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Volume: 3, Issue: 4, July-August, 2015
Induction of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. var. Tenera) callogenesis and somatic embryogenesis from young leaf explants
Mondjeli Constantin, Walter Ajambang Nchu, Ntsomboh-Ntsefong Godswill, Ni Made Armini Wiendi, Ade Wachjar, Ngando Ebongue Georges Frank
To determine the optimum medium for callus induction and somatic embryo formation, young leaf explants of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) var. Tenera were isolated from 9 and 13 years old trees. Young leaf explants of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) var. Tenera were isolated from 9 and 13 years old trees. These explants were inoculated onto solid modified MS and Eeuwens basal media containing 107.41 µM NAA and associated with 0, 22.62, 45.24 or 67.86 µM 2,4-D and onto another MS basal medium with high concentration 450 µM picloram or 450 µM 2,4-D in the presence of 0.03 % (w/v) activated charcoal to induce embryogenic calli. After 28 weeks of culture, compact and pearly-white, globular callus was obtained from the leaf number five (L5). The 2,4-D and NAA media concentration combination (67.86 and 107.41 µM respectively) constituted the optimal medium for embryogenic callus induction, while the media containing only NAA (107.41µM) induced the highest percentage of calli formation (30.56 %). After 36 weeks of culture, direct embryoids were obtained from leaf number six (L6) on the media containing the combination of NAA (107.41 µM) and 2,4-D (45.24 µM). Highest percentage (38.33 %) of direct shoot development was also obtained from the same media NAA (107.41µM).
Keywords: Somatic embryogenesis, in vitro culture, callogenesis, oil palm, young leaf explant, culture media.