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Volume: 7, Issue: 3, May-June, 2019
DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2019.70309

Research Article

Comparative study of the toxicity of hydroethanolic extracts of the root and stem barks of Cassia sieberiana D.C. on Wistar rats


Kodjo Selom Evenamede1, Kafui Kpegba1, Kokou Idoh2, Amegnona Agbonon2, Oudjaniyobi Simalou1, Pakoupati Boyode1, Oyegunle Emmanuel Oke3, Messanvi Gbeassor2

  Author Affiliations


Abstract

This study was aimed to evaluate and to compare the acute and subchronic toxicities of the hydroethanolic extracts of the root (HECRB) and stem bark (HECSB) of Cassia sieberiana in rats. In acute toxicity study, animals were divided into 2 groups (n = 3). Rats received the single dose of 5000 mg/kg of HECRB and HECSB extracts of C. sieberiana orally. For the subchronic toxicity, 4 groups (n = 6) were given daily 500 and 1000 mg/kg of extracts for 28 days. Animal behaviors were observed after each treatment. Results showed that HECRB and HECSB were not toxic at 5000 mg/kg. The LD50 was >5000mg/kg for both extracts. After repeated doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg, both extracts did not significantly affect the relative organs weight of treated rats. HECSB did not affect biochemical and hematological parameters. However, HECRB significantly increased parameters such as red and white blood cells, hemoglobin, volume globulaire moyen, teneur corpusculaire moyenne en hemoglobine, and triglycerides. This study showed that HECRB and HECSB are not toxic. It contributes to a better knowledge of the toxicity of C. sieberiana used for the treatment of several diseases in Togo.

Keywords:

Cassia sieberiana, Lethal dose, Rat, Toxicity.



Citation: Evenamede KS, Kpegba K, Idoh K, Amegnona A, Simalou O, Boyode P, Oke OE, Gbeassor M. Comparative study of the toxicity of hydroethanolic extracts of the root and stem barks of Cassia sieberiana D.C. on Wistar rats. J App Biol Biotech. 2019;7(03):47-52. DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2019.70309


Copyright: Author(s). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

References

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2. Angell M, Kassierr JP. Alternative medicine – the risk of untested and unregulated remedies. N Engl J Med. 1998; 339(12) :839–841.
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3. Asase A, Oteng-Yeboah AA, Odamtten GT, Simmonds MS. Ethnobotanical study of some Ghanaian anti-malarial plants. J Ethnopharmacol 2005; 99: 273-279.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.02.020

4. Bakoma B, Berk\é B, Eklu-Gadegbeku K, Agbonon A, Aklikokou K, Gbeassor M, Creppy EE, Moore N. Acute and sub-chronic (28 days) oral toxicity evaluation of hydroethanolic extract of BrideliaferrugineaBenth root bark in male rodent animals. Food Chem Toxicol, 2013; 52: 176-179.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2012.11.021

5. Benkhnigue O, Zidane L, Fadli M, Elyacoubi H, Rochdi A, Douira A. Etude ethnobotanique des plantes m\édicinales dans la r\égion de Mechra\ Bel Ksiri (R\égion du Gharb du Maroc). Acta Bot. Barc. 2011.53 : 191-216.

6. Costa-Silva JH, Lyra MM, Lima CR, Arruda VM, Ara\újo AV, Ribeiro AR, Arruda AC, Fraga MC, Lafayette SS, Wanderley AG. Acute and subacute toxicity of the CarapaguianensisAublet (Meliaceae) seed oil. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008; 116: 495-500.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2007.12.016

7. Diallo A, Eklu-Gadegbeku K, Agbonon A, Aklikokou K, Creppy EE, Gbeassor M. Acute and Sub-chronic (28 days) Oral Toxicity Studies of Hydroalcohol Leaf Extract of Ageratum conyzoidesL (ASATeraceae). Trop J Pharm Res, 2010; 9: 463-467.
https://doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v9i5.61059

8. Dosseh K. Effet de l'extrait ethanolique de la racine de byrsocarpuscoccineusschumach. Et thonn. (Roureacoccinea (schumach et thonn) benth) sur les marqueurs de l'inflammation. Thèse de doctorat. Facult\é des sciences Physiologie/Pharmacologie des substances naturelles. Universit\éde Lom\é. 2015 ; Lom\é 122p.

9. Idoh K, Agbonon A, Potchoo Y, Gbeassor M. Toxicological assessment of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of clerodendrumcapitatum in Wistar rats. Pan African Medical Journal. 2016; 24:66, 1-14.

10. Ilboudo S, Ouedraogo M, Some N, Ouedraogo M, Ouedraogo M, Guissou PI. Criblage phytochimique et evaluation de la toxicite aigue de pisolithustinctorius(basidiomycète). J. sci. pharm. biol. 2009 ;10(2) :6-13.

11. Kennedy GL, Ferenz RL, Burgess BA. Estimation of acute oral toxicity in rats by determination of the approximate lethal dose rather than the LD50. J Appl Toxicol. 1986 Jun;6(3) :145-148.
https://doi.org/10.1002/jat.2550060302

12. Kerharo J et Adam JC : 1974. La pharmacop\ée s\én\égalaise traditionnelle. Plantes m\édicinales et toxiques. Ed. Vigot-Frères. Paris, p.1011

13. Khaldi A, Meddah B, Moussaou A, Benmehdi H. et al. Screening Phytochimique et Effet Antifongique de Certains Extraits de Plantes Sur le D\éveloppement in Vitro des Moisissures. European Journal of Scientific Research .2012; 80, 311-321.

14. Kpegba K, Agbonon A, Petrovic AG, AmouzouE. et al. Epiafzelechin from the Root Bark of Cassia sieberiana Detection by DART Mass Spectrometry, Spectroscopic Characterization, and Antioxidant Properties. Journal of Natural Products. 2011; Mar 25;74(3) :455-459.
https://doi.org/10.1021/np100090e

15. Mbodj NA. Etude de l'activit\é antidiab\étique des extraits ac\étoniques, m\éthanoliques, hexaniques de Vernonia colorata (Willd) Drake compos\és chez des rats Wistar. Thèse de doctorat en Pharmacie. Facult\é de m\édecine, pharmacie et odonto-stomatologie. Universit\éCheikh Anta Diop. 2003; Dakar 57 p.

16. Nacoulma OG. Plantes m\édicinales et pratiques m\édicales traditionnelles au Burkina Faso. Cas du Plateau central. Thèse de Doctorat, Universit\é de Ouagadougou, Ouagadougou. 1996.

17. Nene Bi SA, Traore F, Zahoui OS, Soro TY. Composition chimique d'un extrait aqueux de brideliaferrugineabenth. (Euphorbiaceae) et \études de ses effets toxicologique et pharmacologique chez les mammifères. Afrique Science : Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie. 2008; 04 (2) : 287-305.

18. Neuwinger HD. 1998. AfrikanischeArzneipflanzenundJagdgifte. Chemie, Pharmakologie, Toxikologie. 2nd Edition. WissenschaftlicheVerlagsgesellschaftmbH, Stuttgart, Germany. 960 pp.

19. Ogbonnia SO, Mbaka GO, Igbokwe NH, Anyika EN, Alli P, Nwakakwa N. Antimicrobial evaluation, acute and subchronic toxicity studies of Leone Bitters, a Nigerian polyherbal formulation, in rodents. Agric. Biol. J. N. Am. 2010;1(3): 366-376.
https://doi.org/10.5251/abjna.2010.1.3.366.376

20. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals/Section 4: Health Effects Test No. 423, Acute oral toxicity-acute toxic class method. Paris:OECD; 2002.

21. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (2008). Repeated dose oral toxicity test method. In: OECD Guidelines for testing of chemicals, N° 407. Paris, France.

22. Ouedraogo GG, Ouedraogo M, Lamien-Sanou A, Lompo M, Goumbri-LompoOM, Guissou PI. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Studies of Roots Barks Extracts of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br Used in the Treatment of Sickle Cell Disease in Burkina Faso. Br J PharmacolToxicol. 2013;4: 194-200.

23. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu KC, Amadi U, Charles IA, Ayalogu EO. Evaluation of acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity study of baker cleansers bitters a polyherbal drug on experimental rats. EXCLI Journal. 2012; 11 :632-640.

24. Rosidah YMF, Sadikun A, Ahmad M, Akowuah GA, Asmawi MZ. Toxicology evaluation of standardized methanol extract of Gynuraprocumbens. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;123(2) :244-249.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2009.03.011

25. Sakande J, Ahiboh H, Edjelme A and Yapo AE. Etude de la tolerance biologique d'une plante a activit\é antiplasmodialeMomordicaCharantia L (Cucurbitaceae). Mali M\édical. 2003; Vol. XVIII : 1-4.

26. Salhi S, Fadli M, Zidane L, Douira A. Etudes floristique et ethnobotanique des plantes m\édicinales de la ville de K\énitra (Maroc). Lazaroa. 2010 ; (31) : 133-146.

27. Son CG, Han SH, Cho JH, Shin JW, Cho CH, Lee YW and Cho CK. Induction of hemopoiesis by saenghyuldan, a mixture of Ginseng radix, Paeoniae radix, and Hominis placentaextact. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2003 Feb;24(2) :120-126

28. Stanley OA, Florence CN, David DA et al. Toxicity studies in rats fed nature cure bitters. Af J Biotech. 2005 Jan; 4 (1): 72-78.

29. Zeggwagh AA, Lahlou Y, Bousliman Y. Enquete sur les aspects toxicologiques de la phytotherapieutilisee par un herboriste à Fes, Maroc. Pan AfricanMedical Journal. 2013; 14 : 125.
https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2013.14.125.1746

1. Adedeji OS, Abubakar MB, Ozegbe PC. Growth-Suppressing Effect of Calotropis procera (Giant Milkweed)-Chronic Cynanide toxicity and urinary enzymeexcretion in rabbits, Trop. Vet. 2002; pp. 1357.

2. Angell M, Kassierr JP. Alternative medicine – the risk of untested and unregulated remedies. N Engl J Med. 1998; 339(12) :839–841.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199809173391210

3. Asase A, Oteng-Yeboah AA, Odamtten GT, Simmonds MS. Ethnobotanical study of some Ghanaian anti-malarial plants. J Ethnopharmacol 2005; 99: 273-279.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.02.020

4. Bakoma B, Berk\é B, Eklu-Gadegbeku K, Agbonon A, Aklikokou K, Gbeassor M, Creppy EE, Moore N. Acute and sub-chronic (28 days) oral toxicity evaluation of hydroethanolic extract of BrideliaferrugineaBenth root bark in male rodent animals. Food Chem Toxicol, 2013; 52: 176-179.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2012.11.021

5. Benkhnigue O, Zidane L, Fadli M, Elyacoubi H, Rochdi A, Douira A. Etude ethnobotanique des plantes m\édicinales dans la r\égion de Mechra\ Bel Ksiri (R\égion du Gharb du Maroc). Acta Bot. Barc. 2011.53 : 191-216.

6. Costa-Silva JH, Lyra MM, Lima CR, Arruda VM, Ara\újo AV, Ribeiro AR, Arruda AC, Fraga MC, Lafayette SS, Wanderley AG. Acute and subacute toxicity of the CarapaguianensisAublet (Meliaceae) seed oil. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008; 116: 495-500.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2007.12.016

7. Diallo A, Eklu-Gadegbeku K, Agbonon A, Aklikokou K, Creppy EE, Gbeassor M. Acute and Sub-chronic (28 days) Oral Toxicity Studies of Hydroalcohol Leaf Extract of Ageratum conyzoidesL (ASATeraceae). Trop J Pharm Res, 2010; 9: 463-467.
https://doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v9i5.61059

8. Dosseh K. Effet de l'extrait ethanolique de la racine de byrsocarpuscoccineusschumach. Et thonn. (Roureacoccinea (schumach et thonn) benth) sur les marqueurs de l'inflammation. Thèse de doctorat. Facult\é des sciences Physiologie/Pharmacologie des substances naturelles. Universit\éde Lom\é. 2015 ; Lom\é 122p.

9. Idoh K, Agbonon A, Potchoo Y, Gbeassor M. Toxicological assessment of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of clerodendrumcapitatum in Wistar rats. Pan African Medical Journal. 2016; 24:66, 1-14.

10. Ilboudo S, Ouedraogo M, Some N, Ouedraogo M, Ouedraogo M, Guissou PI. Criblage phytochimique et evaluation de la toxicite aigue de pisolithustinctorius(basidiomycète). J. sci. pharm. biol. 2009 ;10(2) :6-13.

11. Kennedy GL, Ferenz RL, Burgess BA. Estimation of acute oral toxicity in rats by determination of the approximate lethal dose rather than the LD50. J Appl Toxicol. 1986 Jun;6(3) :145-148.
https://doi.org/10.1002/jat.2550060302

12. Kerharo J et Adam JC : 1974. La pharmacop\ée s\én\égalaise traditionnelle. Plantes m\édicinales et toxiques. Ed. Vigot-Frères. Paris, p.1011

13. Khaldi A, Meddah B, Moussaou A, Benmehdi H. et al. Screening Phytochimique et Effet Antifongique de Certains Extraits de Plantes Sur le D\éveloppement in Vitro des Moisissures. European Journal of Scientific Research .2012; 80, 311-321.

14. Kpegba K, Agbonon A, Petrovic AG, AmouzouE. et al. Epiafzelechin from the Root Bark of Cassia sieberiana Detection by DART Mass Spectrometry, Spectroscopic Characterization, and Antioxidant Properties. Journal of Natural Products. 2011; Mar 25;74(3) :455-459.
https://doi.org/10.1021/np100090e

15. Mbodj NA. Etude de l'activit\é antidiab\étique des extraits ac\étoniques, m\éthanoliques, hexaniques de Vernonia colorata (Willd) Drake compos\és chez des rats Wistar. Thèse de doctorat en Pharmacie. Facult\é de m\édecine, pharmacie et odonto-stomatologie. Universit\éCheikh Anta Diop. 2003; Dakar 57 p.

16. Nacoulma OG. Plantes m\édicinales et pratiques m\édicales traditionnelles au Burkina Faso. Cas du Plateau central. Thèse de Doctorat, Universit\é de Ouagadougou, Ouagadougou. 1996.

17. Nene Bi SA, Traore F, Zahoui OS, Soro TY. Composition chimique d'un extrait aqueux de brideliaferrugineabenth. (Euphorbiaceae) et \études de ses effets toxicologique et pharmacologique chez les mammifères. Afrique Science : Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie. 2008; 04 (2) : 287-305.

18. Neuwinger HD. 1998. AfrikanischeArzneipflanzenundJagdgifte. Chemie, Pharmakologie, Toxikologie. 2nd Edition. WissenschaftlicheVerlagsgesellschaftmbH, Stuttgart, Germany. 960 pp.

19. Ogbonnia SO, Mbaka GO, Igbokwe NH, Anyika EN, Alli P, Nwakakwa N. Antimicrobial evaluation, acute and subchronic toxicity studies of Leone Bitters, a Nigerian polyherbal formulation, in rodents. Agric. Biol. J. N. Am. 2010;1(3): 366-376.
https://doi.org/10.5251/abjna.2010.1.3.366.376

20. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals/Section 4: Health Effects Test No. 423, Acute oral toxicity-acute toxic class method. Paris:OECD; 2002.

21. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (2008). Repeated dose oral toxicity test method. In: OECD Guidelines for testing of chemicals, N° 407. Paris, France.

22. Ouedraogo GG, Ouedraogo M, Lamien-Sanou A, Lompo M, Goumbri-LompoOM, Guissou PI. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Studies of Roots Barks Extracts of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br Used in the Treatment of Sickle Cell Disease in Burkina Faso. Br J PharmacolToxicol. 2013;4: 194-200.

23. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu KC, Amadi U, Charles IA, Ayalogu EO. Evaluation of acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity study of baker cleansers bitters a polyherbal drug on experimental rats. EXCLI Journal. 2012; 11 :632-640.

24. Rosidah YMF, Sadikun A, Ahmad M, Akowuah GA, Asmawi MZ. Toxicology evaluation of standardized methanol extract of Gynuraprocumbens. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;123(2) :244-249.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2009.03.011

25. Sakande J, Ahiboh H, Edjelme A and Yapo AE. Etude de la tolerance biologique d'une plante a activit\é antiplasmodialeMomordicaCharantia L (Cucurbitaceae). Mali M\édical. 2003; Vol. XVIII : 1-4.

26. Salhi S, Fadli M, Zidane L, Douira A. Etudes floristique et ethnobotanique des plantes m\édicinales de la ville de K\énitra (Maroc). Lazaroa. 2010 ; (31) : 133-146.

27. Son CG, Han SH, Cho JH, Shin JW, Cho CH, Lee YW and Cho CK. Induction of hemopoiesis by saenghyuldan, a mixture of Ginseng radix, Paeoniae radix, and Hominis placentaextact. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2003 Feb;24(2) :120-126

28. Stanley OA, Florence CN, David DA et al. Toxicity studies in rats fed nature cure bitters. Af J Biotech. 2005 Jan; 4 (1): 72-78.

29. Zeggwagh AA, Lahlou Y, Bousliman Y. Enquete sur les aspects toxicologiques de la phytotherapieutilisee par un herboriste à Fes, Maroc. Pan AfricanMedical Journal. 2013; 14 : 125.
https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2013.14.125.1746

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