Home >Archive

Volume: 3, Issue: 6, Nov-Dec, 2015
DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2015.3608

Research Article

Antimicrobial Activities of Microorganisms Obtained from the gut of Macrotermes michaelseni in Maseno, Kenya

Aswani Susan Ayitso1, David Miruka Onyango1, Samuel Otieno Wagai2

  Author Affiliations


Abstract

The gut of termites is a major source of termicin and spinigerin antibiotics. The termite gut thus presents a novel habitat for searching new antibiotic producing isolates. The objective of this study was to investigate the microbial activities of microorganisms obtained from the gut of Macrotermes michaelseni. The Macrotermes michaelseni were collected from actively growing mound in Maseno University compound. Seventeen isolates were examined for their abilities to produce substances with antibiotic activities when grown in pure culture. All isolates formed measurable antibiotic activities against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureas and Citrobacter freundii. The isolates did not form inhibition zones against Candida albicans, Shigella species and Salmonella paratyphi. The inhibition zones formed against Escherichia coli and Citrobacter freundii were significant in dilution while Staphylococcus aureas showed no significance in dilution. Two Factor Completely Randomized Design was applied. The analysis was done using MSTATC statistical package. Means from the measurements were separated using Turkey LSD and significance level tested at p≤0.05. These results confirmed that the gut of Macrotermes michaelseni could be used as a source of natural products providing a new weapon against the problem of bacterial resistance to antibiotics.

Keywords:

Antibiotics, Macrotermes michaeliseni, gut, microhabitat, antibiotic properties.



Citation: Ayitso AS, Onyango DM and Wagai SO. Antimicrobial Activities of Microorganisms Obtained from the gut of Macrotermes Michaelseni in Maseno, Kenya. J App Biol Biotech, 2015; 3 (06): 048-052. DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2015.3608


Copyright: Author(s). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

References

1. Breznak JA. Ecology of prokaryotic microbes in the guts of wood- and litter-feeding termites, T. Abe, D. E. Bignell, and M. Higashi [eds.], Termites: evolution, sociality, symbioses, ecology. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Dordrecht: The Netherlands; 2000.

2. Toru M, Junichi T, Tomoyuki N, Naoya S. Antibiotics production by an actinomycete isolated from the termite gut. Journal of Basic Microbiology. 2012; 52,731-735.

3. Lamberty M, Zachary D, Lanot R. Constitutive expression of a cystein-rich antifungal and a linear antibacterial peptide in a termite insect. Journal Biological Chemistry. 2001; 276: 4085- 4092.

4. World Health Organization. Diarrhoeal Diseases: Shigellosis. Initiative for Vaccine Research (IVR); 2013.

5. Struelens MC. The problem of resistance. In: Finch RG (ed) Antibiotic and chemotherapy: anti- infective agents and their use in therapy, 8th Ed. Elsevier Ltd. Printed in Great Britain. 2003; 28.

6. Schmitt-Wagner D, Friedrich MW, Wagner B, Brune A. Phylogenetic diversity, abundance, and axial distribution of bacteria in the intestinal tract of two soil-feeding termites (Cubitermes spp.). Applied Environmental Microbiology. 2003; 69: 6007-6017.

7. Miambi E, Guyot JP, Ampe F. Identification, isolation and quantification of representative bacteria from fermented cassava dough using an integrated approach of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Introduction journal Food Microbiology. 2003; 82: 111-120.

8. Philip B, Schink B. Evidence of two oxidative reaction steps initiating anaerobic degradation of resorcinol (1, 3–dihydroxybenzene) by denitrifying bacterium Azoarcus anaerobius. Journal Bacteriolology. 1998; 180: 3644–3649.

9. Dahot UM. Antimicrobial activities of small Protein of Moringa oleifera leaves. Journal Islamic Academic Science. 1998; 11: 1-11.

10. Wheat PF, Hastling JG, Spencer RC. Rapid antibiotic susceptibility tests on Enterobacteriaceae by ATP bioluminescence. Journal of medical microbiology. 1988; 25: 95-99.

11. Ara\újo SM, Mour\ão TC, Oliveira JL, Melo IF, Ara\újo CA, Ara\újo NA, Melo MC, Ara\újo SR, Daher EF. Antimicrobial resistance of uropathogens in women with acute uncomplicated cystitis from primary care settings. Introduction. Urology. Nephrogyl., Epublication; 2010. Available at: http://www.springerlink.com/ content/u9217t63117vg2 w5/

12. US Food and Drug Administration. National antimicrobial resistance monitoring system-enteric bacteria (NARMS): executive report. Rockville (MD); 2008.

13. Kim PW, Harris AD, Roghmann MC, Morris JG, Strinivasan A, Perencevich EN. Epidemiological risk factors for isolation of ceftriaxone-resistant versus – susceptible citrobacter freundii in hospitalized patients. Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy. 2003; 47 (9): 2882-2887.

14. Nada T, Baba H, Kawamura K, Ohkura T, Torii K, Ohta M. A small outbreak of third generation cephem-resistant Citrobacter freundii infection on a surgical ward. Japan Journal Infectious Disease. 2004; 57(4): 181-182.

15. Hooper DC. Fluoroquinolone resistance among Gram-positive cocci. 2002; 2:530-538.

16. Sieradzki K, Pinho MG, Tomasz A. Inactivated pbp4 in highly glycopeptide-resistant laboratory mutants of Staphylococcus aureus. Journal Biological Chemistry. 1999; 274:18942-18946.

17. Ma XX. Novel type of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec identified in community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. Antimicrobiol Agents Chemotherapy. 2002; 46: 1147-1152.

18. Okuma K. Dissemination of new methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones in the community. Journal Clinical Microbiology. 2002; 40:4289-4294.

19. Lim D, Strynadka NC. Structural basis for the beta lactam resistance of PBP2a from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Natural Structural Biology. 2002; 9:870-876.

Article Metrics