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Volume: 2; Issue: 1, Jan-Feb, 2014
Poultry Environment and farm Practices Influencing the Isolation rate of Multi-Drug Resistant Salmonella from water and Poultry feed in Zaria, Nigeria
MUSA I.W., MANSUR M.S., SA`IDU L., MOHAMMED B and ALIYU H.B
Salmonella is still a global concern of the food and livestock industries. We evaluated environmental influences and farm practices on rate of Salmonella feed and water contamination in selected commercial poultry farms in Zaria. A total of 188 feed samples were collected from randomly selected feed sales outlets and poultry farms using sterile polyethene bags. 94 water samples from primary water sources, reservoirs and drinkers in the poultry farms were collected using sterile universal bottles. Samples were cultured using selective isolation method with prior enrichment. Suspected isolates were identified and characterized using conventional biochemical methods. Eight each of water and feed samples were positive for Salmonella. Husbandry systems, hygienic practices, presence of rodents and other environmental factors on the isolation rates of Salmonella from samples were correlated. All Salmonella isolates were from flocks on deep litter, three Salmonella isolates were from commercial and five from self milled feeds on-farm. Isolated Salmonella organisms showed highest susceptibility to ciprofloxacin but resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Feed, water, rodents and unhygienic practices are important means of multi-drug resistant Salmonella dissemination; they may also serve as critical control points for Salmonella in to poultry flocks.
Keywords: Poultry, environment, Salmonella, feed, water.