

5.  Ali M, Mungbean KS. Urdbean:Retrospect and prospects. In:Advances in Mungbean and Urdbean. Uttar Pradesh:Indian Institute of Pulses Research Kanpur;2006. 1-9.

6.  Iqbal MA. Nano-fertilizers for sustainable crop production under changing climate:A global perspective. In:Sustainable Crop Production. UK:InTech Open Publisher;2019. p. 8:1-3.

7.  Manikandan A, Subramanian KS. Evaluation of zeolite-based nitrogen nano-fertilizers on maize growth, yield and quality on inceptisols and alfisols. Int J Plant Soil Sci 2016;9:1-9. [CrossRef]

8.  Subramanian KS, Tarafdar JC. Prospects of nanotechnology in Indian farming. Indian J Agric Sci 2011;81:887-93.

9.  Raliya R, Saharan V, Dimkpa C, Biswas P. Nano fertilizer for precision and sustainable agriculture:Current state and future perspectives. J Agric Food Chem 2017;66:6487-503. [CrossRef]

10.  Raliya R, Biswas P. Environmentally benign bio-inspired synthesis of Au nanoparticles, their self-assembly and agglomeration. RSC Adv 2015;5:42081-7. [CrossRef]

11.  Subbaiah LV, Prasad TN, Krishna TG, Sudhakar P, Reddy BR, Pradeep T. Novel effects of nanoparticulate delivery of zinc on growth, productivity, and zinc biofortification in maize (Zea mays L.). J Agric Food Chem 2016;64:3778-88. [CrossRef]

12.  Raikova OP, Panichkin LA, Raikova NN. Studies on the Effect of Ultrafine Metal Powders Produced by Different Methods on Plant Growth and Development. Nanotechnologies and Information Technologies in the 21st Century. In:Proceedings of the International Scientific and Practical Conference. Vol. 18. Moscow;2006. 108-11.

13.  Selivanov VN, Zorin EV. Sustained action of ultrafine metal powders on seeds of grain crops. Perspekt Materialy 2001;4:66-9.

14.  Janmohammadi M, Navid A, Segherloo AE, Sabaghnia N. Impact of nano-chelated micronutrients and biological fertilizers on growth performance and grain yield of maize under deficit irrigation condition. Biologija 2016;62:134-147. [CrossRef]

15.  Yousaf G, Rahman AU. Yield and economic attributes of cereal and legume as affected by the sole and mixed cropping system in rainfed conditions. Sci Prog Res 2022;2:615-24. [CrossRef]

16.  Khan MA, Naveed K, Ali K, Bashir A, Samin J. Impact of mungbean-maize intercropping on growth and yield of mungbean. Pak J Weed Sci Res 2012;18:191-200.

17.  Legwaila GM, Marokane TK, Mojeremane W. Effects of intercropping on the performance of maize and cowpeas in Botswana. Int J Agric For 2012;2:307-10. [CrossRef]

18.  Morgado LB, Willey RW. Optimum plant population for maize-bean intercropping system in the Brazilian semi-arid region. Sci Agric 2008;65:474-80. [CrossRef]

19.  Khan MB, Khaliq A. Study of mungbean intercropping in cotton planted with different techniques. J Res Sci 2004;15:23-31.

20.  Rajasekar M, Nandhini DU, Suganthi S. Supplementation of mineral nutrients through foliar spray-A review. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 2017;6:2504-13. [CrossRef]

21.  Abdel-Aziz H, Hasaneen MN, Omar A. Effect of foliar application of nano chitosan NPK fertilizer on the chemical composition of wheat grains. Egypt J Bot 2018;58:87-95. [CrossRef]

22.  Drostkar E, Talebi R, Kanouni H. Foliar application of Fe, Zn and NPK nano-fertilizers on seed yield and morphological traits in chickpea under rainfed condition. J Resour Ecol 2016;4:221-8.

23.  Sarunaite L, Deveikyte I, Kadziuliene Z. Intercropping spring wheat with grain legume for increased production in an organic crop rotation. J Zemd?rbyste Agric 2010;97:51-8.

24.  Jiao NY, Zhao C, Ning TY, Hou LT, Fu GZ, Li ZJ, et al. Effects of maize-peanut intercropping on economic yield and light response of photosynthesis. J Appl Ecol 2008;19:981-5.

25.  Jeyakumaran J, Seran TH. Studies on Intercropping Capsicum (Capsicum annum L.) with Bushitao (Vigna unguiculata L.). In:Proceedings of the 6th Annual Research Session;2007. 431-40.

26.  Liu R, Lal R. Potentials of engineered nanoparticles as fertilizers for increasing agronomic productions. Sci Total Environ 2015;514:131-9. [CrossRef]

27.  Gomaa MA, Rehab IF, Korey AM, Bilkess MA. Assessment of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) productivity under different weed control methods, mineral and nano Fertilization. Egypt Acad J Biol Sci 2020;11:1-11. [CrossRef]

28.  Khalil MH, Abou-Hadid AF, Abdrabou RT, Al-halim A, AbdEl-Maaboud MS. Response of two maize cultivars (Zea maysL.) to organic manure and mineral nano nitrogen fertilizer under Siwa Oasis conditions. Arab Universities. J Agric Sci 2019;27:299-312. [CrossRef]

29.  Gomaa MA, Radwan FI, Kandil EE, Al-Msari MA. Response of some Egyptian and Iraqi wheat cultivars to Mineral and Nano-fertilization. Egypt Acad J Biol Sci 2018;9:19-26. [CrossRef]

Reference

1. Aziz-ur-Rehman M, Kaukab S, Saeed S, Aqeel M, Riasat G, Rafiq CM. Prospects of Mungbean as an additional crop in rice-wheat system of Punjab Pakistan. Univ J Agric Res 2019;7:136-41. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujar.2019.070303

2. Hou D, Yousaf L, Xue Y, Hu J, Wu J, Hu X, et al. Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.): bioactive polyphenols, polysaccharides, peptides, and health benefits. Nutrients 2019;11:1238. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061238

3. Laik R, Sharma S, Idris M, Singh AK, Singh SS, Bhatt BP, et al. Integration of conservation agriculture with best management practices for improving system performance of the rice-wheat rotation in the Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains of India. Agric Ecosyst Environ 2014;195:68-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2014.06.001

4. Banjara TR, Bohra JS, Kumar S, Ram A, Pal V. Diversification of rice-wheat cropping system improves growth, productivity and energetics of rice in the Indo-Gangetic Plains of India. Agric Res 2021a;10:1-10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40003-020-00533-9

5. Ali M, Mungbean KS. Urdbean: Retrospect and prospects. In: Advances in Mungbean and Urdbean. Uttar Pradesh: Indian Institute of Pulses Research Kanpur; 2006. p. 1-9.

6. Iqbal MA. Nano-fertilizers for sustainable crop production under changing climate: A global perspective. In: Sustainable Crop Production. UK: InTech Open Publisher; 2019. p. 8:1-3.

7. Manikandan A, Subramanian KS. Evaluation of zeolite-based nitrogen nano-fertilizers on maize growth, yield and quality on inceptisols and alfisols. Int J Plant Soil Sci 2016;9:1-9. https://doi.org/10.9734/IJPSS/2016/22103

8. Subramanian KS, Tarafdar JC. Prospects of nanotechnology in Indian farming. Indian J Agric Sci 2011;81:887-93.

9. Raliya R, Saharan V, Dimkpa C, Biswas P. Nano fertilizer for precision and sustainable agriculture: Current state and future perspectives. J Agric Food Chem 2017;66:6487-503. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b02178

10. Raliya R, Biswas P. Environmentally benign bio-inspired synthesis of Au nanoparticles, their self-assembly and agglomeration. RSC Adv 2015;5:42081-7. https://doi.org/10.1039/C5RA04569J

11. Subbaiah LV, Prasad TN, Krishna TG, Sudhakar P, Reddy BR, Pradeep T. Novel effects of nanoparticulate delivery of zinc on growth, productivity, and zinc biofortification in maize (Zea mays L.). J Agric Food Chem 2016;64:3778-88. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.6b00838

12. Raikova OP, Panichkin LA, Raikova NN. Studies on the Effect of Ultrafine Metal Powders Produced by Different Methods on Plant Growth and Development. Nanotechnologies and Information Technologies in the 21st Century. In: Proceedings of the International Scientific and Practical Conference. Vol. 18. Moscow; 2006. p. 108-11.

13. Selivanov VN, Zorin EV. Sustained action of ultrafine metal powders on seeds of grain crops. Perspekt Materialy 2001;4:66-9.

14. Janmohammadi M, Navid A, Segherloo AE, Sabaghnia N. Impact of nano-chelated micronutrients and biological fertilizers on growth performance and grain yield of maize under deficit irrigation condition. Biologija 2016;62:134-147. https://doi.org/10.6001/biologija.v62i2.3339

15. Yousaf G, Rahman AU. Yield and economic attributes of cereal and legume as affected by the sole and mixed cropping system in rainfed

conditions. Sci Prog Res 2022;2:615-24.

16. Khan MA, Naveed K, Ali K, Bashir A, Samin J. Impact of mungbean-maize intercropping on growth and yield of mungbean. Pak J Weed Sci Res 2012;18:191-200.

17. Legwaila GM, Marokane TK, Mojeremane W. Effects of intercropping on the performance of maize and cowpeas in Botswana. Int J Agric For 2012;2:307-10. https://doi.org/10.5923/j.ijaf.20120206.07

18. Morgado LB, Willey RW. Optimum plant population for maize-bean intercropping system in the Brazilian semi-arid region. Sci Agric 2008;65:474-80. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-90162008000500005

19. Khan MB, Khaliq A. Study of mungbean intercropping in cotton planted with different techniques. J Res Sci 2004;15:23-31.

20. Rajasekar M, Nandhini DU, Suganthi S. Supplementation of mineral nutrients through foliar spray-A review. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 2017;6:2504-13. https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2017.603.283

21. Abdel-Aziz H, Hasaneen MN, Omar A. Effect of foliar application of nano chitosan NPK fertilizer on the chemical composition of wheat grains. Egypt J Bot 2018;58:87-95. https://doi.org/10.21608/ejbo.2018.1907.1137

22. Drostkar E, Talebi R, Kanouni H. Foliar application of Fe, Zn and NPK nano-fertilizers on seed yield and morphological traits in chickpea under rainfed condition. J Resour Ecol 2016;4:221-8.

23. Sarunaite L, Deveikyte I, Kadziuliene Z. Intercropping spring wheat with grain legume for increased production in an organic crop rotation. J Zemd?rbyste Agric 2010;97:51-8.

24. Jiao NY, Zhao C, Ning TY, Hou LT, Fu GZ, Li ZJ, et al. Effects of maize-peanut intercropping on economic yield and light response of photosynthesis. J Appl Ecol 2008;19:981-5.

25. Jeyakumaran J, Seran TH. Studies on Intercropping Capsicum (Capsicum annum L.) with Bushitao (Vigna unguiculata L.). In: Proceedings of the 6th Annual Research Session; 2007. p. 431-40.

26. Liu R, Lal R. Potentials of engineered nanoparticles as fertilizers for increasing agronomic productions. Sci Total Environ 2015;514:131-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.01.104

27. Gomaa MA, Rehab IF, Korey AM, Bilkess MA. Assessment of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) productivity under different weed control methods, mineral and nano Fertilization. Egypt Acad J Biol Sci 2020;11:1-11. https://doi.org/10.21608/eajbsh.2020.73400

28. Khalil MH, Abou-Hadid AF, Abdrabou RT, Al-halim A, AbdEl-Maaboud MS. Response of two maize cultivars (Zea mays L.) to organic manure and mineral nano nitrogen fertilizer under Siwa Oasis conditions. Arab Universities. J Agric Sci 2019;27:299-312. https://doi.org/10.21608/ajs.2019.43527

29. Gomaa MA, Radwan FI, Kandil EE, Al-Msari MA. Response of some Egyptian and Iraqi wheat cultivars to Mineral and Nano-fertilization. Egypt Acad J Biol Sci 2018;9:19-26. https://doi.org/10.21608/eajbsh.2018.16726

Article Metrics
78 Views 71 Downloads 149 Total

Year

Month

Related Search

By author names