Home > Past Issue

Volume: 3, Issue: 1, Jan-Feb, 2015
DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2015.3102

Research Article

The Efficiency of Lemna minor L. in the Phytoremediation of Romi Stream: A Case Study of Kaduna Refinery and Petrochemical Company Polluted Stream

Adam Yunusa Ugya


The study involved a laboratory experiment on the use of Lemna minor L. in the phytoremediation of a stream polluted by waste water from Kaduna Refinery and Petrochemical Company. The physiochemical characteristics of the waste water were determined before and after the treatment. The experiment lasted for three weeks and the rate of reduction was recorded. The highest rate of mean reduction were for heavy metals accounting 99.6%, 93.3%, 99.3%, 94.3%, 100% and 95.4% of Cd, Hg, Zn, Mn, Pb and Ag respectively. Other physiochemical parameters include Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) 81.3%, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) 91.6%, Nitrate 93.3%, Biochemical Oxygen demand (BOD) 68%, Conductivity 50.3%, Total suspended Solids (TSS) 77.3%, Turbidity 85%, 81% Total Solids (TS) and the pH were increase from 6.29 to 7.7. Lemna minor L. is a suitable candidate for effective phytoremediation of water from Romi stream.

Keywords: Efficiency, Lemna minor L. Phytoremediation, Romi Stream.


1. Asamudo, N.U., A.S. Daba and Ezeronye, O.U. Bioremediation of textile effluent using Phanerochaete chrysosporium., African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005; 4(13), 1548-1553.

2. Nayyef, M. Azeez and Amal A. Sabbar. Efficeincy of Lemna minor L. in the Phytoremediation of waste water pollutants from Basrah oil refinery. Journal of Applied Biotechnology in Environmental Sanitation. 2012; 1(4), 163-172.

3. Ji, G.D. Sun, T. H. and Ni, R. J. Surface Flow Constructed Wetland for Heavy Oil \— Produced Water Treatment. Bio. Technol. 2007; 98: 436-441.

4. Patel, D.K. and Kanungo, V.K. Phytoremidation Potential of Duckweed (Lemna minor L.: A tiny Aquatic plant) in the Removal of Pollutants from Domestic Wastewater with Special Reference to Nutrients. The Bio sci. 2010; 5(3): 355- 358.

5. Xiaomei, Lu., Maleeya Kruatrachue, Prayad Pokethitiyook, Kunaporn Homyok. Removal of Cadmium and Zinc by Water Hyacinth, Ecchornia crassipes. Science Asia. 2004; 30: 93-103.

6. Ismail, Z. and Beddri, A. Potential of Water Hyacinth as a Removal Agent for Heavy Metals from Petroleum Refinery Effluents. Water Air Soil Pollut. 2009; 199: 57-65.

7. House, C.H. Combining Constructed Wetlands and Aquatic and Soil Filter for Reclamation and Reuse of Water. Ecoi. Eng. 1999; 12:27-38.

8. Demirezen, D. and Aksoy, A. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Typha angustifolia (L.) and Potamogeton pectinatus (L.) living in Sultan Marsh (Kayseri,Turkey). Chemosphere, 2004; 56: 685-696.

9. Gijzen H. and Kondker M. An Overview of the Ecology, Physiology, Cultivation and Application of Duckweed in Caption Report. Annex-1, Literature Review .Duckweed Research Project (DWRP). Dhaka, Bangladesh; 1997.

10. Cornell, D.A., Zoltek, P. C. D, Furmen T. and Kim J.I. Nutrient removal water hyacinth J. WPCF 1977; ,8: 57-65.

11. Dar S.H, Kumawat D.M and Singh N. Sewage treatment potential of water hyacinth, Research Journal of Environmental Science, 2011; 5(4): 377-385.

12. Kulkarni B.V., Ranade S.V. and Wasif A.I. Phytoremediation of textile process effluent by using water hyacinth- A polishing treatment. 2006. Available on http://www.fibre2fashion.com/industry-article/12/1142/phytoremediation-of-textile-process-effluent-by-using-water-hyacinth-a-polishing-treatment1.asp

13. Padhi, S.Kumar, Sahu S. Kumar, Kumari Anuradha, Bharati Sudha, Ansari Shahbaj. Phytortemediation as an Alternative for Treatment of Paper Industry Effluent by Using Water Hyacinth ( Eicchornia crassipes)-A Polishing Treatment. INT Journal of Research in Chemistry and Environment. 2012; 2(95-99), 2248-9649.

14. APHA. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 20thEdition. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association and Water Environment Federation, Washington, DC; 1998.

15. APHA, AWWA, WPCF. \"Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater.\" American Public Health Association, Washington, DC; 1995.

16. Saadet Sygideger. Lemna gibba L. ve Lemna minor L. (Lemnaceace)' nin morfolojik anatomic, ekolojikve, Fizyzolojik Ozellikleri. Ekoloji, 1996; 18: 8-11

17. Mahmood, Q., Zheng, P., Islam, E., Hayat, y., Hassan, M.J., Jilani, G. and Jin, R.C. Lab scale studies on water hyacinth (Eicchornia crassipes mart solms) for biotreatment of textile waste water. Caspian J. Env.Sci., 2005: 3(2): 83-88.

18. Lu, Q. Evaluation of aquatic plants for phytoremediation of eutrophic stormwaters., Ph.D Thesis, University of Florida, Florida; 2009.

19. Pandy Markus. Duckweed Based Wastewater Treatment. Invention Intelligence. 2001

20. Huang, P., Han, B. and Lin, Z. Floating \—Leaved Macrophyte (Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb) Beds have Significant Effects on Sediment Resuspension in LakeTaiho, China. Hydrobiologia. 2007; 581:189-193.

21. Al-Sabunji, A.A. and Al Marashi, A.M. Use the reed in treatment sewage water; 2002.

22. Loveson, A., and Sivalingam, R. Phytotoxicological Assessment of Two Backwater Wetlands in Kannamaly, Ernakulam Using Aquatic Macrophyte \— Spirodela polyrhiza. Journal of Environmental and Analytical Toxicology, 2013; 3(180). :10.4172/2161-0525.1000180

23. Oron, G., DeVegt, A., and Porath, D. Nitrogen Removal and Conversion by duckweed grown on wastewater. Water Res.1988; 22:84-179.

24. Zimmo, O. R., VanDerSteen, N. P., and Gijzen, H. J. Effect of Organic Surface Load on Process Performance of Pilot Scale Algae and Duckweed Based Waste Stabilization Ponds. J.Environ.Engg. 2005; 131: 94- 587.

25. Sabine Korner, Jan E. Vermaat and Siemen Veenstra. The Capacity of Duckweed to Treat Wastewater .Ecological Considerations for a Sound Desigen J.Environ.Qual. 2003; 32:90-1583.

26. Espinoza-Quinones, F.R.; Zacarkin, C.E.; Palacio, S.M.; Obregon, C.L.; Zenatti, D.C.; Galante, R.M.; Rossi, N.; Pereira, I.R.A. and Walter R.A. Removal of Heavy Metal From Polluted River Water Using Aquatic Macrophytes Salvinia spp. Bra. J. Phys. 2005; 35(31):744-746 .

27. Mane, A.V., Saratale, G.D., Karadge, B.A., and Samant J.S. Studies on the effects of salinity on growth, polyphenol content and photosynthetic response in Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash., Emir.J. Food Agric. 2011; 23(1): 59-70.

28. O'Keefe D.H., J.K. Hardy and R.A., Rao. Cadmium uptake by water hyacinth: Effect of solution factors. Environ. Pollut., Series A. 1984; 133-147.

29. Khellaf Nabila., and Zerdaoui, Mostefa. Growth Response of the Duckweed Lemna minor to Heavy Metal Pollution. Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering. 2009; 6 (3), 161-166.

30. Nayyef M. Azeez. Study of Distribution and Concentration Of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Some Trace Metals In Water, Sediments and Two Types Of Aquatic Plants (Phragmites australis and Typha domengensis ) in Shatt Al-Basrah Canal. Ph.D. Thesis. Collage of Science. Basrah University . 2004; 108p.

31. Mahmood, A. A. Concentrations of pollutants in water, sediments and aquatic plants in some wetlands in south of Iraq. Ph.D.Thesis . Collage of Science. Basrah University; 2008.

32. Hanaf ,R.A. (2009). Bioaccumulation of copper and lead metal in three species of aquatic plants in Shatt Al-Arab River .M.Sc. Thesis Coll. Sci. Basrah.Univ; 2009 (In Arabic).

33. Shaker, I.M. Wafeek, M. and Aly, S.M. Effect of Water Hyacinth and Chlorella on Water Polluted by Heavy Metal and The Biochemical and Pathophysiological Response of Exposed Fish. 8th International Symoposim on Tilapia in Aquaculture. Egypt. 2008. pp.531- 549.

34. Bianconi, D., Pietrini, F., Massacci, A., and Iannelli, M. A. Uptake of Cadmium by Lemna minor, a (hyper?-) Accumulator Plant Involved in Phytoremediation Applications.; 2013.

35. Donganlar, B. Z., Seher, C., and Telat, Y. Metal Uptake and Physiological Changes in Lemna gibba Exposed to Manganese and Nickel. International Journal of Biology, 2012; 4: 148-151.

36. Uysal, Y. Removal of Chromium Ions from Wastewater by Duckweed, Lemna minor L. by Using a Pilot System with Continuous Flow. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2013:10.006

37. Stefan, G., Christoph, H., Christoph, H., Kerstin, K., and Albrecht, P. Whole Effluent Assessment of Industrial Wastewater for Determination of Bat Compliance. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2010; 17, 856\—865.

38. Jafari, N., and Akhavan, M. Effect of pH and Heavy Metal Concentration on Phytoaccumulation of Zinc by Three Duckweed Species. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science, 2011; 10 (1): 34-41.

39. Axtell, N. R., Sternberg, S. P. K., and Claussen, K. Lead and Nickel Removal using Microspora and Lemna minor. Bioresource Technology. 2003; 89: 41-48.

40. Horvat, T., Vidakovic\'-Cifrek, Z., Oresˇcˇanin, V., Tkalec, M., and Pevalek- Kozlina, B. Toxicity assessment of Heavy Metal Mixtures by Lemna minor L. Science of the Total Environment. 2007; 384: 229\—238.

41. Naumann, B., Eberius, M., and Appenroth, K. J. Growth Rate Based Dose\—Response Relationships and EC-Values of Ten Heavy Metals Using the Duckweed Growth Inhibition Test (ISO 20079) with Lemna minor L. clone St. Journal of Plant Physiology. 2007; 164, 1656\—1664.

42. Kaur, Livinder, Kadgil Gupta and Sharma Singh. Role of pH in the Accumulation of Lead and Nickel by Common Duckweed (Lemna minor). International Journal of Bioassaays. 2012; 1 (12), 191-195.

43. ChikoguVivien, Adamu C. Ibrahim and Vivan E. Lekwot. Public Health Effect of Effluent Discharge of Kaduna Refinery into River Romi. Greener Journal of Medical Sciences. 2012; 2(3) 064-069.

How to cite this article:
Ugya Y.A. The Efficiency of Lemna minor L. in the Phytoremediation of Romi Stream: A Case Study of Kaduna Refinery and Petrochemical Company Polluted Stream. J App Biol Biotech. 2015; 3 (01): 011-014. DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2015.3102



  • Viewed: 401
  • Downloaded: 134

  Search by Author


  Search in Pubmed

   Search in Google Scholar