Home > Past Issue

Volume: 3, Issue: 6, Nov-Dec, 2015
DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2015.3604

Research Article

Comparative three way analysis of biochemical responses in cereal and millet crops under salinity stress

Ritika Bhatt, Prem Prakash Asopa, Santosh Sihag, Rakesh Sharma, Sumita Kachhwaha, S.L. Kothari


Cereals and millets account for staple food of the major population of the world and any stress posed on them limits their productivity. Salt stress affects seed germination and results in poor grain quality and low production. To identify the best responding cereal against variable salinity regime, the present study was undertaken. The seeds were grown under salt stress of 0mM to 200mM and plantlets were excised on 15th day of the experiment for biochemical analysis. Salinity caused specific changes in the antioxidant potential of the plant as seen through Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Peroxidase (POX), Catalase (CAT) and Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) enzyme activities. The enzyme activities were calculated through multivariate analysis to ascertain the biochemical responses using Principal component analysis (PCA) and Linear discriminate analysis (LDA). A significant increase in the antioxidative enzyme activity was noted in Eleusine, suggesting that it is better suited to combat the oxidative stress injury amongst the three plants.

Keywords: Antioxidants, LDA, PCA, ROS, Salinity.


1. Vahdati K., Leslie C. Abiotic stress-plant responses and applications in agriculture. InTech. 2013; 1: 418.

2. Ashraf, M., 2009. Biotechnological approach of improving plant salt tolerance using antioxidants as markers. Biotechnology Advances 27: 84\—93.

3. Lewis, D.H. Storage carbohydrates in vascular plants: distribution, physiology and metabolism. (London: Cambridge University Press). 1984.

4. Munns, R., Tester, M. Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annual Review of Plant Biology. 2008; 59: 651\—81.

5. Ashraf, M. Biotechnological approach of improving plant salt tolerance using antioxidants as markers. Biotechnology Advances. 2009; 27: 84\—93.

6. Zhu, J.K. Salt and drought signal transduction in plants. Annual Review of Plant Biology. 2002; 53: 247-73.

7. Meloni, D.A., Oliva, M.A., Martinez, C.A., Cambraia, J. Photosynthesis and activity of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and glutathione reductase in cotton under salt stress. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 2003; 49: 69-76.

8. Neto, A.D.A., Prisco, J.T., En\'eas-Filho, J., Abreu, C.E.B., Gomes-Filho, E. Effect of salt stress on antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in leaves and roots of salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive maize genotypes. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 2006; 56: 87-9.

9. Papadimitriou, V., Sotiroudis, T.G., Xenakis, A., Sofikiti, N., Stavyiannoudaki, V., Chaniotakis, N.A. Oxidative stability and radical scavenging activity of extra virgin olive oils: An electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Analytica Chimica Acta. 2006; 573: 453-458.

10. Hussain, I., Ashraf, M.A., Anwara, F., Rasheed, R., Niaz, M., Wahid, A. Biochemical characterization of maize (Zea mays L.) for salt tolerance. Plant Biosystems-An International Journal Dealing with all Aspects of Plant Biology. 2014; 148: 1016-1026.

11. Ediga, A., Hemalatha, S., Meriga, B. Effect of salinity stress on antioxidant defense system of two finger millet cultivars (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn) differing in their sensitivity. Advances in Biological Research. 2013; 7: 180-187.

12. Racusen, D., Foote, M. Protein synthesis in the dark grown bean leaves. Canadian Journal of Botany. 1965; 817-824.

13. Dhindsa, R.S., Plumb-Dhindsa, P., Thorpe, T.A. Leaf senescence: correlated with increased levels of membrane permeability and lipid peroxidation, and decreased levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Journal of Experimental Botany. 1981; 126: 93-101.

14. Teranishi, Y., Tanaka, A., Osumi, M., Fukui, S. Catalase activities of hydrocarbon utilizing Candida yeasts. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry. 1974; 38: 1213-1220.

15. Nakano, Y., Asada, K. Hydrogen peroxide is scavenged by ascorbate-specific peroxidase in spinach chloroplasts. Plant and Cell Physiology. 1981; 22: 867-880.

16. Maclachalan, S., Zalic, S. Plastid structure, chlorophyll concentration and free amino acid composition of a chlorophyll mutant on barley. Canadian Journal of Botany. 1963; 41: 1053-1062.

17. Gomez, K.A., Gomez, A.A. Statistical procedure for agricultural research (2nd edition), John wiley, NY. 1984; 680.

18. Ritz, C., Streibig, J.C. Bioassay analysis using R. Journal of Statistical Software, 2005; 12: 1-22.

19. Bewley, J.D., Black, M. Seeds: physiology of development and germination. Plenum press, New York and London, 2nd edition. 1994;147.

20. Shekoofa, A., Bijanzadeh, E., Emam, Y., Pessarakli, M. Effect of salt stress on respiration of various wheat lines/cultivars at early growth stages. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 2013; 36, 243-250.

21. Khan, H.A., Ayub, C.M., Pervez, M.A., Bilal, R.M., Shahid, M.A., Ziaf, K. Effect of seed priming with NaCl on salinity tolerance of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) at seedling stage. Soil and Environment. 2009; 28: 81\—87.

22. Kumari, R., Vishnuvardhan, Z., Babu, K. A study on effect of NaCl stress on Kodomillet (Paspalum scrobiculatum) during germination stage. Annals of Plant Sciences. 2013; 2, 388-394.

23. Haouari, C., Nasraoui, A., Carrayol, E., Gouia, H. Response of two wheat genotype to long-term salinity stress in relation to oxidative stress and osmolyte concentration. Cereal Research Communications. 2013; 41: 388-399.

24. Alscher, R.G., Erturk, N., Heath, L.S. Role of superoxide dismutases (SODs) in oxidative stress in plants. Journal of Experimental Botany. 2002; 53: 1331-1341.

25. Lee, M.H., Cho, E.J., Wi, S.G., Bae, H., Kim, J.E., Cho, J.Y., Lee, S., Kim, J.H., Chung, B.Y. Divergences in morphological changes and antioxidant responses in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive rice seedlings after salt stress. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 2013; 70: 325-335.

26. Muhammad, A.G., Murtaza, N., Collins, J.C., McNeilly, T., 2006. Study of salt tolerance parameters in pearl millet Pennisetum americanum L. Journal of Central European Agriculture 7: 365-376.

27. Vidossich, P., Alfonso-Prieto, M., Rovira, C. Catalases versus peroxidases: DFT investigation of H2O2 oxidation in models systems and implications for heme protein engineering. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 2012; 117: 292\—297.

28. Mittler, R. Oxidative stress, antioxidants and stress tolerance. Trends in Plant science. 2002; 7: 405-410.

29. Luna, C.M., Pastori, G.M., Driscoll, S., Groten, K., Bernard, S., Foyer, C.H. Drought controls on H2O2 accumulation, catalase (CAT) activity and CAT gene expression in wheat. Journal of Experimental Botany. 2005; 56: 417-423.

30. Li, Y. Effect of salt stress on seed germination and seedling growth of three salinity plants. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 2008; 11: 1268-1272.

How to cite this article:
Bhatt R, Asopa PP, Sihag S, Sharma R, Kachhwaha S and Kothari SL. Comparative three way analysis of biochemical responses in cereal and millet crops under salinity stress. J App Biol Biotech, 2015; 3 (06): 022-028. DOI: 10.7324/JABB.2015.3604