Home > Past Issue

Volume: 2, Issue: 5, Sep-Oct, 2014
DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2014.2504

Research Article

Impact of dietary fats on fatty acids profile of threatened Asian cafish (Clarias batrachus, Linnaeus, 1758)

P.P. Srivastava, Akhilesh K. Yadav, Shipra Chowdhary, Pradeep Shrivastava, R. Dayal, G. Venkateshwarlu, W. S. Lakra

Abstract

Different fats in the diets were used to examine their impact on the fatty acid profile of asian catfish (Clarias batrachus) on feeding the diets for 12-weeks. There were seven treatments (FISOL, BETAL, SOYAL, LINOL, MIXOL, SATOL and NATFO containing Fish oil, Beef tallow, Soybean oil, Linseed oil, Mixed oil (i.e. containing in 1:1:1:1 ratio of Fish oil, Beef tallow, Soybean oil, Linseed oil), Vegetable oil and minced chicken meat as natural food, respectively, each with three replications, stocked with 30 grow-out having an initial average weight 55.83 + 3.14g in a circular plastic pools (capacity 300 L). The six feeds were formulated with basic ingredients (Soybean meal, 35%; soluble starch, 29%; Casein, 19.5%; carboxy - methyl - cellulose, 2%; papain, 0.5%; vitamin and mineral mix, 4.0%) with iso-energetic (19.55 kJ/g, F1-F6 ) diets and results were compared with natural food (F7) fed fishes. Each diet was hand fed two times daily during experimental period to triplicate homogenous groups of 30 fish. The muscle fillet polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content varied with different lipid levels suggesting that the dietary fat has impact on deposition of fatty acid in flesh. The muscle unsaturated fatty acids, including Docosa-hexaenoic acid (22:6n3, DHA) level, were comparatively higher in MIXOL diet followed by NATFO and LINOL diets, indicating selective deposition of fatty acids. It was concluded that addition of various fats in the diet has role in the composition of carcass fatty acid profile in Clarias batrachus and the MIXOL (Fish Oil : Tallow : Soybean Oil : Linseed Oil :: 1 : 1 :1 :1 w/w) could be safely used for better and/ or more deposition of healthy fatty acids (EPA and DHA) which are considered as human health beneficial fatty acids and also useful to economize the cost of the broodstock feed.

Keywords: Dietary fats, fatty acids, carcass, Clarias batrachus, Asian catfish, grow-out.

References

1. Riche, M, Garling, D. North Central Regional Aquaculture Centre and United State Department of Agriculture USDA, 2003; pp 1-4.

2. Sarowar, MN, Jewel, MZH, Sayeed, MA, Mollah, MFA. Impacts of different diets on growth and survival of Channa striatus grow-outs, Int. J. Bio. Res. 2010; 1(3):08-12.

3. Aliyu-Paiko, M, Hashim, R, Alexandern, Shu Chien Chong,Yogarajah, L, Abdel Fattah, M, Sayed, EI. Influence of different sources and levels of dietary protein and lipid on the growth, feed efficiency, muscle composition and fatty acid profile of snakehead Channa striatus (Bloch, 1793) grow-out, Aquac. Res. 2010; 41(9):1365-1376.

4. Caballero, MJ, Obach, A, Rosenlund, G, Montero, D, Gisvold, M, Izquierdo, MS. Impact of different dietary lipid sources on growth, lipid digestibility, tissue fatty acid composition and histology of rainbow trout Onchorhynchus mykiss, Aquaculture.2002; 214:253-271.

5. Bell, JG, McGhee, F, Campbell, PJ, Sargent, JR. Rapeseed oil as an alternative to marine fish oil in diet of post-smoly atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): changes in flesh fatty acid composition and effectiveness of subsequent fish oil wash out, Aquaculture. 2003; 218:515-528.

6. Izquierdo, MS, Obach, A, Arantzamendi, L, Montero, D, Robaina, L, Rosenlund, G. Dietary lipid sources for seabream and seabass : growth performance, tissue composition and fish quality, Aqua.Nut., 2003; 9:397-407.

7. Regost, C, Arzel, J, Robien, J, Rosenlund, G, Kaushik, SJ.,. Total replacement of fish oil by soybean oil or linseed oil with a return to fish oil in turbot (Psetta maxima) I. Growth performances, flesh fatty acid profile and lipid metabolism, Aquaculture. 2003; 217:465-482.

8. Rafiquel Islam, Liton Kumar Mondol, Liton Sheikh, Sk. Shahinur Rahman, Mominul Islam and Atiqur Rahman. Identification of fatty acid profile, lipid characterization and nutritional status of Clarias batrachus, Nutritional Science and Food Technology. 2013; doi: 10.7243/2054-1848-1-1

9. Chedoloh, R., Karrila,T.T. and Pakdeechanuan, P. Fatty acid composition of important aquatic animals in Southern Thailand, International Food Research Journal. 2011; 18: 783-790.

10. Ashraf Suloma, Hiroshi Y Ogata. Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition of Commercially Important tropical Freshwater Fish Gonads: Guidelines for Specific Broodstock Diet. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 2012; 12: 743-749. DOI: 10.4194/1303-2712-v12-4-02.

11. Erkkila, AT, Lehto, S, Pyorala, K, Uusitupa, MI. N-3 Fatty acids and 5-y risks of death and cardiovascular disease events in patients with coronary artery disease, Amer. J. Clinical Nutr..2003; 78:65-71.

12. Dallongeville, J, Yarnell, J, Ducimetiere, P, Arveiler, D, Ferriers, J, Montaye, M, Luc, G, Evans, A, Bingham, A, Hass, B. Fish consumption is associated with lower heart rates, Circulation. 2003;108(7):820-825.

13. James, MJ, Gibson, RA, Cleland, LG. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory media to reproduction, Amer. J. Clinical Nutr. 2000; 71:343S-348S.

14. Nichols, PD, Mooney, BD, Elliott, NG. Nutritional value of Australian seafood II. Factors affecting oil composition of edible species, Report of the Fisheries Research and Development Corporation. CSIRO Marine Research, Hobart, Australia.2002;199 pp.

15. Exler, J, Kensella, JE, Watt, BK. Lipids and fatty acids of important finfish: new data for nutrient tables, J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 1975; 52:154-159.

16. Bandara, NM, Batista, I, Nunes, ML, Empis, JM, Christie, W. Seasonal changes in lipid composition of sardine (Sardina pilchardus), J. Food Sci. 1997; 62:40-42.

17. Dunstan, GA, Olley, J, Ratkowsky, DA. Major environmental and biological factors influencing the fatty acid composition of seafood from Indo-Pacific to Antarctic waters, Rec. Res. Dev. Lipid Res.1999; 3:63-86.

18. Argungu, LA, Christianus A, Amin, SMN, Daud, SK, Siraj, SS, Aminur Rahman M. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 2013; 8: 168-176. DOI: 10.3923/ajava.2013.168.176

19. Folch, JL, Sloane, M, Stanley, GHS. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues, J. Biol. Chem. 1957; 226:497-509.

20. A.O.A.C. Official methods of analysis of Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Volume I, 16th edn. AOAC International, Arlington, USA, 1995.

21. Kleimenov, IY. Importance of fish as food. Moscow, Nauka. 1971.

22. Tanaka, S. Biological research on salmon sharks (Lamna ditropis). Report on the research of new resources development on shark, Japan Marine Fishery Resources Research Center, 1980; 59-84.

23. Gopakumar, K. Indian food fishes: Biochemical composition. Central Institute of Fisheries Technology. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Cochin, India, 1997; 22- 28.

24. Joydeep, D, Debasish, P, Bhattacharya, A, Chakraborty, J, Banerjee, D, Ghosh, A. Comparative study onfatty acids and either lipids of fresh and sun-dried Bombay duck (Harpadon nehereus), J. Food Sci. Technol. 1999; 36 (6):506-510.

25. Olsen,Y, Skjervold, H. Variation in content of 3 fatty acids in farmed Atlantic salmon, with special emphasis one effects on non-dietary factors, Aquacult. Int. 1995; 3:22-35.

26. De Silva, SS, Gunasekera, RM, Collins, R, Ingram, BA, Austin, CM. Changes in the fatty acid profile of the Australian short fin eel in relation to development, J. Fish Biol. 1997; 50 (5) : 992-998.

27. Bell, MV, Henderson, RJ, Sargent, JR. The role of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish, Com. Biochem. Physiol. 1996; 83B:711-719.

28. Morris, RJ, Culkin, F. Fish. In: Ackman R. G (Ed.), Marine biogenic lipids, fats and oils, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 1989; 145-178.

29. Watanabe, T. Lipid nutrition in fish, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 1982; 73B:3-15.

30. Morais, S, Bell, JG, Robertson, DA, Roy, WJ, Morris, PC. Protein/lipid ratios in extruded diets for Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L. Effects on growth, feed utilization, muscle composition and liver histology, Aquaculture. 2001; 203:101-119.

31. Rosenlund, G, Obach, A, Sandberg, MG, Standal, H, Tveit, K.. Effect of alternative lipid sources onlong-term growth performance and quality of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), Aqua. Res. 2001; 32(Suppl.1), 323-328.

32. Bell, JG, Henderson, RJ, Tocher, DR, McGhee, F, Dick, JR, Porter, A, Smullen, RP, Sargent, JR. Substituting fish oil with crude palm oil in the diet of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) affects muscle fatty acid composition and hepatic fatty acid metabolism, J.of Nutr. 2002; 132: 222-230.

33. Caballero, MJ, Obach, A, Rosenlund, G, Montero, D, Gisvold, M, Izquierdo, MS. Impact of different dietary lipid sources on growth, lipid digestibility, tissue fatty acid composition and histology of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Aquaculture. 2002; 214: 253-271.

34. Sargent, JR, Henderson, RJ, Tocher, DR. The lipids. In: Fish Nutrition (ed. by J.E. Halver),1989; 154-218. Academic Press, New York, NY, USA.

35. Bibiano Melo, JF, Lundstedt, LM, Meton, I, Baanante, IV, Oraes, G. Effects of dietary levels of protein on nitrogenous metabolism of Rhamdiaquelen (Teleostei: Pimelodidae). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology-Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology. 2006;145:181-187.

36. Torstensen, BE, Fryland, L, Lie, O. Replacing dietary fish oil with increasing levels of rapeseed oil and olive oil effects on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) tissue and lipoprotein composition and lipogenic enzyme activities, Aqua. Nutr. 2004;10 : 175-192.

37. Bell, JG, Henderson, RJ, Tocher, DR, McGhee, F, Dick, JR, Porter, A, Smullen, RP, Sargent, JR. Replacement of fish oil with rapeseed oil in diets of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) affects tissue lipid composition and hepatocyte fatty acid metabolism, Jour. of Nutr. 2001; 132: 222-230.

38. Trushenski, JT, Lewis, HA, Kohler, CC. Fatty acid profile of sunshine bass: I. Profile change is affected by initial composition and differs among tissues, Lipids. 2008a; 43:629-641.

39. Trushenski, JT, Lewis, HA, Kohler, CC. Fatty acid profile of sunshine bass: II. Profile change differs among fillet lipid classes,. Lipids. 2008b; 43: 643-653.

40. Mourente, G, Tocher, DR. In vivo metabolism of [1-14C] linolenic acid (18:3(n-3) and [1-14C] eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5(n-3)) in a marine fish: time course of the desaturation /elongation pathway, Biochimica. et Biophysica. Acta. 1994; 1212:109-118.

41. Mourente, G, Tocher, DR. The in vivo incorporation and metabolism of [1-14C] linolenate (18: 3n-3)in liver, brain and eyes of juveniles of rainbow trout Onchorhynchus mykiss L. and gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata L, Fish Physiol. and Biochem. 1998; 18:149-165.

42. Tocher, DR, Ghioni, C. Fatty acid metabolism in marine fish: low activity of fatty acyl D5 desaturation in gilt head sea bream (Sparus aurata) cells, Lipids. 1999; 34: 433-440.

43. Friesen, EN, Balfry, SK, Skura, BJ, Ikonomou, MG, Higgs, DA. Evaluation of cold-pressed flax seed oil as an alternative dietary lipid source for juveniles able fish (Anoplopoma fimbria). Aquaculture Research., 2011; doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2109.2011.03022.x.

44. Friesen, Erin N, Shannon, K, Balfry, Brent J, Skura, Michael G., Ikonomou, Dave, Higgs, A. Evaluation of cold-pressed flaxseed oil as an alternative dietary lipid source for juveniles able fish (Anoplopoma fimbria), Aqua. Res. 2013a; 44:182-199.

45. Friesen Erin N, Shannon, K, Balfry, Brent J, Skura, Michael, Ikonomou, Dave, Higgs, A. Evaluation of poultry fat and blends of poultry fat with cold-pressed flaxseed oil as supplemental dietary lipid sources for juveniles able fish (Anoplopoma fimbria), Aqua. Res., 2013b; 44:300-316.

46. Izquierdo, MS, Montero, D, Robaina, L, Caballero, MJ, Rosenlund, G, Gine\'s, R. Alterations in fillet fatty acid profile and flesh quality in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) fed vegetable oils for a long period. Recovery of fatty acid profiles by fish oil feeding, Aquacture. 2005; 250:431-444.

47. Montero, D, Robaina, L, Caballero, MJ, Gines, R, Izquierdo, MS. Growth, feed utilization and flesh quality of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)fed diets containing vegetable oils: a time-course study on the effect of a re-feeding period with a 100% fish oil diet. Aquaculture. 2005; 248:121-134.

48. Bell, JG, Tocher, DR, MacDonald, FM, Sargent, JR. Effects of diets rich in linoleic (18:2n-6) and \a-linolenic (18:3n-3) acids on the growth, lipid class and fatty acid compositions and eicosanoid production in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.), Fish Physiol. and Biochem. 1994; 13:105-118.

49. Bell, JG, Tocher, DR, Farndale, BM, McVicar, AH, Sargent, JR. Effects of essential fatty acid-deficient diets on growth, mortality, tissue histopathology and fatty acid compositions in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), Fish Physiol. and Biochem. 1999; 20:263-277.

50. Dayal, R, Srivastava, PP, Bhatnagar, A, Chowdhary, S, Yadav, AK, Jena, JK. Influence of different sources of dietary lipid on the growth, feed efficiency and survival of snakehead, Channa striatus (Bloch, 1793) grow-out, Natl. Acad. Sci. Letters 2012; 35(6) : 541-546.

51. Srivastava, PP, Dayal, R, Bhatnagar, A, Chowdhary, S, Yadav, AK, Lakra, Sw. Influence of different dietary fats on fatty acid profile of striped snakehead (Channa striatus) fish carcass, Int. J. of Biochem. & Biophys. 2014; 2(4) : 31-40.

How to cite this article:
P.P. Srivastava, Akhilesh K. Yadav, Shipra Chowdhary, Pradeep Shrivastava, R. Dayal, G. Venkateshwarlu, W. S. Lakra. Impact of dietary fats on fatty acids profile of threatened Asian cafish (Clarias batrachus, Linnaeus, 1758). J App Biol Biotech. 2014; 2 (05): 015-020. DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2014.2504